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European Treaties bearing on the History 
of the United States and its Dependencies 

to 1648 - . 



EDITED BY 
FRANCES GARDINER DAVENPORT 




WASHINGTON, D. C. 

PUBLISHED BY THE CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

1917 



CARNEGIE INSr.TUTlOM OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLICATION Nq. 254 

PAPERS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF HiSTtiRiGAL RESEARCH 
J. FRANKLIN JAMISON, EDITOR 



Uorfc Q^dfftmore (prcs* 

BALTIMORE, tin., r>. . A. 



PREFACE. 

The colonial dependence of the American settlements upon various Euro- 
ean governments brings it about, as a necessary consequence, that several 
f the treaties between European governments, and several of the bulls issued 
y the popes in virtue of their powers of international regulation, are funda- 
icntal documents for some of the earlier portions of American history. 
>ther treaties, or individual articles in treaties, of the period before inde- 
endence, though not of fundamental importance to that history, have 
ffected it in greater or less degree. In the period since the United States 
ecame independent, though the treaties most important to their history have 
een those made by their own government, not a few of the treaties concluded 
etween European powers have had an influential bearing on the course of 
icir development and their public action. 

Taken altogether, therefore, European treaties, and the earlier papal bulls, 
Drm an important portion of the original material for American history. Yet 
:cess to authentic and exact texts of them is far from easy. In a few cases, 
5 the researches made for this volume have shown, they do not exist in print. 
)f those which have been printed, there are many which the student cannot 
assess except by buying several large and expensive series of volumes ; and 
icre are some which, though existing in print, are not to be found in these 
iries, but in volumes which have escaped the attention of most students of 
imerican history. 

In view of these considerations, it was a natural thought, to a department 
f historical research in an endowed institution, to serve the interests of 
istorical scholars and of libraries by bringing together in one collection those 
eaties and parts of treaties, between European powers, which have a bearing 
n the history of the United States and of the lands now within their area or 
nder their government as dependencies. Of this task, the first-fruits are 
resented in this volume, extending through the Treaty of Westphalia, 1648. 
he second volume, embracing treaties from that date to 1713, the date of the 
Veaties of Utrecht, is in preparation. 

Extraordinary pains have been taken by Dr. Davenport to find, in European 
rchives, all the treaties and articles which her volume, as defined in her intro- 
uction, ought to contain, and to secure perfect accuracy in texts. The index 
as been made by Mr. David M. Matteson. 

J. FRANKLIN JAMESON. 
WASHINGTON, OCTOBER 12, 1917. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

PREFACE iii 

INTRODUCTION 1 

DOCUMENTS 

1. The Bull Romanus f>ontife.v, January 8, 1455 9 

2. The Bull litter caetera, March 13, 1456 27 

3. Treaty between Spain and Portugal, concluded at Alcaqovas, September 4, 

1479. Ratification 33 - 

4. The Bull Acterni Regis, June 21, 1481 < 49 

5. The Bull Inter caetera, May 3, 1493 56 

6. The Bull Eximiae devotionis, May 3, 1493 64 

_ 7. The Bull Inter caetera. May 4, 1493 71 

8. The Bull Dndum siquidem, September 26, 1493 79 

9. Treaty between Spain and Portugal, concluded at Tordesillas, June /, 

1494. Ratification 84 

10. Compact between Spain and Portugal, signed by the Catholic Sovereigns 

at Madrid, May /, 1495 101 

11. The Bull Ea quae, January 24, 1506 107 

12. The Bull Praecelsae devotionis, November 3, 1514 1 12 

_ 13. Treaty between Spain and Portugal, concluded at Vitoria, February 19, 

1524. Ratification 1 18 

14. Draft of an unconcluded treaty between Spain and Portugal, 1526 131 

" 15. Treaty between Spain and Portugal, concluded at Saragossa, April 17, 

1529 146 

16. Treaty between Spain and Portugal, concluded at Saragossa, April 22, 

1529. Ratifications 169 

17. Articles concluded between France and Portugal at Lyons, July 14, 1536. . 199 

18. Treaty concluded between France and Spain, at Crepy-en-Laonnois, Sep 

tember 18, 1544 ; separate article 205 

19. Articles concluded between Spain and Portugal in 1552 210 

20. Truce between France and Spain, concluded at Vaucelles, February 5, 

1556 ; separate article 215 

21. Treaty between France and Spain, concluded at Cateau-Cambresis, April 

3, !559- Oral agreement concerning the Indies 219 

22. Treaty between the King of Spain and the Catholic Princes of France, 

concluded at Joinville, January 16, 1585 223 

23. League between France, England, and the United Netherlands against 

Spain. Accession of the United Netherlands, concluded at the Hague, 
October 31, 1596 229 

24. Cession of the Netherlands by Philip II. of Spain to his daughter, Isabella- 

Clara-Eugenia, Madrid, May 6, 1598 235 

25. Treaty between England and the United Netherlands, concluded at West 

minster, August 6/16, 1598. Ratification 239 

v 



vi Table of Contents 

DOCUMENTS Continued PAGE 

26. Agreement signed by the King of France at Villers Cotterets on July 19, 

1603, and by the King of England and Scotland at Hampton Court 

on July 30/ August 9, 1603 243 

27. Treaty between Spain and Great Britain, concluded at London, August 

18/28, 1604. Ratification 246 

28. Truce between Spain and the United Netherlands, concluded at Antwerp, 

April 9, 1609. Ratification 258 

29. Treaty of guaranty between the United Netherlands, France, and Great 

Britain, concluded at the Hague, June 7/17, 1609. Ratification 270 

30. Treaty of alliance between Denmark and the United Netherlands, con 

cluded at the Hague, May 14, 1621. Ratification 275 

31. Recess signed by the Commissioners of Denmark and the United Nether 

lands at Bremen, September 3O/October 10, 1621 280 

32. Treaty between the United Netherlands and France, concluded at Com- 

piegne, June 10, 1624. Ratification 285 

33. Treaty of offensive and defensive alliance between the United Netherlands 

and Great Britain, concluded at Southampton, September 7/17, 1625. 
Ratification 290 

34. Treaty between Great Britain and France signed at Susa and London, 

April 14/24, 1629. Ratification 300 

35. Treaty of peace and commerce between Spain and Great Britain, con 

cluded at Madrid, November 5/15, 1630. Ratification 305 

36. Treaty concluded between Great Britain and France at St. Germain-en- 

Laye, March 19/29, 1632 315 

37. Treaty of alliance between Portugal and France, concluded at Paris, June 

i, 1641 324 

38. Treaty of truce and commerce between Portugal and the United Nether 

lands, concluded at the Hague, June 12, 1641. Ratification 329 

39. Agreement concluded between the Governor of Massachusetts and the 

Commissioner of the Governor of Acadia, at Boston, October 8, 1644. 
Ratification 347 

40. Treaty between Spain and the United Netherlands, concluded at Miinster, 

January 30, 1648. Ratification 353 



INTRODUCTION. 

The documents printed in this volume illustrate the diplomatic aspect of 
the great struggle which, from the fifteenth century onwards, was in progress 
between the governments of the maritime powers of Europe, over the ques 
tion of participation in the trade and territorial possession of the newly dis 
covered lands. 

The story which they tell has a dramatic interest, culminating in the diplo 
matic victory which, in 1648, the Dutch were able to wrest from Spain. The 
purpose of this introduction is, so to summarize this story that it may be 
readily grasped as a whole. 

In 1455 and 1456 (Docs. 1 and 2), Portugal received from PopeJNicholas 
V.jthe exclusive right to trade and acquire territory in the region lying south 
of Cape Bojador, through and beyond Guinea. .The further limit of the 
region thus set apart as a field of enterprise open to Portugal alone, was indi 
cated by the phrase " all the way to the Indians " (p. 31 ), evidently the equiva 
lent of the fuller phrase, " as far as to the Indians who are said to worship the 
name of Christ " (p. 22). 

In spite of the papal letters Castile continued to claim Guinea. But in 
1479 (Doc. 3), Castile agreed to leave Portugal in peaceable possession of 
the trade and territory acquired or to be acquired in Guinea, the Azores, 
Madeira, and the Cape Verde Islands, while Portugal, on the other hand, 
acknowledged that Castile had an exclusive right to the Canaries. This set 
tlement was confirmed by the Pope ( Doc. 4) . 

Columbus s discovery, in the western seas, of lands supposedly Asiatic, led 
to a renewal of the dispute between Castile and Portugal in respect to the 
newly found regions. The Spanish Pope, Alexander VI., decided the con 
troversy in favor of Castile, assigning to that crown the exclusive right to 
acquire territory, to trade in, or even to approach the lands lying west of the 
meridian situated one hundred leagues west of any of the Azores or Cape 
Verde Islands. Exception was however made of any lands actually possessed 
by any other Christian prince beyond this meridian before Christmas, 1492 
(Docs. 5, 6, 7). In September, 1493, the Pope extended his earlier grant by 
decreeing that if the Castilians, following the western route, should discover 
lands in Indian waters, these also should belong to them (Doc. 8). In 1494 
(Doc. 9), Portugal succeeded in persCading Castile to push the line of demar 
cation further to the west 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands ; and 
both powers agreed that within ten months they would despatch caravels 
with pilots and astrologers to determine the location of the line. In the fol- 



2 Introduction 

lowing year further provisions were made for determining the demarcation 
(Doc. 10), but these, like the earlier arrangements, failed to be executed. 
The treaty of 1494 was confirmed by Pope Julius II. in 1506 (Doc. 11). 

The arrival of the Portuguese at the Moluccas, in 1512, and the doubt as 
to whether the Spice Islands lay on the Portuguese or on the Spanish side of 
the extended line of demarcation, seem to have been the occasion of the issue 
of the bull of 1514 (Doc. 12), which assigned to the Portuguese all lands 
discovered by them in their voyages to the east, even those situated more than 
half-way around the earth, reckoning eastwards from the demarcation line. 
This bull also renewed the grants of 1455, 1456, and 1481, whose scope had 
been narrowed by the bull of September, 1493. 

Although the Pope thus appeared to oppose the extension of the line of de 
marcation to the further side of the globe, yet the Spanish and Portuguese 
governments evidently considered that the line established by the Treaty of 
Tordesillas passed around the earth. This is assumed in the protracted nego 
tiations concerning the possession and ownership of the Moluccas, and the 
determination of the position of the line, which, beginning in 1522, resulted 
in the indecisive conference at Badajoz in 1524 (Docs. 13, 14), and finally 
in the treaties of 1529 (Docs. 15, 16) . By the treaty of Saragossa (Doc. 16) , 
the Emperor, in defiance of the wishes of the Castilian Cortes, pledged to the 
crown of Portugal, for the sum of 350,000 ducats, all rights of possession 
and trade in the Moluccas, and in all the lands and seas eastwards, as far as 
to the meridian situated 17 degrees east of the Spice Islands. According to 
the provisions of this treaty, the Philippines should have passed to Portugal, 
but Spain managed to retain them. /JOS 

The Portuguese-French treaty of 1536 (Doc. 17) is the earliest of those 
included in this volume to which a power situated outside the Iberian penin 
sula was party. The French were the first vigorously to make their way into 
the distant regions, from which the Pope, Portugal, and Spain desired to 
exclude them. In the early years of the sixteenth century Breton, Norman, 
and Gascon captains frequented the waters of Newfoundland, a region 
claimed by Portugal, cruised to the Antilles and to the mainland of America 
and Africa, and by 1529 had sailed to Sumatra. Before 1515 the French had 
instituted a regular trade with Brazil, where in 1530 they made a short-lived 
establishment. So formidable were the corsairs of this nation that in 1523 
and 1525 the Cortes of Castile complained of their frequent and intolerable 
depredations, and their feeling appears to be reflected in the treaty of Madrid 
concluded between Spain and France in 1526, art. 33. 

While the French mariners displayed great resolution, the policy of 
Francis I. fluctuated. He sanctioned the voyages of Verrazano and Cartier, 
despatched a galleon to Brazil, and in 1528 and 1533 affirmed the principle 
of free navigation. On the other hand, he did not consistently maintain this 



Introduction 3 

attitude, but shifted his position in accordance with his political necessities. 
During his long warfare with Charles V. he balanced the need of maintain 
ing friendly relations with Portugal against the economic advantage derived 
from the capture of Portuguese ships. Moreover, he was influenced by the 
counsels of Admiral Brion-Chabot, who was in the pay of Portugal. In 1536, 
Portugal apparently sought to secure her own ships and colonies from French 
attack by permitting the French to use the harbors of Portugal, the Azores, 
and other Portuguese islands, as lurking-places whence they might prey upon 
the Spanish treasure-fleets and to which they might bring their prizes. The 
Portuguese-French treaty of this date was highly injurious to Spain. 

Not only did the French corsairs plague the fleets and oversea settlements 
of Spain, but, as indicated by Cartier s voyages, they were bent on establish 
ing themselves on the mainland of America. So alarming was this prospect 
to the Emperor Charles V. that he was apparently willing to conclude an 
agreement with the French, permitting them to trade in the Indies if they 
would not attempt any discoveries or other enterprises there. An article 
(Doc. 18) to this effect was signed by the French commissioners, but it was 
not ultimately accepted by Spain, partly on account of the opposition of the 
King of Portugal. 

Portuguese as well as Spanish shipping suffered terribly from the French 
privateers, and in 1552, when war between the Emperor and France was about 
to be renewed, articles (Doc. 19) were concluded between Portugal and 
Spain, providing, inter alia, for the protection of their Indian fleets. In a 
truce, signed with Spain four years later, the French relinquished their navi 
gation and trade in the Indies (Doc. 20), but in the negotiations that resulted 
in the treaty of Cateau-Cambresis, an oral agreement was made, apparently 
to the effect that the French would navigate west of the prime meridian and 
south of the tropic of Cancer at their own risk, and that what was done in 
those regions would not be regarded as violating international amity, since 
treaties would have no force beyond these lines (Doc. 21). 

For a long period after the settlement made at Cateau-Cambresis, France 
was so distracted by civil strife that she was unable to carry on a vigorous 
policy abroad. Enterprises, like Coligny s Florida colony, or the Azores 
expedition whereby France planned to purchase the region of Brazil, by aid 
ing the Prior of Crato to recover from Spain the Portuguese crown, failed 
grievously. So closely were the French Catholic leaders of the League bound 
to Spanish interests, that in their treaty of 1585 they promised Philip to put 
a stop to the French voyages to the Indies and Azores (Doc. 22). 

In 1595 Henry IV., having established himself on the French throne, de 
clared war on Spain, and in 1596 he sought to form an alliance with the two 
great sea-powers, England and the United Provinces, against their common 
enemy (Doc. 23). 



4 Introduction 

The English mariners had been slower than the French to make their way 
into the distant regions. The comparatively few voyages undertaken by them 
in the early part of the sixteenth century to the West Indies and Brazil seem 
to have been usually made in association with French ship-owners and 
seamen. 1 In the latter half of the sixteenth century, however, England came 
to be the most formidable opponent of the monopolistic claims of Portugal 
and Spain. In 1553, a joint-stock company was founded in London for the 
Guinea trade; between 1562 and 1568 Hawkins made three slave-trading 
voyages between Africa and the West Indies ; subsequently English priva 
teers played havoc with Spanish shipping in West Indian waters, and by 1586, 
Drake had definitely proved England s mastery of the sea. Upon Spain s 
command of the sea, as Spain and England were perfectly aware, depended the 
maintenance not only of Spain s colonial monopoly, but also of her national 
strength, which was derived from the Indian trade ; hence, the great potential 
importance of uniting the naval forces of the English and Dutch to co-operate 
against Spain s American fleets. At this time France, on the other hand, 
had little strength upon the ocean, and sought to defeat Spain on land. For 
this purpose she received small aid from her allies, and therefore in 1598 she 
made a separate and advantageous peace with Spain, but was able to arrive 
at no better understanding in respect to navigation beyond the lines of amity 
than she had reached in 1559 (Doc. 23, end of introduction). 

In the last decade of the sixteenth century, the Dutch were beginning to 
send out their ships to Guinea and both the Indies. Their well-founded 
hopes for the future expansion of this commerce strengthened their aversion 
to reunion with the southern provinces, or Spanish Netherlands, when these, 
upon receiving from Philip II. in 1598 a quasi-independent status, were pro 
hibited from engaging in the East and West Indian trade (Doc. 24). In the 
same year, despite some jealousy aroused by the commercial successes of the 
Dutch, England concluded an alliance with the States General (Doc. 25) 
which provided for joint aggressive action on the part of their naval forces 
against the Azores and the Indies. 

But the death of Elizabeth, and James s accession, foreshadowed an Anglo- 
Spanish peace. This Henry IV. endeavored to prevent, urging England to 
continue her offensive action against the Spanish coasts and colonies. He 
succeeded only in drawing her into a defensive alliance (Doc. 26), which 
provided only contingently for such naval operations. Conformably with 
Henry s expectation, in the following year (1604), James made peace with 
Spain (Doc. 27). 

In the discussions preliminary to the treaty of 1604, the right of English 
men to engage in the Indian trade was argued at length. The question had 
previously been debated with representatives of Portugal or Spain in 1555, 

1 R. G. Marsden, in English Historical Rez icTV, XXIV. (1909), P- 100. 



. \$ Introduction 5 

^ I V? 

1561, 1562, 1569-1576, 1587, 1588, and 1600. Since 1555 the claim that En 
glishmen had a right to visit such parts of the Indies as were not actually 
held by Spain had been maintained. It may have been due to Robert Cecil s 
characteristic subtlety that in 1604 an ambiguous article was finally agreed 
on. which, according to England, admitted Englishmen to the Indies ; accord 
ing to Spain, excluded them. On account of this difference in interpretation, 
the status of Englishmen beyond the line was the same as that of the French 
right made might in those distant regions. 

In the negotiations, for a peace or truce, conducted between the United 
Provinces of the Netherlands and Spain in the years 1607-1609, no question 
was debated with greater vehemence than that of Dutch participation in 
the Indian trade. In fact, the Dutch were already profiting by their trade in 
the East Indies. Spain ardently desired to keep them out of the West Indies, 
at least, but she was finally obliged to make the great concession, for a limited 
time. In the twelve years truce concluded on April 9, 1609, an obscurely 
worded article permitted the Dutch to trade in both Indies, during the period 
of the truce, in places not actually held by Spain (Doc. 28). Furthermore, 
it was certified by the French and English ambassadors at the Hague that it 
had been agreed that Spaniards should refrain from traffic in places held by 
the Dutch in the Indies. France and England also guaranteed that, during 
the truce, Spain would not molest the Dutch in the Indian trade (Doc. 29). 

In 1621 the twelve years truce expired, and Spain declared war on the 
United Netherlands. Within the period from 1621 to 1625 the Dutch were 
conducting various negotiations with Denmark, France, and England, as well 
as with other powers, for the purpose of securing their alliance against Spain. 
The States General were very desirous that Danes, French, and English 
should co-operate with the Dutch West India Company, chartered in 1621 for 
the purpose of attacking Spain s American possessions and treasure-fleets, 
as well as for trade. The Danes and French, on the other hand, desired rather 
to share in the profitable East India commerce. In 1621 the Dutch and Danish 
commissioners signed an agreement that in their journeys, trade, and navi 
gation in the East and West Indies, Africa, and Terra Australis, subjects of 
either party should befriend subjects of the other (Docs. 30, 31) . The Dutch 
treaty with France in 1624 merely stipulated that the question of traffic to the 
East and West Indies should be treated later by the French ambassador (Doc. 
32) . The defensive alliance formed with England in 1624 did not refer to the 
Indies; but the offensive alliance of the following year (Doc. 33) enjoined 
attacks by both parties on Spain s dominions on both sides of the line, and 
especially on the treasure-fleets. One of the results of this treaty was the 
opening of trade between the Dutch and the English colonists in North 
America. 



6 Introduction 

The treaty which France made with Spain in 1626, and English interference 
with the French trade with Spain, were among the most important causes of 
the war between England and France which broke out in 1627. During this 
war the English, operating in the St. Lawrence River, captured the first fleet 
sent out by the trading Company of New France, and devastated some French 
settlements. They also seized some posts occupied by the French in the region 
of Acadia, but did not capture Quebec until after peace had been proclaimed 
between England and France in 1629 (Doc. 34). 

In the following year, when England made peace with Spain, under cir 
cumstances of domestic dissension that made it impossible for her to compel 
large concessions, the article respecting trade with the Indies was left in 
practically the same ambiguous form as in the previous Anglo-Spanish treaty 
of 1604. An article, which stipulated the return of prizes made south of the 
Equator, marked a departure from the ancient principle that, between Spain 
and other nations, might made right beyond the line (Doc. 35). 

The seizure of the fort- of Quebec, together with a quantity of furs and 
merchandise, effected after the conclusion of the Franco-English peace, led 
to protracted negotiations between the English and French. These finally 
bore fruit in the treaty of 1632 (Doc. 36), which provided for the restitution 
to France of all places occupied by the English in " New France, Acadia, and 
Canada ". Subsequently, a long and bitter quarrel between two lieutenant- 
governors of Acadia threatened seriously to involve the English of Massa 
chusetts Bay. But the danger was averted by the conclusion of a treaty 
between D Aulnay of Acadia and the magistrates of Massachusetts (Doc. 
39) , stipulating peace and mutual liberty of trade. 

The liberation of Portugal from Spain in 1640 gravely affected the com 
mercial interests of those nations which, in the course of their wars against 
Spain, or at other times, had acquired territory in both Indies and Africa, or 
ha d seized Spanish-Portuguese colonies, or were developing the slave-trade. 
Nevertheless, it was to these nations that Portugal turned for friendly recog 
nition or aid. In 1641 and 1642 she signed treaties with France, the United 
Provinces, and England (Doc 37, Doc. 38, and Doc. 38, note 24). By these 
treaties France and the Provinces agreed to send ships to co-operate with 
those of Portugal in attacking the silver fleet on the seas and the naval fleet 
at Cadiz ; and it was further arranged that neither Dutch nor Portuguese 
should send any ships, negroes, or merchandise to the Spanish Indies, and 
that conquests made there should be divided or enjoyed by common consent. 
The right of the English and Dutch to continue in the African trade and 
possessions was recognized. 

This separation of Portuguese from Spanish colonial interests made possi 
ble a peace between Spain and the Dutch. In the treaty of Miinster, 1648 
(Doc. 40), Spain, for the first time, in a public treaty, and with express 



Introduction 7 

mention of the Indies, recognized the right of the subjects of another nation 
to trade and hold territory in both the Indies. 

Thus by the middle of the seventeenth century the two Iberian powers were 
compelled to admit other nations to trade and territorial dominion in those 
oversea regions which they had hoped to monopolize. But as old barriers 
fell new ones were erected. The successful intruders, French, English, 
Dutch, and others, also sought exclusive rights for their respective peoples 
or even for certain of their own trading companies in the newly acquired com 
merce and land. So the ideal of free ocean commerce and navigation, cham 
pioned by some Frenchmen and Englishmen in the sixteenth century, and 
brilliantly expounded by Grotius near the beginning of the seventeenth 
century, remained unrealized. 

In selecting the texts for this volume the aim has been to include all treaties, 
or parts of treaties, that bear upon the history of the present territory of the 
United States, or of its outlying possessions. Some drafts of treaties, and 
the papal bulls which formed a basis for the claims of Portugal or Spain to 
the aforesaid territory, are also included. 

Of the texts contained in this volume, numbers 14, 15, 17, and 18, are, it is 
believed, here printed for the first time. Of those previously printed, some 
are drawn from more authoritative manuscripts than those formerly pub 
lished; others, it is believed, are reproduced with greater accuracy. All of 
the texts but one 2 have been collated, either with the manuscripts from which 
they are derived, or with photographs, or, in a few cases, with official tran 
scripts of these manuscripts. The spelling but not always the capitalization 
or punctuation of the originals has been followed. A large proportion of 
the texts of treaties have already been printed in Dumont s Corps Diplo 
matique, but that great and valuable collection, it is well known, is lacking in 
verbal exactitude. The same is true of most of the other collections, with 
some modern exceptions. 

The translations have, in most instances, been made by the editor. When 
this is not the case, the fact has been stated. 

In compiling the bibliographies, the needs of less advanced students, and 
also the needs of scholars and investigators, have been kept in mind ; for 
the purpose of the work is not merely to present a body of texts in convenient 
form, but also to stimulate further research into the history of European- 
American relations. 

In collecting the material for this and later volumes, the editor has received 
generous assistance from many sources. The unfailing courtesy of the offi 
cials of the London Public Record Office, of the British Museum, and of 
the Library of Congress, where most of the editorial work has been done, 
calls for special recognition. It is a pleasure also to acknowledge the aid 

Doc. 19, of which no complete manuscript was found. 



8 Introduction 

received from the director and officials of the archives at Paris, Lisbon, 
Seville, the Hague, Copenhagen, and Mons. Particular mention must be 
made of kind help given by Mr. Hubert Hall, by Mr. Henry P. Biggar, and 
by Miss Ruth Putnam, and by the editor s colleagues, especially by Mr. Waldo 
G. Leland in Paris, and Mr. Roscoe R. Hill in Seville. The editor is also 
indebted to the Arthur H. Clark Company of Cleveland and to Dr. James A. 
Robertson for kind permission to make use, so far as was desired, in connec 
tion with Docs. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, and 16, of translations from the first 
volume of Blair and Robertson s The Philippine Islands. Dr. Robertson has 
also made valuable suggestions respecting other of the translations. 

FRANCES GARDINER DAVENPORT. 



1. 

The Bull Romanus Pontifex (Nicholas V . ). January 8, 1455. 

INTRODUCTION. 

Columbus, returning from his first voyage to America, was driven by 
storms into the river Tagus. On March 9, 1493, he was received by the King 
of Portugal, who " showed that he felt disgusted and grieved because he 
believed that this discovery [of the lands found by Columbus] was made 
within the seas and bounds of his lordship of Guinea which was prohibited 
and likewise because the said Admiral was somewhat raised from his condi 
tion and in the account of his affairs always went beyond the bounds of the 
truth ".* The king said " that he understood that, in the capitulation 2 between 
the sovereigns [of Castile] and himself, that conquest [which Columbus had 
made] belonged to him." The admiral replied that he had not seen the capitu 
lation, nor knew more than that the sovereigns had ordered him not to go 
either to La Mina 4 or to any other port of Guinea, and that this had been 
ordered to be proclaimed in all the ports of Andalusia before he sailed". 
Thus, before Columbus had arrived in Spain, his discoveries in the New 
World threatened to create an international difficulty. To explain this diffi 
culty it is necessary to consider the earlier history of the conflicting claims of 
Portugal and Castile to the newly discovered lands. 

The first such conflict concerned the Canary Islands, rediscovered in the 
latter part of the thirteenth century. In 1344, on the ground that he wished 
to Christianize these islands, Don Luis de la Cerda, admiral of France and 
great-grandson of Alfonso the Wise, obtained a bull of investiture from Pope 

1 The whole passage from Ruy de Pina, Chronica d El Rei Dom load II., in J. F. 
Corrca da Serra, Collecqao de Livros Ineditos de Historic. Portugueza, pub. by the 
Academia Real das Sciencias, Lisbon, II. 178-179, is translated in a foot-note to the 
translation of the " Journal of the First Voyage of Columbus ", in J. E. Olson and E. G. 
Bourne, The Northmen, Columbus, and Cabot (1906), pp. 255-256, in J. F. Jameson s 
series of Original Narratives of Early American History. 

3 The treaty of Alcac.ovas. See below. Doc. 3. 

According to Ruy de Pina, " that conquest " was the " islands of Cipango and 
Antilia". Vignaud points out (Histoire Critique, I. 368 ff.) that there is no evidence 
that the Indies were mentioned in this interview, but, as Vander Linden remarks, 
Columbus placed the island of Cipango in the " sea of the Indies ". American Historical 
Review, XXII. 12, note 30. 

4 Elmina, on the Gold Coast ; known also as S. Jorge da Mina, or, in English, St. 
George of the Mine. In 1482 Diogo d Azambuja, acting under royal orders, built a 
fort there to protect Portuguese commerce. J. de Barros, Da Asia, I. (1778), dec. I., liv. 
III., cc. I, 2. Cf. Doc. 4, introduction. 

* " Journal of the First Voyage of Columbus ", in Olson and Bourne, The North 
men, Columbus, and Cabot, p. 254. The royal letter prohibiting Columbus from going 
to the Mine is in Navarrete, Coleccion dc Viages (1825-1837), torn. III., no. n, 
pp. 483-484- 



10 Doc. i. The Bull Romamis Pontifex 

Clement VI., and was crowned Prince of Fortunia at Avignon. At this time 
the kings of Portugal and Castile agreed to set aside their own opposing 
claims to the archipelago and to help Luis in the enterprise to which the Pope 
had thus lent his support. 7 But Luis never entered into possession, and 
Portugal and Castile kept up the struggle for the islands. Papal bulls were 
issued, favorable now to one and now to the other party, and the question of 
ownership, which was argued before the Council of Basel in 1435, was not 
finally settled until 1479, when, by the treaty of Alcagovas, Portugal ceded 
the islands to Castile. 1 

The second Castilian-Portuguese controversy concerned Africa, where 
Portugal was following up her conquest of Ceuta (1415) by other military 
expeditions in Morocco, and by sending caravels southward along the western 
coast and opening up a trade with Guinea. In 1441 slaves and gold-dust 
were first brought back to Portugal from beyond Cape Bojador. By 1454 
trade with that region had greatly developed " so that Cadamosto, the Vene 
tian, wrote that " from no traffic in the world could the like [gain] be had "." 

The kings of Castile, basing their claims on the same grounds that they had 
employed in respect to the Canaries possession by their ancestors, the Visi- 
gothic kings asserted their right to the conquest of the lands of Africa " 
and to Guinea and the Guinea trade. They even imposed a tax upon the 
merchandise brought from those parts. 12 

The Castilian- Portuguese controversy over the Guinea trade began as early 
as 1454. On April 10 of that year the King of Castile, John II., wrote a 
letter " to the King of Portugal, Alfonso V., containing complaints and de 
mands in respect to the Canaries, and also in respect to the seizure by a Portu- 

* The Canary Islands were believed to be the Fortunatae Insulae of the ancients. 

T An incomplete text of the bull and the letters from the kings of Portugal and 
Castile to the Pope are in Raynaldus, Annales Ecclesiastic}, VI. 359-364. The full 
text of the bull is in C. Cocquelines, Bullarum Collectio, torn. III. (1741), pt. II. 
pp. 296 ff. A French translation (incomplete) is in M. A. P. d Avezac, lies de I Afrique 
(1848), pt. II., pp. 152-153. A facsimile and transliteration of the letter of the King 
of Portugal to the Pope have been printed by Eugenic do Canto (Lisbon, 1910). The 
sermon preached by Clement VI. on the occasion of the appointment of Luis to the 
lordship of the Canaries is extant, see L. von Pastor, Geschichte der Pdpste, I. (1901) 
91, note. For other references, see Ch. de La Ronciere, Histoire de la Marine Fran- 
(aise, II. (1900), 104-106. 

Summaries of the statement of the Bishop of Burgos at the Council of Basel, and 
of the bull of July 31, 1436, are in Alguns Documentos, pp. 3, 4. The article of the 
treaty of Alcaqovas by which the Canaries were awarded to Castile is to be found ibid., 
pp. 44-45, and see Doc. 3, introduction. 

Ch. de Lannoy and H. Vander Linden, L Expansion Coloniale: Portugal et Espagne 
(1907), pp. 43, 44. 

10 Quoted in the introduction to Azurara, Guinea, II. xxii (ed. Beazley and Prestage, 
Hakluyt Soc., vol. C., 1899). 

11 Bull of July 31, 1436, Algs. Docs., p. 4; bull of Jan. 5, 1443, ibid., p. 7. 
" Navarrete, Viages, I. xxxvii-xxxix. Cf. Doc. 3, note 2. 

"The letter is printed in Las Casas, Historia de las Indias, I. 141-151- A Portu 
guese translation made from the manuscript of the Historia is in Viscount de Santarem, 
Quadro Elementar (1842-1876), II. 352-367- 



January 8, 1455 11 

guese captain of an Andalusian vessel which, together with others also be 
longing to the citizens of Seville and Cadiz, had arrived within a league of 
Cadiz on its return from a trading voyage to Guinea." The King of Castile, 
or rather the two ecclesiastics who a few months before had begun their ener 
getic management of his affairs," demanded the restitution of the captured 
subjects of the Castilian crown and of the caravel and her cargo of Guinea 
merchandise. At the same time " these virtual rulers of Castile sent ambas 
sadors to the King of Portugal to threaten war unless he should desist from 
the " conquest " of Barbary and of Guinea, which belonged to Castile. The 
King of Portugal, although greatly vexed, replied with much moderation 
that it was certain that that " conquest " belonged to him and to the kingdom 
of Portugal, and urged that the peace should not be broken until the truth as 
to the proprietorship were ascertained. Before this reply had reached the 
King of Castile he had fallen ill and he died in July of this year." His suc 
cessor, Henry IV., a king of weak character, was little fitted to oppose the 
pretensions of Portugal. Moreover, by August, 1454, he was already engaged 
in negotiating a marriage with the sister of the Portuguese king." 

It is probable that King Alfonso deemed the time especially propitious for 
a settlement of the dispute over the proprietorship of Morocco, Guinea, and 
the Guinea trade. In attempting to establish his claims, he would naturally 
seek aid from the Pope, for that potentate s independent position made him 
the arbitrator between nations, while his spiritual authority, in particular his 
powers of excommunication and interdict, gave weight to his decisions." 
Moreover, as spiritual fathers of all the peoples of the earth, the popes had 
long undertaken to regulate the relations including the commercial rela 
tions between Christians and unbelievers. The Lateran Council of 1 179 pro 
hibited the sale to the Saracens of arms, iron, wood to be used in construction, 
and anything else useful for warfare. Certain later popes prohibited all 
commerce with the infidels." These prohibitions were, however, tempered 
by papal licenses to trade, which were on occasion granted to monarchs, com 
munities, or individuals, or by the absolutions sometimes purchased by re- 

" La tierra que llaman Guinea, que es de nuestra conquista. Las Casas, op. cit., 
I. 150. 

1S Nunes de Leao (do Liam), Cronicas, p. 221. 

l " Nunes do Liam does not give the precise date of the sending of the embassy but 
places it after the beginning of the year 1454 ar >d before June of that year. He names 
Juan de Guzman and Fernando Lopez of Burgos as the ambassadors, whereas the letter 
of Apr. 10, 1454. names Juan de Guzman and Juan Alfonso of Burgos as the am 
bassadors who will bear the letter to the King of Portugal. Fernando Lopez was sent 
by Henry IV. as ambassador to Portugal in Aug., 1454. Santarem, Quadro Elementar, 

I- 354- 

11 Nunes do Liam, Cronicas, p. 222. 

1S Santarem, Quadro Elementar, I. 353, 354. 

19 On the papacy as an international power, see R. de Maulde-la-Claviere, La Diplo 
matic au Temps de Machiavel (1892), torn. I., ch. 2. 

"The canon law on the subject is in Decretal. Gregor. IX., lib. V., tit. VI., cc. 6, 11, 12, 
and 17 ; E.vtravag. Joatm. XXII. , tit. VIII. ? c. I ; Extrarag. Cominun., lib. V., tit. II., c. i. 



12 Doc. i. The Bull Romanns Pontifc.v 

turning merchants. In order the more readily to obtain these favors, the 
applicant sometimes pointed out to the Pope how commerce tended to the 
spread of the Christian faith. 21 

On January 8, 1455, doubtless in accordance with the request of King 
Alfonso, Nicholas V. issued the bull Romanns pontifcx, which marks a definite 
stage in the colonial history of Portugal. By the bull Rex re gum, January 5, 
1443, Eugenius IV. had taken neutral ground in the dispute between Portugal 
and Castile concerning their rights in Africa ; by the bull Dnm dirersas, June 
18, 1452, Nicholas V. granted King Alfonso general and indefinite powers to 
search out and conquer all pagans, enslave them and appropriate their lands 
and goods. 22 The bull Romanns pontifex, on the other hand, settled the 
dispute between Portugal and Castile in favor of the former, and, apparently 
for the first time, 83 granted Portugal exclusive rights in a vast southerly 
region. It confirmed the bull Dum diversas, specified the district to which 
it applied Ceuta, and the district from Capes Bojador and Nao through all 
Guinea, and " beyond towards that southern shore " and declared that this, 
together with all other lands acquired by Portugal from the infidels before 
or after 1452, belonged to King Alfonso, his successors, and Prince Henry, 
and to no others. It further declared that King Alfonso, his successors, and 
Prince Henry might make laws or impose restrictions and tribute in regard 
to these lands and seas, and that they and personslicensed by them might 
trade there with the infidels, except in the prohibited articles, but that no other 
Catholics should trade there or enter those seas or harbors under pain of 
excommunication or interdict. 

21 On the relations of the Church to commerce, see E. Nys, Les Origines du Droit 
International (1894), pp. 284-286, and especially G. B. Depping, Hisioire du Commerce 
(1830), ch. 10. Depping mentions a king of Aragon s attempt to persuade the 
Pope that his trade with the infidels was in the interest of the Christian faith. In 1485 
the orator of the Portuguese embassy of obedience to Pope Innocent VIII. argued that 
commercial intercourse led to the conversion of the Ethiopians, and that the trade estab 
lished with the Ethiopians at Elmina had prevented them from furnishing supplies to 
the Moors (see below, Doc. 1, note 30). An interesting passage in the bull Sedis 
apostolicae, issued by Julius II. on July 4, 1505, shows that the then King of Portugal 
was using the same kind of argument to persuade the Pope to absolve from excom 
munication such Portuguese as might have traded unlawfully in Guinea or India. L. A. 
Rebello da Silva, Corpo Diplomatico Portuguez (Acad. Real das Sciencias, Lisbon, 
1862), I. 59-61. 

" The bull Re.v re gum is printed in Algs. Docs., pp. 7, 8. The entire bull Dion diversas 
is printed in Jordao, Bullariutn, pp. 22 ff . ; a part is printed below, Doc. 1, note 37. 

23 Barros states that upon petition of Prince Henry, Martin V. (1417-1431) granted to 
the crown of Portugal the land that should be discovered from Cape Bojador to and 
including the Indies. (Da Asia, I., dec. I., lib. I., cap. 7.) No such bull is known, but cf. 
below, note 42. 

A grant by Pope Nicholas V., dated Jan. 8, 1450, conceding to Alfonso V. all the 
territories which Henry had discovered, has been said to be preserved in the National 
Archives at Lisbon, Coll. de Bullas, mac.o 32, no. I, or no. 10. (Santarem, Prioridade, 
p. 26, and Azurara, Guinea, ed. Carreira and Santarem, 1841, p. 92, note I ; and, in 
Beazley and Prestage s edition, II. 318, note 67). The editor looked up both these 
manuscripts and found that one is the executoria of the bull of Jan. 8, 1455 (see below, 
note 43), and that the other is a bull issued by Paul III. toward the middle of the fol 
lowing century. 



January 8, 1455 13 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Text: MS. The original manuscript of the promulgated bull is in the 
National Archives in Lisbon, Coll. de Bullas, mago 7, no. 29. 

Text: Printed. J. Ramos-Coelho, Algutis Documentos (1892), pp. 14-20; 
L. M. Jordao, Bullarium Patronatus Portugalliae Re gum (1868), pp. 
31-34; J. Dumont, Corps Diplomatique (1726-1731), torn. III., pt. I., 
pp. 200-202; O. Raynaldus (continuing Baronius), Annales Ecclesiastici 
(1747-1756), X. 17-20; and in various bullaria and other works. 

Translation- English. William Bollan, Coloniae Anglicanae Illustratae 
(1762), pp. 117-136. Spanish. Boletin del Ccntro rfr Estudios Ameri- 
canistas de Sevilla, ano III., num. 7 (March-April, 1915). 

References: Contemporary and early writings. Gomes Eannes de 
Azurara, Conquest of Guinea (trans, and ed. by C. R. Beazley and 
E. Prestage, Hakluyt Soc., vols. XCV. and C., 1896, 1899) ; Nunes de 
Leao (do Liam), Cronicas dos Reys (1780), torn. IV., p. 222; B. de Las 
Casas, Historia de las Indias ( 1875), tom - ! c - ! 8, in M. F. de Navarrete 
et al., Coleccion de Documentos Ineditos para la Historia de Espafia 
(1842 ), tom. LXII. 

References: Later writings. R. H. Major, Life of Prince Henry (1868) ; 
H. Schafer, Geschichtc von Portugal (1838-1854), II. 477 ff., and III. 
144-148, in Heeren and Ukert, Geschichte der Europdischen Staaten; 
H. Harrisse, Diplomatic History of America (1897), pp. 6, 7; H. 
Vignaud, Toscanelli and Columbus (1903), pp. 58-61; id., Histoire 
Critique de la Grande Entreprise de Christophe Colomb (1911), I. 200- 
206; E. G. Bourne, Essays in Historical Criticism (1901), "Prince 
Henry the Navigator" ; C. R. Beazley, " Prince Henry of Portugal and 
the African Crusade of the Fifteenth Century ", American Historical 
Review, XVI. 11-23; id., " Prince Henry of Portugal and his Political, 
Commercial, and Colonizing Work ", ibid., XVII. 252-267 ; J. P. Oliveira 
Martins, The Golden Age of Prince Henry the Navigator, translated, 
with additions, by J. J. Abraham and W. E. Reynolds ( 1914) . For other 
references to the period of Prince Henry s voyages, see the " Critical 
Essay on Authorities " in E. P. Cheyney, European Background of 
American History (1904), in A. B. Hart, The American Nation. 



TEXT.** 

Nicolaus episcopus, servus servorum Dei. Ad perpetuam rei memoriam. 
Romanus pontifex, regni celestis clavigeri successor et vicarius Jhesu Christi, 
cuncta mundi climata omniumque nationum in illis degentium qualitates 
paterna consideratione discutiens, ac salutem querens et appetens singulorum, 
ilia propensa deliberatione salubriter ordinat et disponit que grata Divine 
Majestati fore conspicit et per que oves sibi divinitus creditas ad unicum ovile 
dominicum reducat, et acquirat eis felicitatis eterne premium, ac veniam 
impetret animabus ; que eo certius auctore Domino provenire credimus, si 
condignis favoribus et specialibus gratiis eos Catholicos prosequamur reges 
et principes, quos, veluti Christiane fidei athletas et intrepidos pugiles, non 

" The text is from the original manuscript of the bull, preserved in the National 
Archives at Lisbon, Coll. de Bullas, mac.o 7, no. 29. 



14 Doc. i. The Bull Romamis Pontifex 

modo Saracenorum ceterorumque infidelium Christian! nominis inimicorum 
feritatem reprimere, sed etiam ipsos eorumque regna ac loca, etiam in long- 
issimis nobisque incognitis partibus consistentia, pro defensione et aitgmento 
fidei hujusmodi debellare, suoque temporali dominio subdere, nullis parcendo 
laboribus et expensis facti evidentia cognoscimus, ut reges et principes ipsi, 
sublatis quibusvis dispendiis, ad tarn saluberrimum tamque laudabile prose- 
quendum opus peramplius animentur. Ad nostrum siquidem nuper, non sine 
ingenti gaudio et nostre mentis letitia, pervenit auditum, quod dilectus filius 
nobilis vir, Henricus, 25 infans Portugalie, carissimi in Christo filii nostri 
Alf onsi M Portugalie et Algarbii regnorum regis illustris patruus, inherens 
vestigiis clare memorie Johannis, 27 dictorum regnorum regis, ejus genitoris, 
ac zelo salutis animarum et fidei ardore plurimum succensus, tanquam Ca- 
tholicus et verus omnium Creatoris Christi miles, ipsiusque fidei acerrimus ac 
fortissimus defensor et intrepidus pugil, ejusdem Creatoris gloriosissimum 
nomen per universum terrarum orbem etiam in remotissimis et incognitis 
locis divulgari, extolli, et venerari, nee non illius ac vivifice qua redempti 
sumus Crucis inimicos perfidos, Sarracenos videlicet ac quoscunque alios 
infideles, ad ipsius fidei gremium reduci, ab ejus ineunte etate totis aspirans 
viribus post Ceptensem "" civitatem, in Affrica consistentem, per dictum 
Johannem Regem ejus subactam dominio, et post multa per ipsum infantem 
nomine tamen dicti regis contra hostes et infideles predictos, quandoque etiam 
in propria persona, non absque maximis laboribus et expensis, ac rerum et 
personarum periculis et jactura, plurimorumque naturalium suorum cede, 
gesta bella, ex tot tantisque laboribus, periculis, et damnis non fractus nee 
territus, sed ad hujusmodi laudabilis et pii propositi sui prosecutionem in 
dies magis atque magis exardescens, in occeano mari quasdam solitarias 
insulas fidelibus populavit, ac ftmdari et construi inibi fecit ecclesias et alia 
loca pia, in quibus divina celebrantur officia. Ex dicti quoque infantis laudabili 
opera et industria, quamplures diversarum in dicto mari existentium insu- 
larum incole seu habitatores ad veri Dei cognitionem venientes, sacrum bap- 
tisma susceperunt ad ipsius Dei laudem et gloriam, ac plurimorum animarum 
salutem, orthodoxe quoque fidei propagationem, et divini cultus augmentum.** 
Preterea cum olim ad ipsius infantis pervenisset notitiam, quod nunquam vel 
saltern a memoria hominum non consuevisset per hujusmodi occeanum mare 
versus meridionales et orientales plagas navigari, illudque nobis occiduis 

"Prince Henry the Navigator (b. 1394-d. 1460). 

28 Alfonso V., surnamed " the African " from his conquests in Morocco, ruled from 
1438 to 1481. He stood high in the favor of Pope Nicholas because, after the fall of 
Constantinople and in response to the Pope s summons, he alone, of all the western 
monarchs, seriously prepared to aid in resisting the Turks. In April, 1454, in recognition 
of his efforts, the Pope sent him the consecrated golden rose. L. von Pastor, Geschichte 
der Pdpsie, I. (1901), 608; Jordao, Bullarium, p. 35. 

27 John L, surnamed " the Great ", the founder of the house of Aviz, ruled from 1385 
to 1433- 

23 The conquest of Ceuta in 1415, in which Prince Henry played a leading part, marks 
the beginning of the colonial expansion of Portugal. An account of the crusade against 
the city is given in Major, Life of Prince Henry, ch. 3. 

28 The Madeira Islands were rediscovered in 1418-1420; the Azores, in H^or 1432 or 
M37- J- Mees argues for the last date in his Histoire de la Decouverte des lies Agores 
in Recueil de Travaux publies par la Faculte de Philosophic ct Lettres, University of 
Ghent (1901), fasc. 27. The Cape Verde Islands were discovered in 1456, shortly after 
the issue of this bull. Azurara, Guinea (ed. Beazley and Prestage), II. ix, Ixxxv, 
Ixxxvi, xcii-xcvi. 



January 8, 7455 15 

adeo foret incognitum, ut nullam de partium illarum gentibus certam notitiam 
haberemus, credens se maximum in hoc Deo prestare obsequium, si ejus opera 
et industria mare ipsum usque ad Indos qui Christi nomen colere dicuntur,* 
navigabile fieret, sicque cum eis participare, et illos in Christianorum auxilium 
adversus Sarracenos et alios hujusmodi fidei hostes commovere posset, ac 
nonnullos gentiles sen paganos nefandissimi Machometi secta minime infectos 
populos inibi medio existentes continuo debellare, eisque incognitum sacra- 
tissimum Christi nomen predicare ac facere predicari, regia tamen semper 
auctoritate munitus, a viginti quinque annis, citra exercitum ex dictorum 
regnorum gentibus, maximis cum laboribus, periculis, et expensis in velo- 
cissimis navibus, caravelis " nuncupatis, ad perquirendum mare et provincias 
maritimas versus meridionales partes et polum antarticum, annis singulis fere 
mittere non cessav.it ; sicque facttim est, ut cum naves hujusmodi quamplures 
portus, insulas, et maria perlustrassent, et occupassent, ad Guineam pro- 
vinciam 82 tandem pervenirent, occupatisque nonnullis insulis, portibus, ac 
mari eidem provincie adjacentibus, ulterius navigantes ad hostium cujusdam 
magni fluminis Nili a communiter reputati pervenirent, et contra illarum 

"The early voyages sent out by Prince Henry along the west coast of Africa were 
connected with the crusade which after the conquest of Ceuta the Portuguese carried 
on against tfie Saracens in Morocco (see Beazley, " Prince Henry of Portugal and the 
African Crusade of the Fifteenth Century ", in the American Historical Review, XVI. 
11-23). They were undertaken partly to learn whether there were any Christian princes 
in the interior who would aid the prince against the Moors, and because the infante 
desired to have knowledge not only of Guinea " but also of the Indies and the land of 
Prester John" (Azurara, Guinea, chs. 7, 16; ed. Beazley and Prestage, I. 55). The " In 
dians who are said to worship Christ" are clearly the subjects of Prester John. The 
question where the Portuguese supposed these Christian Indians to dwell whether 
in Abyssinia or Asia has aroused a controversy, which is summed up in Vignaud, 
Histoire Critique, I. 195 ff. A bit of evidence, apparently not noticed hitherto but 
conclusive for its date, is in the oration of obedience, delivered on Dec. 9, 1485, before 
Innocent VIII., by the Portuguese ambassador, Vascp Fernandas de Lucena. A copy 
of this oration, printed at Rome, probably in 1485, is in the British Museum. The pas 
sage is as follows : " Accedit tandem hiis omnibus haud dubia spes Arabici sinus 
perscrutandi, ubi Asiam incolentium regna et nationes, vix apud nos obscurissima fama 
cognite, sanctissimam Salvatoris fidem religiosissime colunt : a quibus jam si modo vera 
probatissimi geographi tradunt paucorum dierum itinere Lusitanorum navigatio abest." 
This statement concerning the goal of the Portuguese is opposed to Vignaud s conclusion 
that up to 1486 the Portuguese were seeking the Indies of Prester John in Africa. 

" Cadamosto, the Venetian, called the Portuguese caravels the best sailing ships at 
sea. " They were usually 20-30 metres long, 6-8 metres in breadth ; were equipped with 
three masts, without rigging-tops, or yards ; and had lateen sails stretched upon long 
oblique poles, hanging suspended from the mast-head. . . . They usually ran with all 
their sail, turning by means of it, and sailing straight upon a bow-line driving before 
the wind. When they wished to change their course it was enough to trim the sails." 
Beazley s introduction to Azurara, Guinea, II. cxii-cxiii. 

"A vague knowledge of a land called Guinea ("Ganuya", "Ginuia"), south of the 
great desert, inhabited by negroes and rich in gold, existed in Europe long before the 
time of Prince Henry. The name " provincia Ganuya " appears on the mappemonde 
of the Medicean or Laurentian atlas of 1351, reproduced in facsimile in T. Fischer, 
Raccolta di Mappamondi, pt. V. (1881), and, with clearer lettering, in Santarem, Atlas 
de Mappemondes (1849-1852), no. 24, and is fully discussed in T. Fischer, Sammlung 
Mittelalterlicher Welt- und Seekarten (1886), pp. 127-147. " Ginuia" is indicated on the 
Catalan mappemonde of 1375, of which an available reproduction is opposite p. 78 in 
S. Ruge, Zeitalter der Entdecknngen (1881), in W. Oncken, Allgemeine Geschichte. 

"The Senegal, or Western Nile, or Nile of the Negroes. When this river was dis 
covered in 1445 it was believed to be a branch of the Nile. The maps referred to in the 
preceding note show a water connection between the Atlantic, Guinea, and the Nubian 
Nile. Hosthtm is for ostium. 



16 Doc. i. The Bull Romamis Pontifex 

partium populos nomine ipsorum Alfonsi Regis et infantis, per aliquos annos 
guerra habita extitit, et in ilia quamplures inibi vicine insule debellate ac 
pacifice possesse fuerunt, prout adhuc cum adjacenti mari possidentur. Ex 
inde quoque multi Guinei et alii nigri vi capti, quidam etiam non prohibitarum 
rerum permutatione, sen alio legitimo contractu emptionis ad dicta sunt regna 
transmissi ; quorum inibi in copioso nttmero ad Catholicam fidem conversi 
extiterunt, speraturque, divina favente dementia, quod si hujusmodi cum eis 
continuetur progressus, vel populi ipsi ad fidem convertentur, vel saltern 
multorum ex eis anime Christo lucrifient." Cum autem sicut accepimus, licet 
rex et infans prefati, qui cum tot tantisque periculis, laboribus, et expensis, 
nee non perditione tot naturalium regnorum hujusmodi, quorum inibi quam 
plures perierunt, ipsorum naturalium duntaxat freti auxilio provincias illas 
perlustrari fecerunt ac portus, insulas, et maria hujusmodi acquisiverunt et 
possederunt, ut prefertur, ut illorum veri domini, timentes ne aliqui cupiditate 
ducti, ad partes illas navigarent, et operis hujusmodi perfectionem, fructum, 
et laudem sibi usurpare vel saltern impedire cupientes, propterea sen lucri 
commodo, aut malitia, ferrum, arma, ligamina, 35 aliasque res et bona ad 
infideles deferri prohibita portarent, vel transmitterent, aut ipsos infideles 
navigandi modum edocerent, propter que eis hostes fortiores ac duriores 
fierent, et hujusmodi prosecutio vel impediretur, vel forsan penitus cessaret, 
non absque Dei magna offensa et ingenti totius Christianitatis obprobrio, ad 
obviandum premissis ac pro suorum juris et possessionis conservation, sub 
certis tune expressis gravissimis penis prohibuerint et generaliter statuerint 
quod nullus, nisi cum suis nautis et navibus et certi tributi solutione obtenta- 
que prius desuper expressa ab eodem rege vel infante licentia, ad dictas pro 
vincias navigare aut in earum portibus contractare seu in mari piscari 
presumeret ; M tamen successu temporis evenire posset, quod aliorum regno 
rum seu nationum persone, invidia, malitia, aut cupiditate ducti, contra pro- 
hibitionem predictam, absque licentia et tributi solutione hujusmodi, ad 
dictas provincias accedere, et in sic acquisitis provinciis, portibus, insulis, 
ac mari, navigare, contractare, et piscari presumerent, et exinde inter Alfon- 
sum Regem ac infantem, qui nullatenus se in hiis sic deludi paterentur, et 
presumentes predictos quamplura odia, rancores, dissensiones, guerre, et 
scandala in maximam Dei offensam et animarum periculum verisimiliter sub- 
sequi possent et subsequerentur Nos, premissa omnia et singula debita 
meditatiorie pensantes, ac attendentes quod cum olim prefato Alfonso Regi 
quoscunque Sarracenos et paganos aliosque Christi inimicos ubicunque con 
stitutes, ac regna, ducatus, principatus, dominia, possessiones, et mobilia ac 
immobilia bona quecunque per eos detenta ac possessa invadendi, conquirendi, 
expugnandi, debellandi, et subjugandi, illorumque personas in perpetuam 
servitutem redigendi, ac regna, ducatus, comitatus, principatus, dominia, 
possessiones, et bona sibi et successoribus suis applicandi, appropriandi, ac 
in suos successorumque suorum usus et utilitatem convertendi, aliis nostris 

"The first natives captured beyond Cape Bojador were brought to Portugal by 
Antam Gonxjalves in 1441 or 1442. Azurara, Guinea, chs. 12 and 13. 

** This word appears in this same form in the Corpus Juris Canonici, Decretal. Gregor. 
IX., lib. V., tit. VI., c. 6, ed. E. Friedberg, who gives as variant forms ligiiamina and 
ligneamina. 

" A royal charter, dated Oct. 22, 1443, forbidding any one to pass beyond Cape 
Bojador without a license from Prince Henry, is printed in Algs. Docs., pp. 8-9. 



January 8, 1455 17 

litteris" 7 plenam et liberam inter cetera concesserimus facultatem, dicte 
facultatis obtentu idem Alfonsus Rex, seu ejus auctoritate predictus infans, 
juste et legitime insulas, terras, portus, et maria hujusmodi acquisivit ac 
possedit et possidet, illaque ad eundem Alfonsum Regem et ipsius successores 
de jure spectant et pertinent, nee quisvis alius etiam Christifidelis absque 
ipsorum Alfonsi Regis et successorum suorum licentia speciali de illis se 
hactenus intromittere licite potuit nee potest quoquomodo, ut ipsi Alfonsus 
Rex ejusque successores et infans eo ferventius huic tarn piissimo ac preclaro 
et omni evo memoratu dignissimo operi, in quo cum in illo animarum salus, 
fidei augmentum, et illius hostium depressio procurentur, Dei ipsiusque fklei 
ac reipublice, universalis ecclesie rem agi conspicimus, insistere valeant et 
insistant, quo, sublatis quibusvis dispendiis amplioribus, se per nos et Sedem 
Apostolicam favoribus ac gratiis munitos fore conspexerint, de premissis 
omnibus et singulis plenissime informati, motu proprio, 38 non ad ipsorum 
Alfonsi Regis et infantis vel alterius pro eis nobis super hoc oblate petitionis 
instantiam. maturaque prius desuper deliberatione prehabita, auctoritate 
apostolica et ex certa scientia, de apostolice potestatis plenitudine, litteras 
facultatis prefatas, quarum tenores de verbo ad verbum presentibus haberi 
volumus pro insertis, cum omnibus et singulis in eis contentis clausulis, ad 

" The bull of June 18, 1452 (Nicholas V.)- The provisions of this bull are as follows : 
"... Nos igitur considerantes, quod contra Catholicam fidem insurgentibus, Chris- 
tianamque religionem extinguere molientibus, ea virtute, et alia constantia a Christi 
fidelibus est resistendum, ut fideles ipsi fidei ardore succensi virtutibusque pro posse 
succincti detestandum illorum propositum, non solum obice intentionis contraire impe- 
diant, si ex oppositione roboris iniquos conatus prohibeant, et Deo, cui militant, ipsis 
assistente, perfidorum substernant molimenta, nosque divino amore communiti, Chris- 
tianorum charitate invitati, officiique pastoralis astricti debito, ea, quae fidei, pro qua 
Christus Deus noster sanguinem effudit, integritatem, augmentumque respiciunt nobis 
fidelium animis vigorem, tuamque Regiam Magestatem in hujusmodi sanctissimo pro- 
posito confovere merito cupientes, tibi Sarracenos, et paganos, aliosque infideles, et 
Christi inimicos quoscunque, et ubicunque constitutes regna, ducatus, comitatus, princi- 
patus aliaque dominia, terras, loca, villas, castra, et quaecunque alia possessiones, bona 
mobilia et immobilia in quibuscunque rebus consistentia, et quocunque nomine censeantur, 
per eosdem Sarracenos, paganos, infideles, et Christi inimicos detenta, et possessa, etiam 
cujuscunque seu quorumcunque regis, seu principis, aut regum, vel principum regna, 
ducatus, comitatus, principatus, aliaque dominia, terrae, loca, yillae, castra, possessiones, 
et bona hujusmodi fuerint, invadendi, conquerendi. expugnandi, et subjugandi, illorumque 
personas in perpetuam servitutem redigendi, regna quoque, ducatus, comitatus, princi 
patus, aliaque dominia, possessiones, et bona hujusmodi, tibi et successoribus tuis Regibus 
Portugalliae, perpetuo applicandi, et appropriandi, ac in tuos, et eorundem successorum 
usus et utilitates convertendi plenam et liberam, auctoritate apostolica, tenore praesen- 
tium concedimus facultatem. ..." Jordao, Bullarium, p. 22. It will be noticed that 
this bull sanctions the enslaving of the infidels. Two interesting bulls respecting slaves 
from the Canary Islands, printed in appendix II. of Caracter dc la Conquista y Coloni 
zation de las Islas Canarias: Discursos leidos ante la Real Academia de la Historia 
(1901) by Don Rafael Torres Campos, show that Eugenius IV., the immediate prede 
cessor of Nicholas V., not only wished to protect from slavery and annoyance those 
aborigines who had embraced the faith, but also expressed a fear that dread of captivity 
would deter others from conversion. 

" The phrase motu proprio, etc., had long been a mere form, which exempted the 
recipient of the bull from the ordinary taxes. J. Haller, " Die Ausfertigung der Pro- 
visionen ", Quellen und Forschungen, II. (i), (1899), p. 3- " Erne papstliche Verleihung 
erfolgt fast immer nur auf Grund einer eingereichten Supplik. Der Empfanger also 
hat die Initiative zu ergreifen auch da, wo es sich scheinbar um einen spontanen Act 
des Papstes, ein motu proprio handelt. Denn auch diese Art der Verleihung ist schon 
friih eine blosse Form geworden, bestimmt, dem Empfanger Abgabenfreiheit und 
andere Vorrechte zu verschaffen." 



18 Doc. i. The Bull Romaniis Pontifex 

Ceptensem et predicta ac quecunque alia etiam ante data dictarum facultatis 
litterarum acquisita, et ad ea, que imposterum nomine dictorum Alfonsi 
regis suorumque successorum et infantis, in ipsis ac illis circumvicinis et 
ulterioribus ac remotioribus partibus, de infidelium sen paganorum manibus 
acquiri poterunt provincias, insulas, portus, et maria quecunque extendi et 
ilia sub eisdem facultatis litteris comprehendi, Ipsarumque facultatis et pre- 
sentium litterarum vigore jam acquisita et que in futurum acquiri contigerit, 
postquam acquisita fuerint, ad prefatos regem et successores suos ac infantem, 
ipsamque conquestam quam a capitibus de Bojador 39 et de Nam * usque per 
totam Guineam et ultra versus illam meridionalem plagam u extendi harum 
serie declaramus etiam ad ipsos Alfonsum Regem et successores suos ac in 
fantem et non ad aliquos alios spectasse et pertinuisse ac imperpetuum 
spectare et pertinere de jure, Necnon Alfonsum Regem et successores suos ac 
infantem predictos in illis et circa ea quecunque prohibitiones, statuta, et man- 
data, etiam penalia, et cum cujusvis tributi impositione facere, ac de ipsis ut de 
rebus propriis et aliis ipsorum dominiis disponere et ordinare potuisse ac 
nunc et in futurum posse libere ac licite tenore presentium decernimus et 
declaramus. Ac pro potioris juris et cautele suffragio, jam acquisita et que 
imposterum acquiri contigerit, provincias, insulas, portus, loca, et maria, 
quecunque, quotcunque, et qualiacunque fuerint, ipsamque conquestam a 
capitibus de Bojador et de Nom predictis Alfonso Regi et successoribus suis, 
regibus dictorum regnorum, ac infanti prefatis, perpetuo donamus, con- 
cedimus, et appropriamus per presentes. Preterea cum id ad perficiendum 
opus hujusmodi multipliciter sit oportunum [concedimus] quod Alfonsus 
Rex et successores ac infans predicti, nee non persone quibus hoc duxerint, 
seu aliquis eorum duxerit committendum, illius dicto Johanni Regi per 
f elicis recordationis Martinum V., et alterius indultorum etiam inclite memorie 
Eduardo eorumdem regnorum regi, ejusdem Alfonsi Regis genitori, per pie 
memorie Eugenium IV., Romanes pontifices, predecessores nostros, conces- 
sorum versus dictas partes cum quibusvis Sarracenis et infidelibus, de qui- 
buscunque rebus et bonis ac victualibus, emptiones et venditiones prout con- 
gruerit facere, nee non quoscunque contractus inire, transigere, pacisci, 
mercari, ac negociari, et merces quascunque ad ipsorum Sarracenorum et 
infidelium loca, dummodo ferramenta, ligamina, funes, naves, seu armatura- 
rum genera non sint, deferre, et ea dictis Sarracenis et infidelibus vendere, 
omnia quoque alia et singula in premissis et circa ea oportuna vel necessaria 
facere, gerere, vel exercere:" ipsique Alfonsus Rex, successores, et infans 

M Cape Bojador, in 26 7 N., was rounded by Gil Eannes in 1434. Azurara, Guinea 
(ed. Beazley and Prestage), II. x. 

40 During a long period prior to Prince Henry s expeditions, Cape Na or Nam was the 
southern limit of Portuguese coast navigation. This cape was therefore probably not the 
Cape Non situated to the north of the Canary Islands, in 28 47 N., but must have been 
south of Cape Bojador, where, indeed, it is placed on some maps of the early fifteenth 
century. See the article on " Espaiia en Berberia " by M. Jimenez de la Espada in the 
Boletin de la Sociedad Geogr&fica de Madrid, torn. IX. (1880), p. 316. The fact that 
throughout this and the following text Cape Nam is mentioned after Cape Bojador may 
indicate that it lay to the south of it. 

41 Probably no definite locality is intended. 

43 The reference is to the bull Pracclaris tuae, issued by Eugenius IV. on May 25, 1437, 
and summarized in Algs. Docs., p. 5. The bull of Martin V. here mentioned may have 
been issued in 1424 or 1425 in connection with the Spanish-Portuguese controversy over 
the Canaries. Such a bull is referred to in Cod. Vatic. 4151, f. 18 (Kretschmer. 
Entdeckung Amerika s, 1892, p. 220 note) and in Algs. Docs., p. 3. Cf. above, note 23. 



19 

in jam acquisitis et per eum acquirendis provinciis, insulis, ac locis, quascunque 
ecclesias, monasteria, et alia pia loca fundare ac fundari et construi [curare], 
nee non quascunque voluntarias personas ecclesiasticas, seculares, quorumvis 
ctiam mendicantium ordinum regulares, de superiorum tamen suorum licentia, 
ad ilia transmittere, ipseque persone inibi etiam quoad vixerint commorari, 
ac quorumcunque in dictis partibus existentium vel accedentium confessiones 
audire, illisque auditis in omnibus preterquam sedi predicte reservatis, casibus, 
debitam absolutionem impendere, ac penitentiam salutarem injungere, nee 
non ecclesiastica sacramenta ministrare valeant libere ac licite decernimus, 
ipsique Alfonso et successoribus suis Regibus Portugalie, qui erunt impos- 
terum et infanti prefato concedimus et indulgemus ; ac universes et singulos 
Christi fideles ecclesiasticos, seculares, et ordinum quorumcunqu^ regulares, 
ubilibet per orbem constitutes, cujuscunque status, gradus, ord:nis, condi- 
tionis, vel preeminentie fuerint, etiamsi archiepiscopali, episcopali, imperiali, 
regali, reginali, ducali, seu alia quacunque majori ecclesiastica vel mundana 
dignitate prefulgeant, obsecramus in Domino et per aspersionem sanguinis 
Domini nostri Jhesu Christi, cujus ut premittitur res agitur, exhortamur, 
eisque in remissionem suorum peccaminum injungimus, nee non hoc perpetuo 
prohibitionis edicto districtius inhibemus, ne ad acquisita seu possessa nomine 
Alfonsi Regis aut in conquesta hujusmodi consistentia provincias, insulas, 
portus, maria, et loca quecunque seu alias ipsis Sarracenis, infidelibus, vel 
paganis arma, ferrum, ligamina, aliaque a jure Sarracenis deferri prohibita 
quoquomodo, vel etiam absque spetiali ipsius Alfonsi Regis et successorum 
suorum et infantis licentia, merces et alia a jure permissa deferre, aut per 
maria hujusmodi navigare, seu deferri vel navigari facere, aut in illis 
piscari, seu de provinciis, insulis, portibus, maribus, et locis, seu aliquibus 
eorum, aut de conquesta hujusmodi se intromittere, vel aliquid per quod 
Alfonsus Rex et successores sui et infans predicti quo minus acquisita et 
possessa pacifice possideant, ac conquestam hujusmodi prosequantur et 
faciant, per se vel alium seu alios, directe vel indirecte, opere vel consilio, 
facere, aut impedire quoquo modo presumant. Qui vero contrarium fecerint, 
ultra penas contra deferentes arma et alia prohibita Sarracenis quibuscunque 
a jure promulgatas, quas illos incurrere volumus ipso facto, si persone fuerint, 
singulares excommunicationis sententiam incurrant, si communitas vel uni- 
versitas civitatis, castri, ville, seu loci, ipsa civitas, castrum, villa, seu locus 
interdicto subjaceant eo ipso ; nee contrafacientes ipsi vel aliqui eorum ab 
excommunicationis sententia absolvantur, nee interdicti hujusmodi relaxa- 
tionem, apostolica vel alia quavis auctoritate obtinere possint, nisi ipsis Al 
fonso et successoribus suis ac infanti prius pro premissis congrue satis fecerint, 
aut desuper amicabiliter concordaverint cum eisdem. Mandantes per apos 
tolica scripta venerabilibus fratribus nostris Archiepiscopo Ulixbonensi et 
Silvensi ac Ceptensi Episcopis, 48 quatenus ipsi vel duo aut unus eorum, per se 
vel alium seu alios, quotiens pro parte Alfonsi Regis et illius successorum ac 
infantis predictorum vel alicujus eorum desuper fuerint requisiti, vel aliquis 
ipsorum fuerit requisitus, illos quos excommunicationis et interdicti senten- 
tias hujusmodi incurrisse constiterit, tamdiu dominicis aliisque festivis diebus 

"The executory instrument (executoria) issued by Dom Jayme, archbishop of 
Lisbon, and Alvaro, bishop of Silves, as executors (juizes executores} of this bull, is 
preserved in the National Archives at Lisbon, Coll. de Bullas, maco 32, no. 10. The 
similar instrument issued by Joao, bishop of Ceuta, is in the same archives, Coll. de 
Bullas, mac,o 33, no. 14. Both instruments include the text of the bull. 



20 Doc. i. The Bull Romanus Pontifex 

in ecclesiis, dum inibi major populi multitude convenerit ad divina, excom 
municates et interdictos aliisque penis predictis innodatos fuisse et esse, 
auctoritate apostolica declarent et denuntient ; nee non ab aliis nuntiari et ab 
omnibus arctius evitari faciant, donee pro premissis satis fecerint seu con- 
cordaverint, tit pref ertur ; contradictores per censuram ecclesiasticam, appel- 
latione postposita, compescendo, non obstantibus constitutionibus et ordina- 
tionibus apostolicis ceterisque contrariis quibuscunque. Ceterum, ne presentes 
littere, que a nobis de nostra certa scientia et matura desuper deliberatione 
prehabita emanarunt, ut prefertur, de surreptionis vel obreptionis aut nulli- 
tatis vitio a quoquam imposterum valeant impugnari, volumus, et auctoritate, 
scientia, ac potestate predictis, harum serie decernimus pariter et declaramus, 
quod dicte littere et in eis contenta de surreptionis, obreptionis, vel nullitatis, 
etiam ex ordinarie vel alterius cujuscunque potestatis, aut quovis alio defectu, 
impugnari, illarumque effectus retardari vel impediri nullatenus possint, sed 
imperpetuum valeant, ac plenam obtineant roboris firmitatem ; irritum quoque 
sit et inane si secus super hiis a quoquam quavis auctoritate, scienter vel 
ignoranter, contigerit attemptari. Et insuper, quia dificile foret presentes 
nostras litteras ad quecunque loca deferre, volumus, et dicta auctoritate 
harum serie decernimus, quod earum transumpto, manu publica et sigillo 
episcopalis vel alicujus superioris ecclesiastice curie munito, plena fides 
adhibeatur et perinde stetur, ac si dicte originales littere forent exhibite vel 
ostense ; et excommunicationis alieque sententie in illis contente infra duos 
menses, computandos a die qua ipse presentes littere seu carte vel membrane 
earum tenorem in se continentes valvis ecclesie Ulixbonensi affixe fuerint, 
perinde omnes et singulos contra facientes supradictos ligent, ac si ipse pre 
sentes littere eis personaliter et legitime intimate ac presentate fuissent. 
Nulli ergo onmino hominum liceat hanc paginam nostre declarationis, con- 
stitutionis, donationis, concessionis, appropriationis, decreti, obsecrationis, 
exhortationis, injunctionis, inhibitionis, mandati, et voluntatis infringere, 
vel ei ausu temerario contraire. Si quis autem hoc attemptare presumpserit, 
indignationem Omnipotentis Dei et beatorum Petri et Pauli apostolorum ejus 
se noverit incursurum. Datum Rome apud Sanctum Petrum, anno Incar- 
nationis Dominice millessimo quadringentesimo quinquagesimo quarto, 44 sexto 
idus Januarii, pontificatus nostri anno octavo. 

PE. DE NoxETo. 45 

TRANSLATION. 4 " 

Nicholas, bishop, servant of the servants of God. For a perpetual re 
membrance. 

The Roman pontiff, successor of the key-bearer of the heavenly kingdom 
and vicar of Jesus Christ, contemplating with a father s mind all the several 
climes of the world and the characteristics of all the nations dwelling in them 

44 In the dating of papal bulls, up to the pontificate of Innocent XII. (1691-1700), 
the 25th of March was usually reckoned as the beginning of the year. A. Giry, Manuel 
de Diplomatique (1894), p. 696. According to our present reckoning, therefore, this 
bull dates from the year 1455. 

49 Pietro da Noceto was the private secretary and confidant of Nicholas V. L. von 
Pastor, Geschichte der P dpste, I. (1901), 365. 

The bull bears the usual official endorsement " Registrata in camera apostolica". 

49 In this translation the editor has been aided by Bollan s translation, mentioned in 
the bibliography, and by valuable suggestions from C. G. Bayne, C. S. I. 



21 

and seeking and desiring the salvation of all, wholesomely ordains and dis 
poses upon careful deliberation those things which he sees will be agreeable 
to the Divine Majesty and by which he may bring the sheep entrusted to him 
by God into the single divine fold, and may acquire for them the reward of 
eternal felicity, and obtain pardon for their souls. This we believe will more 
certainly come to pass, through the aid of the Lord, if we bestow suitable 
favors and special graces on those Catholic kings and princes, who, like 
athletes and intrepid champions of the Christian faith, as we know by the 
evidence of facts, not only restrain the savage excesses of the Saracens and 
of other infidels, enemies of the Christian name, but also for the defense and 
increase of the faith vanquish them and their kingdoms and habitations, 
though situated in the remotest parts unknown to us, and subject them to their 
own temporal dominion, sparing no labor and expense, in order that " those 
kings and princes, relieved of all obstacles, may be the more animated to the 
prosecution of so salutary and laudable a work. 

We have lately heard, not without great joy and gratification, how our 
beloved son, the noble personage Henry, infante of Portugal, uncle of our 
most dear son in Christ, the illustrious Alfonso, king of the kingdoms of 
Portugal and Algarve, treading in the footsteps of John, of famous memory, 
king of the said kingdoms, his father, and greatly inflamed with zeal for the 
salvation of souls and with fervor of faith, as a Catholic and true soldier of 
Christ, the Creator of all things, and a most active and courageous defender 
and intrepid champion of the faith in Him, has aspired from his early youth 
with his utmost might to cause the most glorious name of the said Creator 
to be published, extolled, and revered throughout the whole world, even in 
the most remote and undiscovered places, and also to bring into the bosom 
of his faith the perfidious enemies of him and of the life-giving Cross by 
which we have been redeemed, namely the Saracens and all other infidels 
whatsoever, [and how] after the city of Ceuta, situated in Africa, had been 
subdued by the said King John to his dominion, and after many wars had 
been waged, sometimes in person, by the said infante, although in the name 
of the said King John, against the enemies and infidels aforesaid, not without 
the greatest labors and expense, and with dangers and loss of life and prop 
erty, and the slaughter of very many of their natural subjects, the said 
infante being neither enfeebled nor terrified by so many and great labors, 
dangers, and losses, but growing daily more and more zealous in prosecuting 
this his so laudable and pious purpose, has peopled with orthodox Christians 
certain solitary islands in the ocean sea, and has caused churches and other 
pious places to be there founded and built, in which divine service is cele 
brated. Also by the laudable endeavor and industry of the said infante, very 
many inhabitants or dwellers in divers islands situated in the said sea, coming 
to the knowledge of the true God, have received holy baptism, to the praise 
and glory of God, the salvation of the souls of many, the propagation also 
of the orthodox faith, and the increase of divine worship. 

Moreover, since, some time ago, it had come to the knowledge of the said 
infante that never, or at least not within the memory of men, had it been 
customary to sail on this ocean sea toward the southern and eastern shores, 
and that it was so unknown to us westerners that we had no certain knowl 
edge of the peoples of those parts, believing that he would best perform his 

47 /. e., if we bestow these favors, in order that. 



22 Doc. i. The Bull Romamis Pontifex 

duty to God in this matter, if by his effort and industry that sea might become 
navigable as far as to the Indians who are said to worship the name of 
Christ, and that thus he might be able to enter into relation with them, and to 
incite them to aid the Christians against the Saracens and other such enemies 
of the faith, and might also be able forthwith to subdue certain gentile or 
pagan peoples, living between, who are entirely free from infection by the 
sect of the most impious Mahomet, and to preach and cause to be preached 
to them the unknown but most sacred name of Christ, strengthened, how 
ever, always by the royal authority, he has not ceased for twenty-five years 
past 48 to send almost yearly an army of the peoples of the said kingdoms, 
with the greatest labor, danger, and expense, in very swift ships called 
caravels, to explore the sea and coast lands toward the south and the Ant 
arctic pole. And so it came to pass that when a number of ships of this 
kind had explored and taken possession of very many harbors, islands, and 
seas, they at length came to the province of Guinea, and having taken posses 
sion of some islands and harbors and the sea adjacent to that province, sail 
ing farther they came to the mouth of a certain great river commonly sup 
posed to be the Nile, and war was waged for some years against the peoples 
of those parts in the name of the said King Alfonso and of the infante, and 
in it very many islands in that neighborhood were subdued and peacefully 
possessed, as they are still possessed together with the adjacent sea. Thence 
also many Guineamen and other negroes, taken by force, and some by barter 
of unprohibited articles, or by other lawful contract of purchase, have been 
sent to the said kingdoms. A large number of these have been converted to 
the Catholic faith, and it is hoped, by the help of divine mercy, that if such 
progress be continued with them, either those peoples will be converted to the 
faith or at least the souls of many of them will be gained for Christ. 

But since, as we are informed, although the king and infante aforesaid 
(who with so many and so great dangers, labors, and expenses, and also 
with loss of so many natives of their said kingdoms, very many of whom 
have perished in those expeditions, depending only upon the aid of those 
natives, have caused those provinces to be explored and have acquired and 
possessed such harbors, islands, and seas, as aforesaid, as the true lords of 
them), fearing lest strangers induced by covetousness should sail to those 
parts, and desiring to usurp to themselves the perfection, fruit, and praise 
of this work, or at least to hinder it, should therefore, either for the sake of 
gain or through malice, carry or transmit iron, arms, wood used for con 
struction, and other things and goods prohibited to be carried to infidels, 
or should teach those infidels the art of navigation, whereby they would 
become more powerful and obstinate enemies to the king and infante, and the 
prosecution of this enterprise would either be hindered, or would perhaps 
entirely fail, not without great offense to God and great reproach to all 
Christianity, to prevent this and to conserve their right and possession, [the 
said king and infante] under certain most severe penalties then expressed, 
have prohibited and in general have ordained that none, unless with their 
sailors and ships and on payment of a certain tribute and with an express 
license previously obtained from the said king or infante, should presume to 
sail to the said provinces or to trade in their ports or to fish in the sea, 

ts It is probable that a viginti quinque annis should be translated " from twenty-five 
years [of age] ", i. e., from 1419. Cf. Bourne, Essays, p. 1/8. 



January 8, 1455 23 

[although the king and infante have taken this action, yet] in time it might 
happen that persons of other kingdoms or nations, led by envy, malice, or 
covetousness, might presume, contrary to the prohibition aforesaid, with 
out license and payment of such tribute, to go to the said provinces, and in 
the provinces, harbors, islands, and sea, so acquired, to sail, trade, and fash ; 
and thereupon between King Alfonso and the infante, who would by no 
means suffer themselves to be so trifled with in these things, and the pre 
sumptuous persons aforesaid, very many hatreds, rancors, dissensions, wars, 
and scandals, to the highest offense of God and danger of souls, probably 
might and would ensue We [therefore] weighing all and singular the 
premises with due meditation, and noting that since we had formerly by 
other letters of ours granted among other things free and ample faculty to 
the aforesaid King Alfonso to invade, search out, capture, vanquish, and 
subdue all Saracens and pagans whatsoever, and other enemies of Christ 
wheresoever placed, and the kingdoms, dukedoms, principalities, dominions, 
possessions, and all movable and immovable goods whatsoever held and pos 
sessed by them and to reduce their persons to perpetual slavery, and to apply 
and appropriate to himself and his successors the kingdoms, dukedoms, 
counties, principalities, dominions, possessions, and goods, and to convert 
them to his and their use and profit by having secured the said faculty, 
the said King Alfonso, or, by his authority, the aforesaid infante, justly and 
lawfully has acquired and possessed, and doth possess, these islands, lands, 
harbors, and seas, and they do of right belong and pertain to the said King 
Alfonso and his successors, nor without special license from King Alfonso 
and his successors themselves has any other even of the faithful of Christ 
been entitled hitherto, nor is he by any means now entitled lawfully to meddle 
therewith in order that King Alfonso himself and his successors and the 
infante may be able the more zealously to pursue and may pursue this most 
pious and noble work, and most worthy of perpetual remembrance (which, 
since the salvation of souls, increase of the faith, and overthrow of its 
enemies may be procured thereby, we regard as a work wherein the glory of 
God, and faith in Him, and His commonwealth, the Universal Church, are 
concerned) in proportion as they, having been relieved of all the greater 
obstacles, shall find themselves supported by us and by the Apostolic See 
with favors and graces we, being very fully informed of all and singular 
the premises, do, motu proprio, not at the instance of King Alfonso or the 
infante, or on the petition of any other offered to us on their behalf in respect 
to this matter, and after mature deliberation, by apostolic authority, and 
from certain knowledge, in the fullness of apostolic power, by the tenor of 
these presents decree and declare that the aforesaid letters of faculty (the 
tenor whereof we wish to be considered as inserted word for word in these 
presents, with all and singular the clauses therein contained) are extended 
to Ceuta and to the aforesaid and all other acquisitions whatsoever, even 
those acquired before the date of the said letters of faculty, and to all those 
provinces, islands, harbors, and seas whatsoever, which hereafter, in the 
name of the said King Alfonso and of his successors and of the infante, in 
those parts and the adjoining, and in the more distant and remote parts, can 
be acquired from the hands of infidels or pagans, and that they are com 
prehended under the said letters of faculty. And by force of those and of the 
present letters of faculty the acquisitions already made, and what hereafter 
shall happen to be acquired, after they shall have been acquired, we do by the 



24 Doc. i. The Bull Romanus Pontife.v 

tenor of these presents decree and declare have pertained, and forever of 
right do belong and pertain, to the aforesaid king and to his successors and 
to the infante, and that the right of conquest which in the course of these 
letters we declare to be extended from the capes of Bojador and of Nao, as 
far as through all Guinea, and beyond toward that southern shore, 4 has be 
longed and pertained, and forever of right belongs and pertains, to the said 
King Alfonso, his successors, and the infante, and not to any others. We 
also by the tenor of these presents decree and declare that King Alfonso 
and his successors and the infante aforesaid might .and may, now and hence 
forth, freely and lawfully, in these [acquisitions] and concerning them make 
any prohibitions, statutes, and decrees whatsoever, even penal ones, and with 
imposition of any tribute, and dispose and ordain concerning them as con 
cerning their own property and their other dominions. And in order to con 
fer a more effectual right and assurance we do by these presents forever 
give, grant, and appropriate to the aforesaid King Alfonso and his succes 
sors, kings of the said kingdoms, and to the infante, the provinces, islands, 
harbors, places, and seas whatsoever, how many soever, and of what sort 
soever they shall be, that have already been acquired and that shall here 
after come to be acquired, and the right of conquest also from the capes of 
Bojador and of Nao aforesaid. 

Moreover, since this is fitting in many ways for the perfecting of a work 
of this kind, we allow that the aforesaid King Alfonso and [his] successors 
and the infante, as also the persons to whom they, or any one of them, shall 
think that this work ought to be committed, may (according to the grant 
made to the said King John by Martin V., of happy memory, and another 
grant made also to King Edward of illustrious memory, king of the same 
kingdoms, father of the said King Alfonso, by Eugenius IV., of pious 
memory, Roman pontiffs, our predecessors) make purchases and sales of 
any things and goods and victuals whatsoever, as it shall seem fit, with 
any Saracens and infidels, in the said regions ; and also may enter into any 
contracts, transact business, bargain, buy and negotiate, and carry any com 
modities whatsoever to the places of those Saracens and infidels, provided 
they be not iron instruments, wood to be used for construction, cordage, 
ships, or any kinds of armor, and may sell them to the said Saracens and 
infidels ; and also may do, perform, or prosecute all other and singular things 
[mentioned] in the premises, and things suitable or necessary in relation to 
these ; and that the same King Alfonso, his successors, and the infante, in the 
provinces, islands, and places already acquired, and to be acquired by him, 
may found and [cause to be] founded and built any churches, monasteries, 
or other pious places whatsoever ; and also may send over to them any ecclesi 
astical persons whatsoever, as volunteers, both seculars, and regulars of any 
of the mendicant orders (with license, however, from their superiors), and 
that those persons may abide there as long as they shall live, and hear con 
fessions of all who live in the said parts or who come thither, and after the 
confessions have been heard they may give due absolution in all cases, except 
those reserved to the aforesaid see, and enjoin salutary penance, and also 
administer the ecclesiastical sacraments freely and lawfully, and this we 
allow and grant to Alfonso himself, and his successors, the kings of Portugal, 

"Vignaud, Toscanelti, p. 61, translates "extending thence beyond towards the dis 
tant shores of the south ". 



January 8, 1455 25 

who shall come afterwards, and to the aforesaid infante. Moreover, we en 
treat in the Lord, and by the sprinkling of the blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
whom, as has been said, it concerneth, we exhort, and as they hope for the 
remission of their sins enjoin, and also by this perpetual edict of prohibition 
we more strictly inhibit, all and singular the faithful of Christ, ecclesiastics, 
seculars, and regulars of whatsoever orders, in whatsoever part of the world 
they live, and of whatsoever state, degree, order, condition, or pre-eminence 
they shall be, although endued with archiepiscopal, episcopal, imperial, royal, 
queenly, ducal, or any other greater ecclesiastical or worldly dignity, that 
they do not by any means presume to carry arms, iron, wood for construc 
tion, and other things prohibited by law from being in any way carried to 
the Saracens, to any of the provinces, islands, harbors, seas, and places what 
soever, acquired or possessed in the name of King Alfonso, or situated in this 
conquest or elsewhere, to the Saracens, infidels, or pagans ; or even .without 
special license from the said King Alfonso and his successors and the infante, 
to carry or cause to be carried merchandise and other things permitted by law, 
or to navigate or cause to be navigated those seas, or to fish in them, or to 
meddle with the provinces, islands, harbors, seas, and places, or any of them, 
or with this conquest, or to do anything by themselves or another or others, 
directly or indirectly, by deed or counsel, or to offer any obstruction whereby 
the aforesaid King Alfonso and his successors and the infante may be 
hindered from quietly enjoying their acquisitions and possessions, and prose 
cuting and carrying out this conquest. 

And we decree that whosoever shall infringe these orders [shall incur the 
following penalties], besides the punishments pronounced by law against 
those who carry arms and other prohibited things to any of the Saracens, 
which we wish them to incur by so doing ; if they be single persons, they shall 
incur the sentence of excommunication; if a community or corporation of a 
city, castle, village, or place, that city, castle, village, or place shall be thereby 
subject to the interdict ; and we decree further that transgressors, collectively 
or individually, shall not be absolved from the sentence of excommunication, 
nor be able to obtain the relaxation of this interdict, by apostolic or any other 
authority, unless they shall first have made due satisfaction for their trans 
gressions to Alfonso himself and his successors and to the infante, or shall 
have amicably agreed with them thereupon. By [these] apostolic writings 
we enjoin our venerable brothers, the archbishop of Lisbon, and the bishops 
of Silves and Ceuta, that they, or two or one of them, by himself, or another 
or others, as often as they or any of them shall be required on the part of the 
aforesaid King Alfonso and his successors and the infante or any one of 
them, on Sundays, and other festival days, in the churches, while a large 
multitude of people shall assemble there for divine worship, do declare and 
denounce by apostolic authority that those persons who have been proved to 
have incurred such sentences of excommunication and interdict, are excom 
municated and interdicted, and have been and are involved in the other pun 
ishments aforesaid. And we decree that they shall also cause them to be 
denounced by others, and to be strictly avoided by all, till they shall have made 
satisfaction for or compromised their transgressions as aforesaid. Offenders 
are to be held in check by ecclesiastical censure, without regard to appeal, the 
apostolic constitutions and ordinances and all other things whatsoever to the 
contrary notwithstanding. But in order that the present letters, which have 
been issued by us of our certain knowledge and after mature deliberation 



26 Doc. i. The Bull Roman-its Pontifc.v 

thereupon, as is aforesaid, may not hereafter be impugned by anyone as 
fraudulent, secret, or void, we will, and by the authority, knowledge, and 
power aforementioned, we do likewise by these letters, decree and declare 
that the said letters and what is contained therein cannot in any wise be im 
pugned, or the effect thereof hindered or obstructed, on account of any defect 
of "f raudulency, secrecy, or nullity, not even from a defect of the ordinary, 
or of any other authority, or from any other defect, but that they shall be 
valid forever and shall obtain full authority. And if anyone, by whatever 
authority, shall, wittingly or unwittingly, attempt anything inconsistent with 
these orders we decree that his act shall be null and void. Moreover, because 
it would be difficult to carry our present letters to all places whatsoever, we 
will, and by the said authority we decree by these letters, that faith shall 
be given as fully and permanently to copies of them, certified under the 
hand of a notary public and the seal of the episcopal or any superior ecclesi 
astical court, as if the said original letters were exhibited or shown ; and we 
decree that within two months from the day when these present letters, or 
the paper or parchment containing the tenor of the same, shall be affixed to 
the doors of the church at Lisbon, the sentences of excommunication and the 
other sentences contained therein shall bind all and singular offenders as fully 
as if these present letters had been made known and presented to them in 
person and lawfully. Therefore let no one infringe or with rash boldness 
contravene this our declaration, constitution, gift, grant, appropriation, de 
cree, supplication, exhortation, injunction, inhibition, mandate, and will. 
But if anyone should presume to do so, be it known to him that he will incur 
the wrath of Almighty God and of the blessed apostles Peter and Paul. 
Given at Rome, at Saint Peter s, on the eighth day of January, in the year of 
the incarnation of our Lord one thousand four hundred and fifty-four, and 
in the eighth year of our pontificate. 

P. DE NOXETO. 



2. 

The Bull Inter Caetera (Calixtus III.). March 13, 1456. 

INTRODUCTION. 

Calixtus III., who succeeded Nicholas V. on April 8, 1455, was a Spaniard 
of fiery spirit and religious zeal, who exerted himself to the utmost to rouse 
the nations of Europe to a crusade against the Turk. For this purpose he 
despatched legates to many countries, 1 and among them he sent Alvaro, 
bishop of Silves, an executor of the bull Romanus pontifex and a man of 
great authority in the Roman Court, 3 as legate a latere to King Alfonso V. of 
Portugal. At the same time (February-March, 1456) he granted that 
monarch a number of concessions, 4 including the following bull, for which 
Prince Henry and Alfonso had petitioned. 

Besides confirming the bull Romanus pontife.v, this bull conferred upon the 
Portuguese military Order of Christ, 1 of which Prince Henry was governor, 
the spiritualities in all the lands acquired and to be acquired " from Capes 
Bojador and Nam through the whole of Guinea and beyond its southern 
shore as far as to the Indians . Whether the phrase " usque ad Indos " 
referred to the subjects of Prester John or to the East Indians remains a 
point of controversy/ 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Text: MS. An official copy of the bull, made on August 16, 1456, in the 
house of King Alfonso s master of requests, at the instance of the king s 
procurator, is in the National Archives in Lisbon, gav. 7 a , mac.o 13, no. 7. 

Text: Printed. J. Ramos-Coelho, Alguns Documentos (1892), pp. 20-22; 
L. M. Jordao, Bullarium* pp. 36-37. 

References. L. von Pastor, Geschichte der Pdpste, I. (1901) 655 ff. ; H. 
Vignaud, Histoire Critique* I. 205-206. 

1 Pastor, Geschichte der Pdpste, I. (1901) 660 ff. 
Doc. 1, note 43. 

* Damiao de Goes, Chronica de Joam II. (1567), c. 10. 
4 Santarem, Quadra Elementar (1842-1876) X. 59-64. 

1 See below, note 14. 

* Cf. note 3 in Beazley, " Prince Henry of Portugal and the African Crusade ", 
Am. Hist. Rev., XVI. 11-23. 

7 Vignaud, Histoire Critique, I. 205, 206; and cf. Doc. 1, note 30. 

* For fuller title, see the bibliography of Doc. 1. 



28 Doc. 2. The Bull Inter Caetera 

TEXT.* 

In nomine Domini, Amen. Noverint universi presens publicum instru- 
mentum inspecturi, quod anno a nativitate Domini millesimoquatuorcentesi- 
moquinquagesimo sexto, decimasexta mensis Augusti, coram egregio legum 
Doctore Lupo Valasci 10 de Serpa, illustrissimi domini nostri domini Al- 
fonsi, Portugalie et Algarbii regis Cepteque domini, et in ejus sacro pallacio 
supplicacionum expeditore, in presencia mei, notarii et testium infrascripto- 
rum, in domo habitacionis ejusdem doctoris, comparuit Alvarus Petri legum 
licentiatus et ejusdem Serenissimi Regis generalis et legitimus procurator 
et ejus nomine presentavit dicto doctori quasdam litteras apostolicas Calisti 
Pape Tercii, quasdam alias Nicolai Pape Quinti in se continentes, non viciosas, 
non rasas, non cancellatas, set omni suspicione carentes et sigillo plumbeo " 
sigillatas, quarum tenor de verbo ad verbum sequitur et est talis : 

Calistus episcopus, servus servorum Dei. Ad perpetuam rei memoriam. 
Inter cetera que nobis, divina disponente dementia, incumbunt peragenda. 
ad id nimirum solicit! corde rcddimur, ut singulis locis et presertim que 
Sarracenis sunt finitima, divinus cultus ad laudem et gloriam Omnipotentis 
Dei et fidei Christiane exaltacionem vigeat et continuum suscipiat incre- 
mentum, et, que regibus et principibus per predecessores nostros, Romanes 
pontifices, bene merito concessa sunt, [et] " ex causis legitimis emanarunt, ut, 
omnibus sublatis dubitacionibus, robur perpetue firmitatis obtineant, apos- 
tolico munimine solidemus. Dudum siquidem felicis recordationis Nicolaus 
Papa V., predecessor noster, litteras concessit tenoris subsequentis : 

[Here follows the bull Romanns pontifex, printed above, Doc. 1.] 

Cum autem sicut [nobis relatum est] " pro parte Alfonsi Regis et Henrici 
Infantis predictorum ipsi supra modum affectent quod espiritualitas in eisdem 
solitariis insulis, 13 terris, portubus, et locis in mari occeano versus meri- 
dionalem plagam in Guinea consistentibus, quas idem in fans de manibus 
Sarracenorum manu armata extraxit, et Christiane religioni, ut prefertur, 
conquesivit, prefate Militiae Jhesu Christi," cujus reddituum suffragio idem 
infans hujusmodi conquestam fecisse perhibetur, per Sedem Apostolicam 
perpetuo concedatur, ac declaratio, constitutio, donatio, concessio, appro- 
priatio, decretum, obsecratio, exhortatio, injunctio, inhibitio, mandatum, et 

* The text is from a copy of the bull made in the house of King Alfonso s master of 
requests at the instance of the king s procurator, on Aug. 16, 1456, and preserved in 
the National Archives at Lisbon, gav. 7*, mac.o 13, no. 7. 

" Lopo Vasques, a native of Serpa, stood high in the favor of King Alfonso, by 
whose order he translated from Latin into the vernacular a work entitled Tomada de 
Constantinople! pelo Grao Turco. D. Barbosa Machado, Bibliothcca Lusitana, III. 
(1752) 21. 

ir ln MS., pumblio. 

" Not in the MS. 

11 In MS., insolis. 

14 The Order of Christ was founded in 1319 by King Diniz in conjunction with Pope 
John XXII. and was endowed with the greater part of the wealth of the recently dis 
solved Order of the Templars. Prince Henry s African expeditions were made under 
its banner, and it was granted ecclesiastical and other revenues from many of the newly 
found lands, in the islands of the Atlantic, Africa, and the Far East. Since its growing 
wealth threatened to make it a danger to the kingdom, its grandmastership was perma 
nently united with the crown of Portugal in 1551. In 1789 it was secularized. For 
an account of this order to 1551 see H. da Gama Barros, Historia da Administrafao 
Publica em Portugal nos Seculos XII. a XV., I. (1885) 382-388. 



March 13, 1456 29 

voluntas, nee non littere Nicolai predecessoris hujusmodi, ac omnia et 
singula " in eis contenta confirmentur, quare pro parte regis et infantis pre- 
dictorum nobis fuit humiliter supplicatum, ut declarationi, constitution! , 
donationi, concessioni, appropriation!, decreto, obsecrationi, exhortationi, in- 
junctioni, inhibition!, mandato et voluntati, ac litteris hujusmodi et in eis 
contends pro illorum subsistentia firmiori, robur apostolice confirmations 
adjicere, nee non spiritualitatem ac omnimodam jurisdictionem ordinariam 
tani in predictis acquisitis quam aliis insulis, terris, et locis per eosdem regeni 
et infantem seu eorum successorem, in partibus dictorum Sarracenorum in 
futurum acquirendis, prefate militie et ordini hujusmodi perpetuo concedere, 
aliasque in premissis oportune providere de benignitate apostolica dignaremur. 
Nos igitur attendentes religionem dicte militie in eisdem insulis, terris, et 
locis, fructus afferre posse in Domino salutares, hujusmodi suplicationibus 
inclinati, declarationem, constitutionem, donationem, appropriationem, de- 
cretum, obsecrationem, exhortationem, injunctionem, inhibitionem, manda- 
tum, voluntatem, litteras, et contenta hujusmodi et inde secuta quecunque 
rata et grata habentes, ilia omnia et singula auctoritate apostolica tenore 
presentium, ex certa scientia, confirmamus et approbamus, ac robori perpetue 
firmitatis subsistere decernimus, supplentes omnes defectus, si qui forsan 
intervenerint in eisdem. Et nichilominus auctoritate et scientia predictis, 
perpetuo decernimus, statuimus, et ordinamus, quod spiritualitas et omnimoda 
jurisdictio ordinaria, dominium, et potestas, in spiritualibus duntaxat in 
insulis, villis, portubus, terris, et locis a capitibus de Bojador et de Nam usque 
per totam Guineam et ultra illam meridionalem plagam usque ad Indos, 
acquisitis et acquirendis, quorum situs, numerum, qualitas, vocabula, desig- 
nationes, confines, et loca presentibus pro expressis haberi volumus ad 
militiam et ordinem hujusmodi perpetuis futuris temporibus spectent atque 
pertineant; illaque eis ex nunc tenore, auctoritate, et scientia predictis con- 
cedimus et elargimur./ Ita quod prior major pro tempore existens ordinis 
dicte militie " omnia et singula beneficia ecclesiastica, cum cura et sine cura, 
secularia et ordinum quorumcunque regularia, in insulis, terris, et locis pre 
dictis fundata et instituta, seu fundanda et instituenda, cujuscunque qualitatis 
et valoris existant seu fuerint, quotiens ilia in futurum vacare contigerit, con- 
ferre et de illis providere ; nee non excommunicationis, suspensionis, priva- 
tionis, et interdicti, aliasque ecclesiasticas sententias, censuras, et penas, 
quociens opus fuerit ac rerum et negotiorum pro tempore ingruentium 
qualitas id exegerit proferre ; omniaque alia et singula que locorum ordinarii 
in locis in quibus spiritualitatem habere censentur de jure vel consuetudine 
facere, disponere, et exequi possunt et consueverunt pariformiter, absque 
nlla differentia facere, disponere, ordinare, et exequi possit et debeat, super 
quibus omnibus et singulis ei plenam et liberam tenore presentium concedimus 
facultatem, decernentes insulas, terras, et loca acquisita et acquirenda 
hujusmodi nullius " diocesis existere, ac irritum et inane si secus super hiis 
a quoquam quavis auctoritate scienter vel ignoranter contigerit attemptari, 
non obstantibus constitutionibus et ordinationibus apostolicis nee non statutis, 
consuetudinibus, privileges, usibus, et naturis dicte militie," juramento con- 
firmatione apostolica vel quavis alia firmitate roboratis, ceterisque contrariis 
quibuscunque. Nulli ergo omnino hominum liceat hanc paginam nostrorum 
confirmationis, approbationis, constitutionis, supplectionis, decreti, statuti, 

" In MS., singullo. " In MS., millitie. " In MS., nullus. a In MS., millitie. 



30 Doc. 2. The Bull Inter Caetcra 

orclinationis, voluntatis, concessionis, et elargitionis infringere vel ei ausu 
temerario contraire. Si quis autem hoc attemptare presumpserit, indigna- 
tionem Omnipotentis Dei ac beatorum Petri et Pauli apostolorum ejus se 
noverit incursurum. Datum Rome apud Sanctum Petrum, anno Incarna- 
tionis Dominice millesimo quadringentesimo quinquagesimo quinto," tertio 
idus Martii, pontificatus nostri anno primo. 

Quibus quidem litteris sic presentatis, prefatus procurator, nomine dicti 
Serenissimi Regis dicto doctor i exposuit quod pro servicio ejusdem regis 
oportebat ipsum habere unum vel plura transunta dictarum litterarum apos- 
tolicarum. Iccirco petebat per me notarium publicum infrascriptum, cum 
autoritate predicti doctoris sibi in publica forma concedi. Prefatus vero doc 
tor, auctoritate sui publici officii, sibi fieri mandavit. Acta fuerunt hace in 
civitate Ulixbonense, in predicta domo habitationis ejusdem doctoris, anno, 
mense, et die quibus supra, presentibus ibidem venerabilibus viris, ALFONSO 

JOHANNIS, DlDACO ALFONSI, PHILIPPO ALFONSI, et ALVARO MARTINI SCriptO- 

ribus in curia prefati Serenissimi Regis, testibus ad hoc vocatis specialiter 
et rogatis. 

Et ego, DIDACUS GONSALVI, regali auctoritate publicus notarius, predicta- 
rum litterarum, apostolicarum presentacioni, requisicioni, et auctoritatis 
prestationi, dum sic fierent et agerentur cum prenominatis testibus presens 
fui, et hoc presens publicum instrumentum manu propria scripsi, et me sub- 
scripsi et signo meo signavi. 

[Notarial sign.] 



TRANSLATION. 

In the name of God, amen. Be it known to all who shall examine the 
present public instrument that in the fourteen hundred and fifty-sixth year 
from the nativity of our Lord, on the sixteenth day of the month of August, 
in the presence of the eminent doctor of laws, Lopo Vasques de Serpa, 
master of requests in his sacred palace of the most illustrious lord, our 
lord Alfonso, king of Portugal and Algarve and lord of Ceuta, in the pres 
ence of me, the notary, and of the witnesses whose names are written below, 
Alvaro Pirez, licentiate of laws and general and lawful procurator of the 
said Most Serene King, appeared in the dwelling-house of the said doctor 
and in the king s name presented to the said doctor certain apostolic let 
ters of Pope Calixtus III., containing within them certain others of Pope 
Nicholas V., not defective, erased, or cancelled, but free from all suspicious 
indication, and sealed with a leaden seal, the tenor of which, word for word, 
is as follows : 

Calixtus, bishop, servant of the servants of God. For an abiding memorial. 
Among other works, which, by the merciful dispensation of Providence, it is 
incumbent upon us to accomplish, we are rendered deeply solicitous at heart 
with respect to this that in all places, and especially in those bordering upon 
the Saracens, divine worship may flourish to the praise and glory of Almighty 
God and the exalting of the Christian faith, and may obtain continual increase, 
and that by means of apostolic protection we may establish those grants to 

"Doc. 1, note 44. According to our present reckoning, 1456. 



March 13, 1456 31 

kings and princes, justly made by our predecessors the Roman pontiffs, and 
based on legitimate grounds, so that through the removal of all doubts they 
may possess perpetual validity. Indeed a short while ago Pope Nicholas V., 
of happy memory, our predecessor, granted letters of the following tenor : 

[Here follows the bull Romanus pontifex, Doc. 1.] 

Since, however, as has been reported to us on behalf of the aforesaid King 
Alfonso and the Infante Henry, they are extremely eager that ecclesiastical 
jurisdiction in the said solitary islands, lands, harbors, and places, situated 
in the ocean toward the southern shore in Guinea, which the said infante 
withdrew with mailed hand from the hands of the Saracens, and conquered 
for the Christian religion, as is stated, may be granted forever by the Apos 
tolic See to the aforesaid Order of Jesus Christ, by the support of whose 
revenues the said prince is asserted to have made this conquest ; and that the 
declaration, constitution, gift, grant, appropriation, decree, entreaty, exhor 
tation, injunction, inhibition, mandate, and will, and the letters of the said 
Nicholas,- our predecessor, and all and singular contained therein, may be 
confirmed ; therefore, on the part of the said king and infante we were humbly 
besought that we might be graciously pleased of our apostolic good-will to 
add the support of the apostolic confirmation to the declaration, constitu 
tion, gift, grant, appropriation, decree, entreaty, exhortation, injunction, 
inhibition, mandate, and will, and to the said letters and what is contained 
therein, in order to establish them more firmly ; and to grant in perpetuity to 
the military order aforesaid, ecclesiastical and all kinds of ordinary jurisdic 
tion, both in the acquired possessions aforesaid, and in the other islands, lands, 
and places, which may hereafter be acquired by the said king and prince or 
by their successor, in the territories of the said Saracens ; and otherwise, in 
respect to the premises, to make convenient provision. We, therefore, long 
ing that the religion of the said order may be able in the Lord to bear 
wholesome fruit in the said islands, lands, and places, influenced by these 
supplications, and considering as valid and acceptable the above-mentioned 
declaration, constitution, gift, appropriation, decree, entreaty, exhortation, 
injunction, inhibition, mandate, will, letters, and contents, and everything done 
by virtue thereof, through our apostolic authority and of our certain knowl 
edge, do confirm and approve them, all and singular, by the tenor of these 
presents, and supplying all defects, if there should be any therein, we decree 
that they remain perpetually valid. And moreover by the authority and with 
the knowledge aforesaid, we determine, ordain, and appoint forever that 
ecclesiastical and all ordinary jurisdiction, lordship, and power, in ecclesiasti 
cal matters only, in the islands, villages, harbors, lands, and places, acquired 
and to be acquired from capes Bojador and Nam as far as through all Guinea, 
and past that southern shore all the way to the Indians, the position, number, 
nature, appellations, designations, bounds, and localities of which we wish to 
be considered as expressed by these presents, shall belong and pertain to the 
said military order for all time ; and in accordance with the tenor of these 
presents, by the authority and knowledge aforesaid, we grant and give them 
these. So that the prior major, for the time being, of the said military 
order may and ought to collate and provide to all and singular ecclesiastical 
benefices, with or without cure of souls, and whether tenable by seculars or 
by regulars of whatsoever orders, founded and instituted, or to be founded 
or instituted, in the said islands, lands, and places, of whatever nature and 



32 Doc. 2. The Bull Inter Cactera 

value the benefices are or shall be, as often as they may fall vacant in the 
future. Also, he may and ought to pronounce ecclesiastical sentences, cen 
sures, and penalties of excommunication, suspension, deprivation, interdict, 
and other sentences, whenever the necessity may arise and the nature of 
affairs and the course of circumstances may require. And all and singular 
other acts which, in the places wherein the local ordinaries are held to possess 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction by law or custom, they are able or are accustomed 
to perform, determine, and execute, the prior major may and ought to per 
form, determine, order, and execute, in like manner and without any differ 
ence. In respect to all and singular these things, we grant him full and free 
faculty by virtue of these presents, decreeing that these islands, lands, and 
places, acquired and to be acquired, are included in no diocese and that, if 
it shall happen that anyone, by whatever authority, shall wittingly or un 
wittingly attempt anything in respect to these matters which is inconsistent 
with these provisions, it shall be null and void ; the apostolical constitutions 
and ordinances, also the statutes, customs, privileges, use, and natural rights 
of the said military order, though strengthened by oath, by apostolical confir 
mation, or by any other binding force, and any other things whatsoever, to the 
contrary notwithstanding. Let no one, therefore, infringe or with rash 
boldness contravene this our confirmation, approbation, constitution, comple 
tion, decree, statute, order, will, grant, and gift. Should anyone presume to 
attempt this, be it known to him that he will incur the wrath of Almighty God 
and of the blessed apostles Peter and Paul. Given at Rome, at St. Peter s, on 
the thirteenth day of March, in the year of the incarnation of our Lord one 
thousand four hundred and fifty-five, in the first year of our pontificate. 

These letters having been thus presented, the aforesaid procurator, in the 
name of the said Most Serene King, explained to the said doctor that for the 
service of the said king it was necessary that he should have one or more 
copies of the said apostolic letters ; therefore he asked that they be granted 
to him in public form, by me the undersigned notary public, with the authority 
of the aforesaid doctor. The aforesaid doctor by authority of his public 
office ordered it to be done. 

These things were transacted in this very city of Lisbon, in the aforesaid 
dwelling-house of the said doctor, in the year, month, and day above-men 
tioned, there being present the venerable men : ALFONSO YANES, DIOGO 
ALFONSO, FILIPPO ALFONSO, and ALVARO MARTINES, scribes in the court of 
the aforesaid Most Serene King, especially called and summoned to witness 
this ; and I, DIOGO GONQALVES, notary public, by royal authority, was present 
with the aforenamed witnesses at the presentation, examination, and guaranty 
of authority of the aforesaid apostolic letters, while they were thus made 
and prepared, and I wrote this present public instrument with my own hand, 
and I subscribed myself and signed it with my sign. 



3. 

Treaty betzveen Spain and Portugal, concluded at Alcaqovas, 
September 4, 1479. Ratification by Spain, March 6, 1480. 
{Ratification by Portugal, September 8, 1479.} 

INTRODUCTION. 

In 1460 the Infante Henry died and the sovereignty of the newly discovered 
lands became vested in the crown of Portugal. King Alfonso V., however, 
whose chief ambitions were to extend his Moorish conquests and annex 
Castile, did not directly concern himself with continuing the work of explo 
ration. This was left to private enterprise, and the impetus given by the 
infante gradually wore itself out, although the Guinea trade was actively 
prosecuted. 

In 1475 Alfonso invaded Castile, and, to strengthen his pretensions to that 
country, became betrothed to the Princess Joanna, Queen Isabella s rival for 
the Castilian crown. The resulting War of Succession extended beyond the 
limits of the peninsula into the Canary Islands, where the Portuguese aided 
the natives against the Castilians ; 1 and it gave the Castilians the chance to 
engage vigorously in trade with Guinea a country which, in spite of the bull 
Romanns pontifcx, they continued to claim. 2 As the result of preliminary 
negotiations held at Alcantara in March, 1479, between Queen Isabella of 
Castile and her aunt, the Infanta Beatrice of Portugal, the bases for a settle 
ment were laid, and it was agreed that a peace should be negotiated and con 
cluded in Portugal. 3 

In the following June, in pursuance of this agreement, Queen Isabella 
despatched Dr. Rodrigo Maldonado, of Talavera, a lawyer in whom she had 

1 J. de Viera y Clavijo, Ilistoria General de las Islas Canarias (1858-1863), II. 37. 

* Pulgar, Cronica, pt. II., cc. 62, 88. The Catholic sovereigns declared (1475) that 
" los Reyes de Espana tuvieron siempre la conquista de Africa y Guinea, y llevaron cl 
quinto de cuantas mercaderias en aquellas partes se resgataban ". Navarrete, Viages 
(1825-1837), I. xxxvii-xxxix, with which, however, compare Santarem, Recherches 
sur la Priorite (1842), p. 199. A few years later, but before the end of the war, they 
instructed their ambassadors in Rome to procure permission for themselves and those 
to whom they should give license " para que puedan contratar con los infieles que tienen 
la mina del oro e de la Guinea sin incurrir por ello en sentencia de excomunion." M. F. 
de Navarrete ct al., Coleccion de Documentos Ineditos para la Historia rf<? Espana 
(1842-), VII. 552. 

* For accounts of the peace negotiations, see the chronicles of Nunes do Liam, Ruy 
de Pina, and Pulgar, and J. B. Sitges, Enrique II . y Dona Juatia la Beltraneja. 

33 



34 Doc. j. Portugal Spain 

great confidence, as ambassador to Portugal with full powers to treat. 4 
On the side of Portugal, D. Joao da Silveira, baron d Alvito, was appointed 
plenipotentiary," but negotiations were principally directed by Prince John. 

On September 4 the plenipotentiaries concluded two treaties at Alcagovas. 
One, called the Tercerias, dealt mostly with dynastic matters ; * the second, a 
treaty of perpetual peace, incorporated and ratified the treaty of peace con 
cluded on October 30, 1431, between John I. of Portugal and John II. of 
Castile, and also included a number of additional articles. These related 
mostly to such matters as the restitution of places, release of prisoners, 
pardoning of offenders, demolition of fortresses, and suppression of rob 
beries committed on land or sea by the subjects of one crown against those of 
the other. But by the eighth of these additional articles, 7 Ferdinand and Isa 
bella bound themselves not to disturb Portugal in her possession of the trade 
and lands of Guinea, or of the Azores, Madeira, or Cape Verde Islands, or of 
any other islands in the region from the Canaries towards Guinea, and not to 
interfere in the conquest of Morocco. On the other hand, by the ninth article,* 
King Alfonso and Prince John ceded the Canaries to Castile. 

The treaty was apparently ratified by Alfonso and Prince John at Evora on 
September 8, I479- 10 It was ratified by Queen Isabella (King Ferdinand being 
absent in his kingdoms of Aragon) at Trujillo, on September 27, 1479;" 
proclaimed and published in the frontier cities of Badajoz and Elvas on 
September 15, and at Evora on September 30 ; " and was ratified by Ferdinand 
and Isabella at Toledo on March 6, 1480. 

Portugal at once took measures to secure her rights. On April 6, 1480, 
Alfonso ordered the captains of ships sent by Prince John to Guinea to capture 
such foreign ships as they might encounter within the limits laid down by the 
treaty of Alcagovas ("das Canarias pera baixo e adjante contra Guinea") 
and to cast their crews into the sea." In the following year the Pope confirmed 
the clause of the treaty that excluded foreigners from Guinea." 

* His powers are dated July 2, 14/9. Santarem, Quadro Elementar, I. 380. On the 
part taken by him in the negotiations, see Pulgar, Cronica, pt. II., c. 90. He was one 
of the signers of the treaty of Tordesillas, Doc. 9. 



8 His powers are dated Aug. 19, 1479. Santarem, he. cit. 
* This treaty is printed in full in J. B. Sitges, op. cit., app. 2. 



7 This is the article printed below. 

*It is interesting to notice that in summarizing the treaty the chroniclers, Ruy dc 
Pina and Nunes do Liam, describe Guinea as extending as far as the Indies " O 
Senhorio de Guinee, que he dos cabos de Nam e do Bojador atee os Yndios inclusiva- 
mente ", although no reference to the Indies is found in the treaty itself. 

9 Cf. Doc. 1, note 8. 

"This seems to be the correct interpretation of the evidence given in Harrisse, 
Diplomatic History, p. 2, and notes. 

11 A late copy of this ratification, preserved in the Biblioteca Nacional at Madrid, has 
been brought to the editor s attention by Professor R. B. Merriman. Cf. also Navarrete, 
Viages, I. xxxix, and Pulgar, op. cit., c. 91. 

"Santarem, Quadro Elementar, II. 377-378. 

"Algs. Does., p. 45. 

14 Doc. 4. 



Alcaqovas, 1479 35 

It was pursuant to this treaty that, in 1492, the Catholic sovereigns ordered 
Columbus not to go to La Mina ; and that, in 1493, tne King of Portugal 
claimed the lands discovered by Columbus as his own. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Text: MS. The original manuscript of the ratification, signed by Ferdinand 
and Isabella at Toledo, March 6, 1480, is in the National Archives at 
Lisbon, gav. 17, mago 6, no. 16. See also above, note 1 1 of this document. 

Text : Printed. Spanish. The whole of the treaty, except the formal pre 
liminary part, is printed in Joseph Scares da Sylva, Colleccam dos Docu- 
mentos, com que se Authorizam as Memorias para a Vida del Rey D. 
Joao o I., torn. IV. of Memorias para a Historia de Portugal, que com- 
prehendem o Governo del Rey D. Joao o I. (1730-1734), doc. no. 36, pp. 
270 ff. That Scares printed this treaty by mistake appears from a 
collation of his " doc. no. 36 " with the manuscript register entitled 
" Demarquacoes e Contractos ", preserved in the National Archives at 
Lisbon. Scares intended to print the treaty concluded on October 30, 
1431, between John I. (d. 1433) and the King of Castile, a copy of which 
covers ff. 142-165 of the above-mentioned register. Preceding this treaty, 
on ff. 113-140, is the treaty of Alcaqovas which confirms and partially 
incorporates the treaty of 1431. Soares s " doc. no. 36 " begins with f . 1 17 
of the register, i. e., with the treaty of 1431 as it stands in the treaty of 
Alca^ovas ; it continues through the treaty of Alcaqovas and through the 
first part of the original treaty of 1431, and ends at f. 146 of the register. 
The eighth and ninth articles of the " new articles " of the treaty of 
Alcac,ovas are printed in Alguns Documentos, pp. 42-45, from the above- 
mentioned register. 

Text: Printed. Portuguese. A Portuguese version of a portion of the 
eighth article is printed by H. Harrisse, Diplomatic History of America 
(1897), p. 156. 

Text: Printed. Latin. A Latin version of the eighth article is in the bull of 
June 21, 1481, Doc. 4. 

References : Contemporary and early writings. Ruy de Pina, Chronica do 
Rey Dom Affonso V. (1790), in J. F. Correa da Serra, Collecqao de 
Livros Ineditos de Historia Portuguesa, pub. by the Acad. Real das 
Sciencias, Lisbon, torn. I., c. 206; Nunes do Liam, Cronicas dos Reys 
(1780), torn. IV., c. 66; H. del Pulgar, Crdnica de los Reyes Catdlicos 
(1878), pt. II., cc. 89, 90, 91, in B. C. Aribau, Biblioteca de Autores 
Espanoles, torn. LXX. ; G. Zurita, Anales de Aragon ( 1578-1585), pt. II., 
lib. XX., c. 34, IV. 306-307; Viscount de Santarem (M. F. de Barros e 
Sousa), Quadro Elementar (1842-1876), I. 3/9-382, II. 368-378. 

References: Later writings. H. Schiifer, Geschichte von Portugal (1836- 
1854), II. 580-582, in Heeren and Ukert, Geschichte der Europdischen 
Staaten; H. Vignaud, Toscanclli and Columbus (1903), pp. 62-64; id., 
Histoire Critique de la Grande Entreprise de Christophe Colomb (1911), 
I. 207-211 ; Harrisse, Diplomatic History (1897), pp. 2-5; J. B. Sitges, 
Enrique IV. y la Excelente Senora Dona Juana la Beltraneja, 1425-1530 
(1912), pp. 331 ff. 



36 Doc. j?. Portugal Spain 

TEXT" 

Don Ferrando e Dona Ysabel, por la gracia de Dios rrey e rreyna de 
Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, de Cecilia, de Toledo, de Valencia, de Gallizia, 
de Mallorcas, de Sevilla, de (^erdena, de Cordova, de Corgega, de Murgia, de 
Jahen, de los Algarbes, de Algezira, et de Gibraltar, conde e condesa de Barce 
lona, senores de Viscaya et de Molina, duques de Atenas, e de N[e]opatria, 
condes de Ruysellon et de (^erdania, marqueses de Oristan e de Gogiano, 
fazemos saber a quantos la presente carta bieren, que por el Doctor Rodrigo 
Maldonado, oydor de la nuestra audiencia e del nuestro consejo, como nuestro 
procurador e enbaxador f ueron por nuestro mandado tratadas pazes perpetuas 
entre nos e los dichos nuestros rreynos e senorios e el muy ylustre Rey de 
Portogal e de los Algarbes de aquen e alien mar en Africa, nuestro primo, e 
el ylustre principe Don Juan, su fijo, e entre los dichos sus rreynos et senorios, 
las quales dichas pazes fueron primeramente tratadas por Don Juan de 
Silveyra, Varon Dalvito, del consejo del dicho Rey de Portogal, e escrivano 
de la poridat e veedor de la fazienda e changeller mayor del dicho Principe de 
Portogal, e por Pero Botello e Rodrigo Alfonso, cavalleros e del consejo del 
dicho Rey de Portogal, e despues fueron asentadas, firmadas, e juradas por 
el dicho Varon Dalvito, como procurador bastante e sufigiente delos dichos 
Rey e Pringipe de Portogal, e como su procurador e enbaxador, segund que 
mas conplidamente es contenido en la escritura de capitulation e asiento de 
las pazes que sobre ello fue fecha, en la qual entre otras cosas se contiene que 
cada e quando fuesemos requeridos por parte del dicho muy ylustre Rey de 
Portogal e del ylustre principe, su fijo, otorgariamos, confirmariamos, e 
jurariamos las dichas pazes por nuestras personas, e porque por Ferrando 
de Silva, del consejo delos dichos Rey e Pringipe de Portogal e su enbaxador 
e procurador, fuesemos requeridos, que otorgasemos e jurasemos e firmase- 
mos las dichas pazes segunt que por el dicho doctor, nuestro procurador e 
enbaxador, fueron otorgadas, firmadas, e juradas, nos mandamos venir para 
ante nos la dicha escritura dela dicha capitulacion e asiento delas dichas 
pazes para las ver e esaminar. El tenor de la qual de verbo ad verbo es este 
que se sigue : 

En el nombre de Dios Todo Poderoso, Padre, e Fijo, e Sp[irit]u Santo, tres 
personas rrealmente distintas e apartadas e una sola esengia divina, manifiesto 
e notorio sea a quantos este publico ymstrumento de confirmation e asiento, 
rreformagion et rreteficacion de pazes perpetuas vieren, que en el aiio del 
nascimiento de Nuestro Senor Jhesu Christo de mill e quatrogientos e setenta 
e nueve anos, a quatro dias del mes de Setienbre, en la villa de los Alcagovas, 
en las casas donde posava la muy ylustre Senora Ynfante Dona Beatris, en 
presengia de mi, el notario publico e general abaxo nonbrados e de los testigos 
aqui escritos, estando y el honrrado e discreto Doctor Rodrigo Maldonado, 
oydor del audiencia e del consejo de los muy altos e muy poderosos senores 
Don Ferrando e Dona Ysabel, rrey e rreyna de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, 
de Cegilia, de Toledo, de Valencia, de Gallizia, de Mallorcas, de Sevilla, de 
erdena, de Cordova, de Corgega, de Murcia, de Jahen, del Algarbe, e de 
Algezira, de Gibraltar, conde e condesa de Barcelona, senores de Viscaya e de 

15 This text is from the original manuscript of the ratification, signed by Ferdinand 
and Isabella, Mar. 6, 1480, preserved in the National Archives in Lisbon, gav. 17, 
mac.o 6, no. 16. 



Alcaqovas, 1479 37 



Molina, duques de Atenas e de Neopatria, condes de Ruysellon e de Cerdania, 
marqueses de Oristan e de Gocjano e del su consejo e su enbaxador e pro 
curador suficiente para lo abaxo escrito, e el honrrado Don Juan de Silveyra, 
varon Dalvito, del consejo del muy alto e muy poderoso senor Don Alfonso, 
por la gracia de Dios rrey de Portogal e de los Algarbes de aquen e alien mar 
en Africa, escrivano de la poridad, veedor de la fazienda e chandelier mayor 
del muy ylustre Principe Don Juan, su fijo prymogenito, heredero de los dichos 
rreynos e senorios, procurador bastante de los dichos senores de la otra parte, 
segunt amos mostraron por las procuraciones de los dichos senores sus 
costituyentes. 

[Here follow the powers granted by Ferdinand and Isabella to Rodrigo 
Maldonado, dated July 2, 1479, and the powers granted by King Alfonso 
and Prince Dom Joao, his son, to Joao, Baron d Alvito, dated August 19, 
1479. The ratification then continues :] 

E luego el dicho procurador de los dichos senores Don Ferrando e Dona 
Ysabel, rrey e rreyna de Castilla e dAragon, etc. dixe que por quanto entre 
los dichos senores sus costituyentes de la una parte e el dicho procurador de 
los dichos senores Rey e Principe de la otra, despues del fallescimiento del 
senor Rey Don Enrrique de gloriosa memoria, rrey que fue de Castilla e de 
Leon etc., fuera e al presente son grandes debates e quistiones, desengiones, e 
diferencjas yntitulandose los dichos senores Rey Don Ferrando e Reyna Doiia 
Ysabel, rrey e rreyna de Castilla de Leon de Portogal e de los Algarbes etc., 
e el dicho senor Rey Don Alfonso, rrey de Castilla e de Leon etc., lo qual diera 
principalmente causa a muy grandes e muy crudas guerras que oviere del 
dicho tienpo aca entre los dichos senores de que sesiguieran muchas muertes de 
ofnes, quemas, incendios e innumerables rrobos, fuergas, prisiones, rrescates, 
e otras ynjurias, ofensas de diversas calidades e tomamientos de cibdades e 
villas e lugares e fortalezas e muchas perdidas e danos, gastos e despensas e 
yntolerables males, en grande deservicio de Dios Nuestro Senor e delos dichos 
senores, e grant dano e detrimento de los dichos sus rreynos e senorios e 
subditos e naturales dellos, e que agora por que a nuestro senor provera por 
su ynfinita bondat de clemencia, como autor de paz. El qual el sienpre sobre 
todas cosas encomendo e mando procurar e guardar que la dicha senora 
Ynfante Dona Beatris por servicio suyo e delos dichos sefiores, e por la 
naturaleza e grandes deudos que con ellos tiene, trato e procuro con todas sus 
fuergas de tratar paz e conformidad entre ellos, e moviera e praticara algunos 
medios para los tirar de los dichos debates e diferencias, guerras e males, e 
dar asiento e paz entre ellos e los dichos senores movidos con zelo del servicio 
de Dios e del bien publico de los dichos rreynos e senorios e subditos e natu 
rales dellos, queriendo seguir las pazes de los bien aventurados rreyes de 
gloriosa memoria, sus progenitores, los quales tovieran de muy luengos e 
antiguos tiempos aca pazes ynviolablemente guardadas porsy e por los dichos 
sus rreynos e senorios e por conservar los grandes deudos que entre ellos ha 
e el mucho amor e conformidad que entresy e los dichos sus rreynos eran ante 
de las dichas guerras, e escusar que se non fagan mas males nin danos de 
aqui adelante, los quales de cada dia se yvan acrecentando, deliberan de con- 
firmar e reformar e asentar porsi e por sus subcesores e por los dichos sus 
rreynos e senorios entre ellos las pazes antiguas, con algunos nuevos capitulos 
e condicjones que para mejor guarda dellas eran nescesarias. Del qual con- 



38 Doc. 3. Portugal Spain 

trato de las pazes antiguas, con la rreteficacion e rreformacion e adigiones 
agora nuevamente f echas, el tenor es este que se sigue : 

[Here follows the ancient treaty of peace concluded in 1431 between 
John I. of Portugal and the Infante Dom Duarte his son, and the other 
infantes, and King John of Castile.] 

Comiengan los capitulos que nuevamente fueron fechas e anadydos e acre- 
cetadas a este trato de las pazes. 

[8.J Otrosy, quisieron mas los dichos seiiores Rey e Reyna de Castilla e de 
Aragon e de Segilia, etc., e les plogo para que esta paz sea firme, estable, e para 
sienpre duradera, e prometieron, de agora para en todo tienpo, que por si nin 
por otro, publico nin secreto, nin sus herederos e subcesores, non turbaran, 
molestaran, nin ynquietaran, de fecho nin de derecho, en juyzio nin fuera de 
juyzio, los dichos senores Rey e Pringipe de Portogal, nin los rreyes que por 
tienpo fueren de Portogal, nin sus rreynos, la posesion e casi posesion en que 
estan en todos los tractos, tierras, rrescates de Guinea, con sus minas de oro, e 
qualesquier otras yslas, costas, tierras, descubiertas e por descobrir, fallaclas 
e por fallar, yslas de la Madera, Puerto Santo, e Desierta, e todas las yslas de 
los Azores, e yslas de las Flores, e asy las yslas de Cabo Verde, e todas las 
yslas que agora tiene descubiertas, e qualesquier otras yslas que se fallaren o 
conquirieren de las yslas de Canaria para baxo contra Guinea, porque todo lo 
que es fallado e se fallare, conquerir o descobrir en los dichos terminos, 
allende de lo que ya es fallado, ocupado, descubierto, finca a los dichos Rey e 
Principe de Portogal e sus rreynos, tirando solamente las yslas de Canaria, a 
saber, Langarote, Palma, Fuerte Ventura, la Gomera, el Fierro, la Graciosa, 
la Grant Canaria, Tenerife, e todas las otras yslas de Canaria, ganadas o por 
ganar, las quales fincan a los reynos de Castilla ; e bien asy non turbaran, 
moslestaran, nin inquietaran qualesquier personas que los dichos tractos de 
Guinea, nin las dichas costas, tierras descobiertas e por descobrir, en nonbre o 
de la mano de los dichos senores rreys e pringipe, o de sus subgesores, nego- 
giaren, trataren, o conquirieren, por qualquier titulo, modo, o manera que sea 
o ser pueda. Antes, por esta presente, prometen e seguran, a buena fee, syn 
mal engano, a los dichos senores rrey e pringipe e a sus subcesores, que non 
mandaran por sy, nin por otro, nin consyntiran, ante defenderan que syn 
ligencia de los dichos senores Rey e Pringipe de Portogal non vayan a negogiar 
a los dichos tractos, nin yslas, tierras de Guinea, descobiertas e por descobrir, 
sus gentes naturales o subditos, en todo logar o tienpo, e en todo caso, cuydado 
o non cuydado, nin otras qualesquier gentes estrangeras que estovieren en sus 
reynos e senorios, o en sus puertos, armaren o se abitullaren, nin daran a ello 
alguna ocasion, favor, logar, ayuda, nin consentimiento, direte nin yndirete, 
nin consentiran armar nin cargar para alia en manera alguna. E sy alguno 
de los naturales o suditos de los rreynos de Castilla, o estranjeros, qualesquier 
que scan, fueren tratar, ympedir, danificar, rrobar, o conquirir la dicha 
Guinea, tractos, rrescates, minas, tierras, yslas della descobiertas o por des- 
cubrir, syn licencia e consentimiento espreso de los dichos senores rrey e 
pringipe, o de sus subgesores, que los tales scan pugnidos en aquella manera, 
logar, e forma, que es ordenado por el dicho capitulo desta nueva reformacion 
e rretificagion de los tractos de las pazes que se tenia e deve tener en las cosas 



Alcaqovas, 1479 39 



de la mar, contra los que salen a tierra en las costas, prayas, puertos, abras, a 
rrobar, danificar, o mal fazer, o en el mar largo las dichas cosas fazen. 1 

Otrosi, los dichos senores Rey e Reyna de Castilla e de Leon, etc., pro- 
metieron, otorgaron, por el modo sobredicho, por sy e por sus subcesores, 
que non se entremeteran de querer entender, nin entenderan en manera 
alguna, en la conquista del rreyno de Fez, como se en ello non enpacharan, nin 
entremeteran, los Reyes pasados de Castilla, ante libremente los dichos 
senores Rey e Pringipe de Portogal e sus reynos e subcesores, podran pro- 
seguir la dicha conquista, e la defenderan, como les ploguiere. E prometieron 
e otorgaron en todos los dichos senores rrey e rreyna, que por sy nin por otro, 
en juyzio nin fuera del, de fecho nin de derecho, non moveran sobre todo lo 
que dicho es, nin parte dello, nin sobre cosa alguna que a ello pertenesca, 
pleito, dubda, question, nin otra contienda alguna, ante todo guardaran, con- 
pliran muy enteramente e faran guardar e complir syn menguamiento alguno. 
E, porque adelante non se pueda alegar ynorangia de las dichas cosas vedadas 
e penas, los dichos senores rrey e rreyna mandaron luego a las justigias e 
oficjales de los puertos de los dichos sus rreynos, que todo asy guarden, e 
cunplan, e esecuten fielmente, e asy lo mandaran pregonar e publicar en su 
corte e en los dichos puertos de mar de los dichos sus rreynos e senorios, para 
que a todos venga en noticja. 

E el dicho Doctor Rodrigo Maldonado, en nombre y como procurador y 
enbaxador de los dichos senores Rey Don Fernando y Reyna Dona Ysabel, 
rrey y rreyna de Castilla, de Leon, d Arago, etc., sus senores, y el dicho Don 
Juan de Silveyra, baron d Alvito, en nombre y como procurador de los dichos 
senores Rey Don Alfonso, rrey de Portogal y de los Algarbes de aquen y de 
alien mar em Africa, y del dicho senor Principe Don Juan, su fijo, sus senores, 
por virtud del dicho poder que para ello tienen, que encima va encorporado, 
dixeron que asentavan y otorgavan y asentaron y otorgaron pases perpetuas 
entre los dichos senores, sus constituyentes, y sus rreynos y senorios, para 
que sera guardadas entre ellos perpetuamente, segund es contenido en el 
tracto de las pases antiguas con las dichas condiciones, segund y por la 
forma y manera que en esta escritura y capitulacion se contiene ; y dixeron 
que sy nec,essario y complidero hera pera mayor validacion que aprovavan y 
reformavan y ennovavan, como de fecho aprovavan y reformavan y rrecti- 
ficavan y ennovavan el dicho tracto de las pases antiguas como en el se 
contiene, enquanto es necessario y complidero o conviniente al tienpo presente 
con las dichas adiciones a ellas por ellos fechas. E prometieron y se obligaron, 
uno a otro y otro a otro, en nombre de los dichos senores sus constituientes, 
que ellos y sus [subjcessores en los dichos sus rreynos y senorios ternan y 
guardaran para agora y para siempre jamas las dichas pases segund y por la 
forma y manera que en esta escritura se contiene syn arte y sin engano y 
sin cautela alguna, y no yran nyn vernan nyn consentyran nyn permitiran que 
sea ydo nyn venido contra lo en ella contenido nyn parte alguna dello direte 
ny indirete por nynguna causa, color, ny rason alguno que sea o ser pueda, 
pensado o por pensar, y sy lo contrario fisieren, lo que Dios no quiera, que por 
el mesmo fecho yncurra la parte que lo fisiere en pena de tresientas mil doblas 

M The treaties of Oct. 30, 1431. The article referred to is art. 7 of the " new articles ". 
It is printed in Sylva, Memorias, torn. IV., doc. no. 36, pp. 327-329, and in abstract in 
Santarem, Quadro Elementar, II. 372-374. In the latter work, article 7 includes also 
article 8, according to the numbering adopted above. In the manuscript treaty the 
articles are not numbered. 



40 Doc. 5. Portugal Spain 

de oro de la vanda de buen oro y justo peso para la otra parte obediente. Las 
quales prometieron y se obligaron que pagaran rrealmente y con efecto a la 
parte que en la dicha pena encurriese a la otra parte obediente luego tanto que 
en ella cay ere syn contienda de juizio. E pagada la dicha pena o non pagada o 
remetida sinque poende " el dicho contracto de las dichas pases firme e vale- 
dero para syempre jamas. 

Otrosy dixeron que rrenunciavan y rrenunciaron en nonbre de los dichos 
senores sus constituyentes todas alegaciones, excepciones, y todos rremedios 
juridicos y beneficios, auxilios ordinarios y extra ordinaries, que a los dichos 
senores constituyentes y a cada uno d ellos compete podrian pertenescer agora 
y en qualquier tiempo de aqui adelante para anular o rrevocar o enfrengir, 
en todo o en parte, esta dicha escritura de tracto, assyento, y rreformacion 
y rretificacion de las dichas pases con las dichas adiciones por ellos fechas 
o por difirir o impedir el efecto dellas. E asy mismo rrenunciaron todos los 
derechos, leyes, costumbres, estilos, y fasanas y opiniones de doctores que 
para ello les pudiesen aprovechar en qualquier manera, especialmente renun- 
ciaron la ley y derecho que diz que general renunciacio non vala. Para lo 
qual todo asy tener y guardar y complir y pagar la dicha pena, sy en ella 
cayeren, obligaron los dichos procuradores los bienes patrimoniales y fiscales, 
muebles y raizes, avidos y por aver, de los dichos senores sus constituyentes 
y de sus subditos y naturales. E por mayor firmesa los dichos procuradores 
dixeron que juravan y juraron a Dios y a Santa Maria y a la serial de la cruz 
que tocaron con sus manos derechas, y a los Sanctos Evangelios do quier 
que estan, en nonbre y en las almas de los dichos senores sus constituyentes, 
por virtud de los dichos poderes que para ello especialmente tienen, que ellos 
y cada uno d ellos, por sy y por sus subcessores y rreynos y senorios, ternan 
y guardaran y faran tener y guardar perpetua y inviolablemente las dichas 
pases, segund que en esta escritura se contiene, a buena fe y sin mal engano, 
syn arte y syn cautela alguna. E que los dichos senores sus constituyentes, 
nyn alguno dellos, non pidiran por sy nyn por interpuestas personas abso- 
lucion, relaxacion, dispensacion, nyn comutacion del dicho juramento a 
nuestro muy Sancto Padre ny a otra persona alguna que poder tenga para 
lo dar y conceder. E puesto que proprio motu, o en otra qualquier manera 
le sea dado non usaran del. Ante aquello no embargante ternan y guardaran 
y compliran y faran tener y complir todo lo contenido en este dicho contracto 
de las dichas pases con las dichas adiciones y cada cosa y parte dello segund 
que en el se contiene fiel y verdaderamente y con efecto, y en testimonio de 
verdat otorgaron los dichos procuradores esta escritura y contracto de las 
dichas pases y pidieron a my el notario dello sendos instrumentos co mi 
publico signo y mas los que complideros fuesen para guarda del servicio de 
los dichos senores sus constituyentes. Testigos que a ello fueron presentes 
Fernando de Silvera del consejo del dicho senor Rey de Portogal y covdel- 
mayor de sus rreynos y el doctor Juan Texera del consejo y desembargo 
y de las peticiones y su vice chanceller y Pero Botello y Rodrigo Alfonso, 
cavalleros del dicho senor rrey y del su consejo, y otros. E yo, Juan Garcez, 
cavallero de la casa del dicho senor principe y su escrivano de su f asienda y 
de la fasienda del rregno del Algarve de alien mar en Africa, notario general 
y publico en todos los rreynos y senorios del dicho senor rrey, que juntamente 
com Benito Royz de Castro, escrivano de camara de los dichos senores Rey 

17 Quede porende ? 



as, 1479 41 

y Reyna de Castilla y de Aragon y etc., y con los dichos testigos a todo fue 
presente quando los dichos procuradores otorgaran esta escritura de capitu 
lacion y todas las cosas particularmente en ella contenidas. E fisieron el 
dicho juramento poniendo sus manos derechas sobre una crus y sobre tin 
libro de los Santos Evangelios. La qual dicha capitulacion y escritura yo, 
el dicho Juan Garces, fielmente fis escrevir en estas treynta y tres fojas atras 
escritas contando esta y fue fielmente emendada y corregida y reformada por 
ante los dichos procuradores segund se contiene en cada una foja signada 
por my y por el dicho Benito Roys de nuestros nonbres al pie della y por mi 
mano la sobre escrevi y sygne de mi publico serial que es tal. E yo Benito 
Roys de Castro, escrivano de camara de los dichos senores Rey y Reyna de 
Castilla y de Aragon etc. y notario publico en la su corte y en todos los sus 
rreynos y senorios, que por licencja y poder autoridad que me fue dada y 
otorgada por el dicho senor Rey de Portogal para dar fee y testimonio de 
verdad en el tracto de las pases y en todas las otras cosas que a ella per- 
tenescen, fui presente con el dicho Juan Garces y testigos engima nonbrados 
quando los dichos procuradores de los dichos senores otorgaram esta escritura 
y fisieron el dicho juramento, poniendo sus manos derechas en una crus y en 
un libro de los Santos Evangelios, y lo fis emendar en uno con el dicho Juan 
Garces segund suso va emendado. La qual va escrita en treynta y quatro 
fojas con esta en que va puesto esta my serial, y enfin de cada plana va puesto 
mi nonbre acostumbrado y lo signe de my serial que es tal. 

La qual escritura de assyento y capitulacion de pases vista y entendida por 
nos y por los del nuestro consejo y por los grandes y cibdades y villas de 
nuestros rreynos, la aprovamos, otorgamos, y confirmamos, y prometemos y 
juramos a la serial de la crus y a los Santos Evangelios por nuestras manos 
corporalmente tangidas, presente el dicho Fernando de Silva, enbaxador de los 
dichos senores Rey y Principe de Portogal, de complir y mantener y guardar 
esta dicha escritura de contracto de pases y todos los capitulos en ella con- 
tenidos y cada uno dellos a buena fee y syn mal engano, syn arte y syn cautela 
alguna, por nos y por nuestros herderos y subsessores y por nuestros rreynos 
y senorios, tierras, gentes, subditos naturales dellos, solas clausulas, pactos, 
obligaciones, penas, vinculos, renunciaciones en este dicho contracto y assy 
ento de pases contenidos, y por certenidat, corroboracion, y convalidacion de 
todo mandamos faser esta carta y la dar al dicho Fernando de Silva para 
la dar a los dichos senores Rey y Principe de Portogal. La qual firmamos 
de nuestros nonbres y mandamos sellar con nuestro sello de plomo pendiente 
en filos de seda a colores. Dada en la muy noble cibdad de Toledo, a seys 
dias del mes de marge, ano del nascimiento del nuestro Senor Jesu Christo 
de mill y quatrocientos y ochenta aiios. Non sea dubda onde disc en la 
segunda foja sobre raydo onde poz que las assentaredes y firmaredes. E en 
la tercera foja donde disc diez y nueve. E en la setena foja en la margem 
donde disc que destos nuestros rreynos viniere con el procurador del dicho 
Rey de Castilla. E en la tresena foja sobre raydo onde disc tractos. E en 
la catorzena entre renglones onde dis sus reynos. Lo qual todo fue emendado 
y corregido presente el dicho Fernando de Silva. E en la dosena foja sobre 
raydo onde dis sentencias. 

Yo, EL REY. Yo, LA REYNA. 

Yo, FERNAND ALVARES de Toledo, secretario del Rey y de la Reyna, 
nuestros senores, lo fise escrevir por su mandado. Registrada. ALFONSO 
SANCHES de Logrono, chanceller. 



42 Doc. 5. Portugal Spain 

TRANSLATION." 

We, Don Ferdinand and Dona Isabella, by the grace of God, king and queen 
of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Sicily, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, Majorca, Seville, 
Sardinia, Cordova, Corsica, Murcia, Jaen, the Algarves, Algeciras, and Gibral 
tar ; count and countess of Barcelona ; lord and lady of Biscay and Molina ; 
duke and duchess of Athens and Neopatras ; count and countess of Roussillon 
and Cerdagne ; marquis and marchioness of Oristano and Gociano : make 
known to all who shall see the present letter that perpetual peace between us 
and the said our kingdoms and lordships, and our cousin, the very illustrious 
king of Portugal and the Algarves on this side and beyond the sea in Africa, 
and his son, the illustrious prince, Dom John, and the said their kingdoms and 
lordships, was negotiated, at our command, by Doctor Rodrigo Maldonado, 
oidor of our audiencia and member of our council, acting as our representative 
and ambassador. The said peace was first negotiated by Dom Joao da Silveira, 
baron d Alvito, member of the council of the said king of Portugal and his 
private secretary, inspector of the treasury, and chancellor-in-chief of the said 
prince of Portugal, and by Pero Botello and Rodrigo Alfonso, knights and 
members of the council of the said king of Portugal. Afterward the peace 
was affirmed, signed, and sworn to by the said Baron d Alvito acting as a com 
petent and qualified representative of the said king and prince of Portugal, 
and as their representative and ambassador, as is set forth more fully in the 
instrument of agreement and treaty of peace which was made in regard to it. 
Among other things that instrument sets forth that whenever we should be 
notified on the part of the said very illustrious king of Portugal, and by his 
son, the illustrious prince, we should authorize, confirm, and swear to the said 
peace in our own person. And inasmuch as we have been notified by Ferrando 
de Silva, member of the council of the said king and prince of Portugal, and 
their representative and ambassador, to authorize, swear to, and sign the said 
peace, as it was authorized, signed, and sworn to by the said doctor, our repre 
sentative and ambassador, we ordered the said instrument of agreement and 
treaty of the said peace to be brought before us, in order that we might see and 
examine it. Its tenor, word for word, is as follows : 

In the name of God Almighty, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, three persons 
really distinct and separate, and one sole divine essence. Be manifest and 
publicly known to all who shall see it this public instrument of confirmation 
and agreement, revision, and rectification of perpetual peace which [was 
made] in the year of the nativity of our Lord Jesus Christ, 1479, on the fourth 
day of the month of September, in the city of Alcagobas, in the houses where 
the very illustrious infanta, Dona Beatrice, was lodging, in the presence of me, 
the notary public and general, below named, and of the undersigned witnesses, 
and being there the honorable and prudent doctor, Rodrigo Maldonado, oidor 
of the audiencia and member of the council of the very exalted and very 
powerful lord and lady, Don Ferdinand and Dona Isabella, king and queen of 
Castile, Leon, Aragon, Sicily, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, Majorca, Seville, 
Sardinia, Cordova, Corsica, Murcia, Jaen, the Algarve, Algeciras, and Gibral 
tar, count and countess of Barcelona, lord and lady of Biscay and Molina, 
duke and duchess of Athens and Neopatras, count and countess of Roussillon 
and Cerdagne, marquis and marchioness of Oristano and Gociano, member of 

"The translation is by Dr. J. A. Robertson. 



Alcafovas, 1479 43 

their council, and their ambassador and representative qualified to act in what 
is below written, and the honorable Dom Joao da Silveira, baron d Alvito, 
member of the council of the very exalted and very powerful lord, Dom 
Alfonso, by the grace of God, king of Portugal and the Algarves on this side 
and beyond the sea in Africa, private secretary to the king, inspector of the 
treasury, chancellor-in-chief of his firstborn son, the very illustrious prince, 
Dom John, heir of the said kingdoms and lordships, and qualified representa 
tive of the said lords of the other part as both showed by the procurations 
of their constituents the said lords. 

[Here follow the powers granted by Ferdinand and Isabella to Rodrigo 
Maldonado, dated July 2, 1479, and the powers granted by King Alfonso 
and Prince John, his son, to Joao, baron d Alvito, dated August 19, 1479. 
The ratification then continues :] 

And thereupon the said representative of the said lord and lady, Don Ferdi 
nand and Dona Isabella, king and queen of Castile, Aragon, etc., declared that 
inasmuch as since the death of the lord king Don Henry of glorious memory, 
former king of Castile, Leon, etc., there have been and are at present serious 
disputes, questions, discussions, and differences between his constituents, the 
said lord and lady of the one part, and the said representative of the said 
lords, the king and prince, of the other part, because the said lord and lady. 
King Don Ferdinand and Queen Dona Isabella called themselves king and 
queen of Castile, Leon, Portugal, and the Algarves, etc., and the said lord. 
King Dom Alfonso, called himself king of Castile, Leon, etc., which furnished 
the chief cause for very serious and very cruel wars that were waged here dur 
ing the said time between the said lords, and from which resulted the deaths of 
many men, conflagrations, fires, innumerable acts of violence, imprisonments, 
ransoms and other injuries, offenses of different kinds, the capture of cities, 
towns, villages, and fortresses, many losses and injuries, waste and expenses, 
and intolerable evils, to the great disservice of God our Lord, and of the 
said lords, and grave injury and detriment to the said their kingdoms and 
lordships, and the subjects and natives of the latter (and may this now be 
adjusted by our Lord, through His infinite goodness and clemency, as the 
Author of peace, for He always recommended and ordered that peace be pro 
cured and kept) and the said lady, Infanta Dona Beatrice, for His service 
and that of the said lord and lady, because of her relationship and great 
obligations toward them, tried and endeavored with all her might to obtain 
peace and harmony between them, and will set in motion and make use of any 
means whatsoever to free them from the said disputes and differences, and 
wars and evils, and cause agreement and peace between them the said lord 
and lady, moved with zeal for the service of God and for the public welfare 
of the said kingdoms and lordships, and the subjects and natives of them, 
and desirous of continuing the peace of their progenitors, the very fortunate 
kings of glorious memory, who had observed here an inviolable peace for 
themselves and for the said their kingdoms and lordships from very remote 
and ancient times, and in order to preserve the close relationship that exists 
between them, and the great love and harmony which reigned between 
themselves and the said their kingdoms before the said wars, and in order 
to avoid the occurrence of other evils and injuries from this time forward, 
and which are increasing daily, do determine to confirm, revise, and agree to. 
for themselves and their successors, and for the* said their kingdoms and 



44 Doc. J. Portugal Spain 

lordships, between them, the ancient peace, with certain new articles and 
conditions, which were necessary for the better keeping of it. Of that con 
tract of the ancient peace, with the rectification, revision, and additions now 
newly made, the tenor is this which follows : 

[Here follows the ancient treaty of peace concluded in 1431 between 
John I. of Portugal and his son, the infante Dom Duarte, and the other 
infantes, and King John of Castile.] 

The articles which were newly made, added, and appended to this treaty 
of peace commence : 

[8.] Moreover, the aforesaid King and Queen of Castile, Aragon, Sicily, 
etc., willed and resolved, in order that this peace be firm, stable, and everlast 
ing, and promised, henceforth and forever, that neither of themselves nor 
by another, publicly or secretly, or by their heirs and successors, will they 
disturb, trouble, or molest, in fact or in law, in court or out of court, the said 
King and Prince of Portugal or the future sovereigns of Portugal or their 
kingdoms, in their possession or quasi possession in all the trade, lands, and 
barter in Guinea, with its gold-mines, or in any other islands, coasts, or 
lands, discovered or to be discovered, found or to be found, or in the islands 
of Madeira, Porto Santo, and Desierta, or in all the islands of the Azores, 
or the islands of Flores, as well as the islands of Cape Verde, or in all the 
islands hitherto discovered, or in all other islands which shall be found or 
acquired by conquest [in the region] from the Canary Islands down toward 
Guinea. For whatever has been found or shall be found, acquired by con 
quest, or discovered within the said limits, beyond what has already been 
found, occupied, or discovered, belongs to the said King and Prince of 
Portugal and to their kingdoms, excepting only the Canary Islands, to wit : 
Langarote, Palma, Forteventura, Gomera, Ferro, Graciosa, Grand Canary, 
Teneriffe, and all the other Canary Islands, acquired or to be acquired, which 
belong to the kingdoms of Castile. And in like manner, [they promised] 
not to disturb, trouble, or molest any persons whomsoever, who, under any 
title or in any way or manner whatsoever, shall trade or traffic in or acquire 
by conquest the said trade of Guinea or that of the said coasts or lands, dis 
covered or to be discovered, in the name or under the authority of the said 
king and prince or their successors. On the contrary, by these presents, they 
do promise and assure, in good faith and without deceit, the said king and 
prince and their successors, that they will not, of themselves or through 
others, order or consent, but rather forbid, that any of their people, native 
or subject, in any place or at any time, or in any case, specified or not speci 
fied, or any other foreign people who might be within their kingdoms and 
dominions, or who shall be equipped or provisioned in their ports, go to 
traffic in the said trade or in the islands or lands of Guinea discovered or 
to be discovered. Neither will they give any occasion, favor, opportunity, 
aid, or consent, direct or indirect, for such trade, nor consent to equip or 
freight for those regions in any manner. And if any of the natives or subjects 
of the kingdoms of Castile, or any foreigners whosoever, shall traffic in, 
obstruct, injure, plunder, or acquire by conquest the said Guinea, or its trade, 
barter, mines, lands, and islands, discovered or to be discovered, without 
the express license and consent of the said king and prince or of their sue- 



Alcaqovas, 1479 45 

cessors, [they do promise] that all such shall be punished in the manner, 
place, and form ordained by the said article of this new revision and correction 
of the treaties of peace which hold and ought to hold in maritime affairs, 
against those who go by land along the coasts and shores, or in the ports and 
bays, to plunder, commit depredations, or do evil, or who shall do such things 
on the high seas. 

Moreover, the said King and Queen of Castile, Leon, etc., promised and 
agreed, in the manner abovesaid, of themselves and for their successors, not 
to presume to meddle, nor will they meddle in any manner, with the conquest 
of the kingdom of Fez, just as the former sovereigns of Castile did not 
obstruct it or meddle with it ; but the said King and Prince of Portugal and 
their kingdoms and successors shall be freely allowed to prosecute the said 
conquest and to defend it as they please. And the said king and queen 
promised and agreed faithfully that, neither of themselves nor by any other, 
in court or out of court, in fact or in law, will they raise against the above- 
said, nor any part of it, nor anything that pertains to it, any suit, doubt, 
question, or any other contention, but that, on the contrary, they will observe 
and fulfill everything strictly to the letter, and will have it observed and 
fulfilled without any diminution. And in order that no one in the future may 
allege ignorance of the said prohibitions and penalties, the said king and 
queen immediately ordered the justices and officials of the ports of the above- 
said their kingdoms faithfully to observe, fulfill, and execute everything as 
herein ordained, and such justices and officers shall so proclaim and publish 
it in their courts and in the said seaports of the abovesaid their kingdoms 
and dominions, so that all people may have notice of it. 

And the said Doctor Rodrtgo Maldonado, in the name of, and acting as 
the representative and ambassador of the said lord and lady, King Don 
Ferdinand and Queen Dona Isabella, king and queen of Castile, Leon, 
Aragon, etc., his master and mistress, and the said Dom Joao da Silveira, 
baron d Alvito, in the name of, and acting as the representative of his masters, 
the said lords, King Dom Alfonso, king of Portugal and of the Algarves on 
this side and beyond the sea in Africa, and of the said lord, his son, Prince 
Dom John, by virtue of the said power conceded to them for that purpose (as 
is above incorporated), declared that they agreed to and authorized, and 
they did agree to and authorize, perpetual peace between their constituents, 
the said lords, and their kingdoms and lordships, so that it may be kept per 
petually between them, as was set forth in the treaty of the ancient peace, 
with the said conditions, according to and in the form and manner as is 
set forth in this instrument and agreement. They declared that if it were 
necessary and obligatory for its greater validation, they approved, revised, 
and renewed, as in fact they did approve, revise, rectify, and renew, the said 
treaty of the ancient peace as is set forth in it, in so far as may be necessary, 
obligatory, and advisable at the present time, with the said additions made 
therein by them. They promised, and each bound the other mutually, in the 
name of their constituents, the said lords, that the latter and their succes 
sors, and the said their kingdoms and lordships will keep and observe for the 
present and for evermore the said peace according to and in the form and 
manner which is set forth in this instrument, without any deception, evasion, 
or mental reservation whatsoever. They will not oppose or violate, nor con- 



46 Doc. ?, Portugal Spain 

sent, nor permit that what is set forth in it be opposed or violated, or any 
part of it, directly or indirectly, under any motive, pretext, or reason what 
soever, or that may be imagined or that can be imagined. And should they do 
the contrary (which may God not permit), then by that very fact, the guilty 
party shall incur a fine of 300,000 gold doblas of the grade of good gold and 
of just weight [which shall be given] to the other, obedient, party. They 
promised and bound themselves to really and truly pay this sum the party 
which should incur the said fine to the other, obedient, party as soon as the 
fine should be incurred, without constraint of judgment ; and whether the 
said fine be paid or not, or whether it be remitted, the said contract of the 
said peace would still be firm and valid forever. 

Furthermore, they declared that they renounced, and they did renounce, 
in the name of their constituents, the said lords, all allegations, exceptions, and 
all legal remedies and beneficial aids, ordinary and extraordinary, which 
might rightly belong to their constituents, the said lords, or to any one of 
them, now or at any time hereafter, to annul, revoke, or infringe, in whole 
or in part, this said instrument of treaty, agreement, revision, and rectifica 
tion of the said peace, with the said additions made by them, or to postpone or 
prevent its operation. Likewise they renounced all rights, laws, customs, 
usages, actions, and opinions of doctors of which they might avail themselves 
for it in any way. Especially did they renounce the law and right which 
declares a general renunciation invalid. In order to keep, perform, and 
comply with all the above, and in order to pay the said fine, should it be in 
curred, the said representatives pledged the property, both patrimonial and 
fiscal, the chattels and the landed property owned or to be owned, of their 
constituents, the said lords, and of their subjects and natives. And for 
greater assurance, the said representatives, by virtue of the said powers 
which they have especially for it, declared that they took oath, and they did 
take oath, before God and Holy Mary, and on the sign of the cross, on which 
they placed their right hands, and on the holy gospels, wherever they may be, 
in the names and on the consciences of their constituents, the said lords, 
that they, and each one of them, for themselves and for their successors, and 
their kingdoms and lordships, will keep and observe the said peace, and 
cause it to be kept and observed, perpetually and inviolably, according as it 
is set forth in this instrument, in good faith, and without any evasion, decep 
tion, or mental reservation whatsoever. Their constituents, the said lords, 
or any one of them, will not ask of our very Holy Father, or of any other 
person who may have the power to grant and concede it, in their own name, 
or by means of persons acting as their agents, absolution, remission, dispensa 
tion, or commutation of the said oath. And even should this be granted 
proprio motu, or in any other manner, they will not avail themselves of it. But 
the rather, notwithstanding that, they will keep, observe, and perform, and 
cause to be kept and performed, all that is set forth in this said contract of the 
said peace with the said additions, and each and every part of it, as it is set 
forth therein, faithfully and truly, and actually. In testimony of the truth, 
the said representatives approved this instrument and contract of the said 
peace, and each requested of me, the notary who drew it, writs of it, with my 
public seal, and whatever else might be suitable for the observance of the serv 
ice of their constituents, the said lords. Witnesses of it, who were present, 
were Fernando de Silveira, member of the council of the said lord king of 
Portugal and master of the horse of his kingdoms, Doctor Joao Texera, 



Alcaqovas, 1479 47 

member of the council and disembargo and of petitions, and his vice-chan 
cellor, Pero Botello and Rodrigo Alfonso, knights of the said lord king and 
members of his council, and others. And I, Joao Garces, knight of the 
household of the said lord prince and his notary of his treasury and of the 
treasury of the kingdom of the Algarve beyond the sea in Africa, notary 
general and public throughout the kingdoms and lordships of the said lord 
king, who together with Benito Roys de Castro, notary of the high court of 
justice of the said lord and lady, king and queen of Castile, Aragon, etc., 
and with the said witnesses, was present throughout when the said representa 
tives approved this instrument of agreement and all the things particularly 
set forth in it. And they took the said oath by placing their right hands on 
a cross and on a book of the holy gospels. I, the said Joao Garces, caused 
this said agreement and instrument to be written down faithfully on these 
thirty-three leaves above written counting this leaf. It was faithfully 
amended and corrected and revised in the presence of the said representa 
tives, just as it is set forth on each single leaf, which was signed by me and 
the said Benito Roys with our names at the foot of it. With my hand 1 
wrote the wrapper and sealed it with my public seal, which is as follows. 
And I, Benito Roys de Castro, notary of the high court of justice of the 
said lord and lady, king and queen of Castile, Aragon, etc., and notary public 
in their court and throughout their kingdoms and lordships, by the per 
mission, power, and authority, which was granted and conceded to me by the 
said lord king of Portugal to attest and witness the truth of the treaty of 
peace and of all the other things which pertain to it, was present, together 
with the said Joao Garces and the witnesses abovementioned, when the said 
representatives of the said lords approved this instrument and took the said 
oath by placing their right hands on a cross and on a book of the holy 
gospels. I caused it to be corrected, together with the said Juan Garces, just 
as it is corrected above. It is written on thirty-four leaves, counting this 
leaf on which this my seal is placed. Finally on each leaf is written my 
customary name and I sealed it with my seal which is as follows. 

This instrument of agreement and treaty of peace having been seen and 
examined by us, by the members of our council, and by the grandees, cities, 
and towns of our kingdoms, we approve, assent to, and confirm it, and promise 
and swear, on the sign of the cross and on the holy gospels, on which we 
actually placed our hands in the presence of the said Fernando de Silva, am 
bassador of the said lords, king and prince of Portugal, to perform, maintain, 
and observe this said instrument of contract of peace, and all the articles con 
tained in it, and each one of them, in good faith, and without any evasion, 
deception, or mental reservation whatsoever, by us and by our heirs and suc 
cessors, and by our kingdoms and lordships, lands, peoples, and subjects 
natives of them, under the stipulations, agreements, obligations, fines, bonds, 
and renunciations contained in this said contract and treaty of peace. For the 
assurance, corroboration, and validation of all, we caused this letter to be 
written and delivered to the said Fernando de Silva, in order that he might 
give it to the said lords, the king and prince of Portugal. We signed the same 
with our names, and ordered it sealed with our leaden seal hanging from 
colored silken threads. Given in the very noble city of Toledo, on the sixth 
day of the month of March, in the year of the nativity of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, 1480. Let there be no doubt where it says on the second leaf above the 



48 Doc. 5. Portugal Spain 

erasure " onde poz que las assentaredes y firmaredes " ; on the third leaf where 
it says " diez y nueve " ; on the seventh leaf, where it says in the margin " que 
destos nuestros rreynos viniere con el procurador del dicho Rey de Castilla " ; 
on the thirteenth leaf, where it says above the erasure " tractos " ; and on the 
fourteenth leaf, where it says between the lines " sus reynos ". It was 
thoroughly corrected and revised in the presence of the said Fernando de 
Silva. And on the twelfth leaf, where it says above the erasure " sentencias ". 

I, THE KING. I, THE QUEEN. 

I, FERNANDO ALVAREZ de Toledo, secretary of the king and of the queen, 
our lord and lady, had it written by his command. Registered. ALFONSO 
SANCHEZ de Logrofio, chancellor. 



4. 

The Bull Aeterni Regis (Sixtus IV.}. June 21, 1481. 

INTRODUCTION. 

This bull is a confirmation by Pope Sixtus IV. of the bulls Romanus 
pontifex (1455) and Inter caetera (1456), sanctioning Portugal s claims to 
exclusive rights in Guinea ; and it also includes an important new concession, 
since it confirms that article in the recently ratified treaty of Alcagovas 
whereby the sovereigns of Castile promised not to disturb Portugal in Guinea 
or in certain of the Atlantic islands or in Morocco. The weight of papal 
authority was thus brought to bear against any attempt on the part of 
Castile to evade her agreement. 

Such a bull was of particular value to Prince John at this juncture. Appar 
ently the first bull of this kind issued since the death of the Infante Henry 
in 1460, it marks the beginning of a new stage in the history of African 
exploration. The Portuguese government had for a long time ceased to 
push forward the southern expeditions, but in 1481 they were energetically 
resumed by Prince John, who, even in the lifetime of his father, was charged 
with the government of the places in Africa and received the revenues from 
the Guinea trade. 4 Upon the death of Alfonso in August, 1481, the prince 
succeeded to the throne under the title of John II., and before the end of 
the year he despatched an expedition under Diogo d Azambuja to build the 
fort at Elmina, on the Gold Coast. 5 

In 1482 he sent ambassadors to urge King Edward IV. of England to 
prevent his subjects from sailing to Guinea. At about the same time Edward 
petitioned the Pope to permit Englishmen to trade in any part of Africa. 8 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Text: MS. The original manuscript of the promulgated bull is in the 
National Archives in Lisbon, Coll. de Bullas, mago 26, no. 10. 

Text: Printed. J. Ramos-Coelho, Alguns Documentos (1892), pp. 47-55 
(from the text inserted in the confirmatory bull of 1514) ; L. M. Jordao, 
Biillarhim Patronatus Portugalliae Regum (1868), pp. 47-52. 

Doc. 1. Doc. 2. Doc. 3. 

4 On May 4, 1481, Alfonso V. granted the prince the trade and fisheries of Guinea, 
and prohibited anyone from going or sending there without license from the prince. 
Algs. Docs., p. 46. 

*Ruy de Pina, Chronica d El Rei D. Joao II., c. 2; cf. Doc. 1, note 4. 

"R. Hakluyt, Principal Navigations (ed. 1903-1905), VI. 122-124; Col. State Papers, 
Venice (1864), I. 142. 

49 



50 Doc. 4. The Bull Actcrni Regis 

References: Contemporary and early writings. J. de Barros, Da Asia, I. 

(17/8), dec. I., liv. III., cc. I, 2. 
References: Later writings. H. Schafer, Geschichte von Portugal (1836- 

1854), III. 148, in Geschichte der Europaischen Staaten (ed. Heeren 

and Ukert). 

TEXT. 

Sixtus episcopus, servus servorum Dei. Ad perpetuam rei memoriam. 
Eterni Regis dementia, per quam reges regnant, in suprema Sedis Apostolice 
specula collocati, regum Catholicorum omnium, sub quorum felici gubernaculo 
Christifideles in justitia et pace foventur, statum et prosperitatem ac quietem 
et tranquillitatem sinceris desideriis appetimus, et inter illos pacis dulcedinem 
vigere f erventer exoptamus ; ac hiis que per predecessores nostros, Romanes 
pontifices, et alios propterea provide facta fuisse comperimus, tit firma 
perpetuo et illibata permaneant, et ab omni contentionis scrupulo procul 
existant, apostolice confirmationis robur favorabiliter adhibemus. 

Dudum siquidem ad audientiam felicis recordationis Nicolai Pape V., 
predecessoris nostri, deducto quod quondam Henricus, infans Portugalie, 
carissimi in Christo filii nostri, Alfonsi Portugalie et Algarbii regnorum regis 
illustris patruus 

[Here follows the rest of the confirmation of the bulls of January 8, 
1455, and of March 13, 1456, Docs. 1 and 2.] 

Postmodum vero, cum inter prefatum Alfonsum Regem et charissimum in 
Christo filium nostrum Ferdinandum Castelle et Legionis Regem illustrem, 
eorumque subditos, humani generis hostis causante versutia, guerre ali- 
quandiu viguissent, tandem, divina operante dementia, ad pacem et con- 
cordiam devenerunt, et pro pace inter ipsos firmanda et stabilienda nonnulla 
capitula 8 inter se fecerunt, inter que unum capitulum fore dinoscitur 
hujusmodi tenoris : * 

" Item voluerunt prefati Rex et Regina Castelle, Aragonie, et Sicilie, et 
illis placuit, ut ista pax sit firma et stabilis ac semper duratura, [et] pro- 
miserunt ex mine et in futurum quod nee per se nee per alium, secrete seu 
publice, nee per suos heredes et successores, turbabunt, molestabunt, nee 
inquietabunt, de facto vel de jure, in judicio vel extra judicium, dictos dominos 
Regem et Principem Portugalie nee reges qui in futurum in dicto regno 
Portugalie regnabunt nee sua regna, super possessione et quasi possessione, 
in qua sunt, in omnibus commerciis, terris, et permutationibus sive resignatis 
Guinee, cum suis mineriis seu aurifodinis, et quibuscunque aliis insulis, 
littoribus, seu costis maris, terris, detectis seu detegendis, inventis et in- 
veniendis, insulis de la Madera, de Portu Sancto, et Insula Deserta, et omnibus 
insulis dictis de los Agores, id est, Ancipitrum, et insulis Florum, et etiam 
insulis de Cabo Verde, id est, Promontorio Viridi, et insulis quas nunc 
invenit, et quibuscunque insulis que deinceps invenientur aut acquirentur, ab 
insulis de Canaria ultra et citra et in conspectu Guinee, ita quod quicquid 

7 The text is from the original manuscript of the bull, in the National Archives at 
Lisbon, Coll. de Bullas, mac,o 26, no. 10. 

The treaty of Alcagovas. 

The eighth of the " new articles " of the treaty of Alcaqovas. The Spanish text of 
this article is printed above, Doc. 3. 



June 21, 1481 51 

est inventum vel invenietur et acquiretur ultra in dictis terminis, id quod est 
inventum et detectum remaneat dictis Regi et Principi de Portugallia et suis 
regnis, exceptis duntaxat insulis de Canaria, Lanzarote, Lapalma, Forte- 
ventura, Lagomera, Ho Fierro, Ha Gratiosa, Ha Gran Canaria, Tanarife, 
et omnibus aliis insulis de Canaria, acquisitis aut acquirendis, que remanent 
regnis Castelle ; et ita non turbabunt nee molestabunt nee inquietabunt quas- 
cunque personas, que dicta mercimonia et contractus Guinee nee dictas terras 
et littora aut costas, inventas et inveniendas, nomine aut potentia et manu* 
dictorum dominorum Regis et Principis Portugallie vel suorum successorum 
tractabunt, negociabuntur, vel acquirent, quocunque titulo, modo, vel manerie 
quod sit aut esse possit. Immo, per istam presentem, promittunt et assecurant 
bona fide, sine dolo malo, dictis dominis regi et principi Portugalie et suc- 
cessoribus suis, quod non mittent per se nee per alios nee consentient, immo 
defendent, quod sine licentia dictorum dominorum regis et principis Portu 
galie, non vadent ad negociandum dicta commercia et tractus nee in insulis, 
terris Guinee, inventis vel inveniendis, gentes suas naturales vel subditos in 
quocunque loco et in quocunque tempore et in quocunque casu, opinato vel 
inopinato, nee quascunque alias gentes exteras que morarentur in suis regnis 
et dominiis, vel in suis portubus armarent vel caperent victualia et necessaria 
ad navigandum, nee dabunt illis aliquam occasionem, favorem, locum, 
auxilium nee assensum, directe vel indirecte, nee permittant armari nee 
onerari ad eundum illuc, aliquo modo. Et si aliqui ex naturalibus vel subditis 
regnorum Castelle vel extranei quicunque sint, irent ad tractandum, impedien- 
dum, damnificandum, depredandum, acquirendum in dicta Guinea et in 
dictis locis mercimoniorum et permutationum et mineriorum sen aurifodi- 
norum et terris et insulis que sunt invente et in futurum inveniende, sine 
licentia et expresso consensu dictorum dominorum, regis et principis Portu 
galie, vel suorum successorum, quod tales sint puniendi eo modo, loco, et 
forma quod ordinatum est per dictum capitulum istius nove reformationis 
tractatus pacis, que servabuntur et debent servari in rebus maritimis contra 
eos qui descendunt in littora, sin [us], et portus ad depredandum, damnifi 
candum, vel ad male agendum, vel in mari medio dictas res faciant. 10 Preterea, 
Rex et Regina Castelle et Legionis promiserunt et concesserunt, modo supra- 
dicto, pro se et suis successoribus, ut se non intromittant ad inquirendum et 
intendendum aliquo modo in conquesta regni de Fez, sicuti se non intro- 
miserunt reges antecessores sui preteriti Castelle, immo libenter dicti domini, 
rex et princeps Portugalie, et sua regna et sui successores poterunt prosequi 
dictam conquestam et earn defendant quomodo illis placuerit, et promiserunt 
et consenserunt in omnibus dicti domini, rex et regina Castelle, nee per se 
nee per alios, nee in judicio nee extra judicium, nee de facto nee de jure, 
non movebunt super premissis, nee in parte, nee super re que ad illud pertineat, 
litem, dubium, questionem, nee aliquam contemptionem, immo, totum pre- 
servabunt, complebunt integre et faciant observari et compleri sine aliquo 
def ectu ; et ne im posterum possit allegari ignorantia de vetatione et penis 
dictarum rerum contractarum, dicti domini miserunt illico justitiis ct offi- 
cialibus portuum dictorum suorum regnorum, ut totum quod dictum est 
servent, compleant, et fideliter exequantur, et mittant ad preconizandum et 
publicandum in sua curia et in dictis portubus maris eorum supradictorum 
regnorum et dominiorum, ut id perveniat ad eorum notitiam." 

10 Cf. Doc. 3, note 16. 



52 Doc. 4. The Bull Aeterni Regis 

Nos igitur, quibus cura universalis Dominici gregis celitus est commissa, 
quique ut tenemur inter principes et populos Christianos pacis et quietis 
suavitatem vigere et perpetuo durare desideramus, cupientes ut littere 
.Nicolai" et Calixti," predecessorum hujusmodi, ac preinsertum capitulum " 
necnon omnia et singula in eis contenta, ad Divini Nominis laudem et 
principum et populorum singulorum regnorum predictorum perpetuam 
pacem firma perpetuo et illibata permaneant, motu proprio," non ad alicujus 
nobis super hoc oblate petitionis instantiam, sed de nostra mera liberalitate 
ac providentia et ex certa scientia, necnon de apostolice potestatis plenitudine, 
litteras Nicolai et Calixti predecessorum hujusmodi, ac capitulum predicta 
rata et grata habentes, ilia, necnon omnia et singula in eisdem contenta, 
auctoritate apostolica, tenore presentium approbamus et confirmamus, ac 
presentis scripti patrocinio communimus, decernentes ilia, omnia et singula, 
plenum firmitatis robur obtinere ac perpetuo observari debere. Et nichilo- 
minus venerabilibus f ratribus, Elborensi " et Silvensi " ac Portugaliensi " 
Episcopis, per apostolica scripta, motu et scientia similibus, mandamus, 
quatinus ipsi vel duo aut unus eorum, per se vel alium seu alios, singulas 
litteras ac capitulum predicta, ubi et quando opus fuerit, solemniter publi- 
cantes, ac eisdem Regi et Principi Portugalie eorumque successoribus in 
omnibus et singulis premissis efficacis defensionis presidio assistentes, non 
permittant eosdem regem et principem et successores, contra premissa vel 
eorum aliquod, per quoscunque cujuscunque dignitatis, status, gradus, vel 
conditionis fuerint, molestari seu etiam impediri, molestatores et impedientes 
necnon contradictores quoslibet et rebelles, auctoritate nostra per censuram 
ecclesiasticam et alia juris remedia, appellatione postposita compescendo, non 
obstantibus, omnibus supradictis, aut si aliquibus, communiter vel divisim, 
ab Apostolica sit Sede indultum, quod interdici, suspendi, vel excommunicari 
non possint per litteras apostolicas non facientes plenam et expressam ac de 
verbo ad verbum de indulto hujusmodi mentionem. Nulli ergo omnino 
hominum liceat hanc paginam nostre confirmationis, approbationis, commu- 
nitionis, constitutionis, et mandati infringere, vel ei ausu temerario contraire. 
Siquis autem hoc attemptare presumpserit, indignationem Omnipotentis Dei 
ac beatorum Petri et Pauli apostolorum ejus se noverit incursurum. 

Datum Rome apud Sanctum Petrum, anno Incarnationis Dominice 
millesimo quadringentesimo octuagesimo primo, undecimo kalendas Julii, 
pontificatus nostri anno decimo. 

Jo. DE SALOS." 

P. DE MONTE." Jo. HORN." L. GRIFUS." 

11 The bull of Jan. 8, 1455, Doc. 1. " The bull of Mar. 13, 1456, Doc. 2. 

a The eighth of the " new articles " of the treaty of Alcagovas, Doc. 3. 

14 Cf. Doc. 1, note 38. 

w In 1481 Garcia Menezes was Bishop of Evora, the capital of the province of 
Alemtejo. C. Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, II. (1901). 

19 In June, 1481, Joao de Mello was Bishop of Silves, the ancient capital of the 
Moorish kingdom of Algarve. Ibid. 

" In 1481 Joao de Azevedo was Bishop of Oporto. Ibid. 

u The rescribendarius. An account of the functions of this and other officers of the 
papal chancery is given in L. Schmitz-Kallenberg, Practice, Cancellariae Apostolicae 
Saeculi XV. exeuntis (Mitnster, 1904). 

19 The computator. This official and the rescribendarius were concerned with the 
charge made for the instrument. Ibid., pp. 25 ff. 

20 The summista or summator, who noted any defects in the instrument. Ibid., 
PP- 36, 37- 

11 Leonardo Griffo, bishop of Gubbio, and papal secretary. Ibid., p. 37. 1 he bull is 
endorsed " Registrata in Camera Apostolica ". 



June 21, 1481 53 

TRANSLATION. 

Sixtus, bishop, servant of the servants of God. For a perpetual re 
membrance. 

Since, through the Eternal King s clemency, whereby kings reign, we have 
been placed in the most lofty watchtower of the Apostolic See, we earnestly 
seek the stability, prosperity, quiet, and tranquillity of all Catholic kings, 
under whose auspicious guidance Christ s faithful ones are cherished in 
justice and peace, and we fervently desire that sweet peace may thrive 
among them. Moreover we graciously apply the strengthening power of 
apostolic confirmation to what we find to have been done with that object 
by our predecessors, the Roman popes, and others, in order that it may 
remain forever firm, unshaken, and far removed from any risk of controversy. 

A short while ago, when it was brought to the hearing of our predecessor, 
Pope Nicholas V., of happy memory, that formerly Henry, the infante of 
Portugal, uncle of our most dear son in Christ, Alfonso, the illustrious king 
of the kingdoms of Portugal and Algarve 

[Here follows the confirmation of the bull of January 8, 1455, and the 
bull of March 13, 1456, Docs. 1 and 2.] 

Afterwards, however, when, through the craftiness of the enemy of human 
kind, war had raged for some time between the aforesaid King Alfonso and 
our dearest son in Christ, Ferdinand, the illustrious king of Castile and Leon, 
and their subjects, at length through the operation of divine clemency they 
reached peace and concord, and, for the purpose of strengthening and 
establishing peace between them, they concluded certain articles, one of which 
was to the following effect : 

" Item, the aforesaid King and Queen of Castile, Aragon, and Sicily, willed 
and resolved that this peace shall be firm and stable and everlasting, and they 
promised henceforth and forever that neither directly nor indirectly, neither 
secretly nor publicly, nor by their heirs and successors, will they disturb, 
trouble, or molest, in fact or in law, in court or out of court, the said King and 
Prince of Portugal or the future sovereigns of Portugal or their kingdoms 
in the status of possession or quasi-possession which they hold over all the 
trade, lands, and barter of Guinea, with its gold-mines, or over any other 
islands, shores, sea-coasts, or lands, discovered or to be discovered, found 
or to be found, or over the islands of Madeira, Porto Santo, and Desierta, 
or over all the islands called the Azores, that is, Hawks, and the islands of 
Flores, nor over the islands of Cape Verde (the Green Cape), nor over the 
islands already discovered, nor over whatever islands shall be found or 
acquired from beyond the Canaries, and on this side of and in the vicinity 
of Guinea, so that whatever has been or shall be found and acquired further in 
the said limits, shall belong to the said King and Prince of Portugal and to 
their kingdoms, excepting only the Canary Islands, [namely] Lanzarote, 
Palma, Forteventura, Gomera, Ferro, Graciosa, Grand Canary, Teneriffe, and 
all the other Canary Islands, acquired or to be acquired, which remain the 
possession of the kingdoms of Castile. And in like manner they will not 
disturb, trouble, or molest any persons whomsoever, who, under any title 
or in any way or manner whatsoever, shall trade or traffic in or acquire the 
said merchandise or trade of Guinea or the said lands, shores, or coasts, 
discovered or to be discovered, in the name or under the authority of the said 



54 Doc. 4. The Bull Aetcnii Regis 

lords, king and prince of Portugal, or of their successors. On the contrary, 
by these presents, they do promise and assure, in good faith and without 
deceit, the said lords, king and prince of Portugal, and their successors, that 
they will not, of themselves or through others, order or consent, but rather 
forbid that any of their people, native or subject, in any place or at any 
time, or in any case, imagined or not imagined, or any other foreign people 
who might be within their kingdoms and dominions, or who might be 
equipped or provisioned in their ports, go to traffic in the said trade, or in 
the islands or lands of Guinea, discovered or to be discovered, without the 
permission of the said King and Prince of Portugal. Neither will they give 
any occasion, favor, opportunity, aid, or consent, direct or indirect, for such 
trade, nor permit the equipment or freighting of expeditions for those regions 
in any manner. And if any of the natives or subjects of the kingdoms of 
Castile, or any foreigners whosoever, shall set about trafficking in, obstruct 
ing, injuring, plundering, or acquiring by conquest the said Guinea or its 
trade, barter, or mines, or the lands and islands, discovered or to be dis 
covered, without the express license and consent of the said lords, king and 
prince of Portugal, or of their successors, all such shall be punished in the 
manner, place, and form ordained by the said article of this new revision of 
the treaties of peace which will and ought to be observed in maritime affairs 
against those who land upon the shores, bays, or ports in order to plunder, 
commit depredations, or do evil, or who shall do such things on the high 
seas. 

" Moreover, the King and Queen of Castile and Leon, promised and 
agreed, in the manner abovesaid, for themselves and for their successors, 
not to concern themselves to interfere in any manner with the conquest of 
the kingdom of Fez, just as the former sovereigns of Castile, their prede 
cessors, abstained from meddling with it ; but the said lords, king and prince 
of Portugal, and their kingdoms and successors shall have a free hand to 
prosecute the said conquest and to defend it as they please. And the said 
lord and lady, king and queen of Castile, promised and agreed faithfully 
that, neither of themselves nor by any other, in court or out of court, in fact 
or in law, will they raise against this agreement, nor any part of it, nor 
anything that pertains to it, any suit, doubt, question, or any other con 
tention, but that, on the contrary, they will observe and fulfill everything 
strictly, and will cause it to be observed and fulfilled without any diminution. 
And in order that in the future ignorance might not be alleged of the prohi 
bition and penalties involved in the said matters, the said king and queen 
immediately ordered the justices and officials of the ports of their aforesaid 
kingdoms faithfully to observe, fulfill, and execute everything herein or 
dained, and to proclaim and publish it in their courts and in the said seaports 
of their aforesaid kingdoms and dominions, so that it might be universally 
known." 

We, therefore, to whom the care of all the Lord s flock is committed by 
Heaven, and who, as we are bound, desire sweet peace and tranquillity to 
flourish and endure forever between Christian princes and peoples, earnestly 
wishing that the letters of Nicholas and of Calixtus, our predecessors, and the 
article inserted above, and all and singular their contents, may remain stable 
and unimpaired forever, to the praise of the Divine Name and the lasting 
peace of the princes and peoples of each of the aforesaid realms : of our 



June 21, 1481 55 

own motion, not in compliance with any petition offered to us on this sub 
ject, but of our spontaneous liberality, foresight, and certain knowledge, 
and from the plenitude of apostolic power, considering the letters of Nicholas 
and of Calixtus, our predecessors, and the article aforesaid, as valid and 
acceptable, do, by apostolic authority and the tenor of these presents, approve 
and confirm them and everything contained in them and secure them by the 
protection of this present writing, decreeing that they, all and singular, ought 
to possess full authority and be observed forever. And, moreover, by our 
apostolic writings and on our motion and knowledge aforesaid, we command 
our venerable brothers, the bishops of Evora and of Silves and of Portugal, 
that they themselves, or two or one of them, by himself, or another or others, 
solemnly publishing each of the aforesaid letters and the article, where and 
when it shall be necessary, and assisting with efficacious protection the said 
King and Prince of Portugal and their successors, in all and singular the 
aforesaid, shall not permit the said king and prince and their successors to 
be molested or even hindered, contrary to the aforesaid, or any part of it, 
by anyone of whatsoever rank, position, degree, or condition he may be, 
restraining in our name all persons soever who obstruct, hinder, oppose, or 
rebel against the aforesaid, by ecclesiastical censures and other legal remedies, 
without permitting appeals, all [apostolic constitutions] to the contrary 
notwithstanding, even though an indult shall have been granted by the Apos 
tolic See to any persons, jointly or singly, declaring them to be exempt from 
interdiction, suspension, or excommunication by apostolic letters that do 
not make full and express and verbatim mention of the said indult. Let no 
one, therefore, infringe or with rash boldness contravene this our confirma 
tion, approbation, reinforcement, regulation, and mandate. Should anyone 
presume to do so, be it known to him that he will incur the wrath of Almighty 
God and of the blessed apostles Peter and Paul. Given at Rome, at St. 
Peter s, on the twenty-first day of June, in the year of the incarnation of our 
Lord one thousand four hundred and eighty-one, in the tenth year of our 
pontificate. 

J. DE SALOS. 

P. DE MONTE. J. HORN. L. GRIFUS. 



5. 

The Bull Inter Caetera (Alexander F/.). May 3, 1493. 

INTRODUCTION. 

Immediately upon learning of the discoveries made by Columbus and of 
the claims of Portugal thereto, 1 Ferdinand and Isabella appear to have des 
patched an account of the same to the court at Rome. In consequence of 
these and later representations, Pope Alexander VI., a native of Valencia, 
and a friend of King Ferdinand, 2 issued three bulls, dated May 3 and May 4, 
which were highly favorable to Spain. By the first, the bull Inter caetera of 
May 3, the pope assigned to the present and future sovereigns of Castile the 
lands discovered and to be discovered by their envoys and not previously 
possessed by any Christian owner. On the other hand, he safeguarded the 
concessions already made to Portugal with the proviso that by this gift " no 
right conferred on any Christian prince is hereby to be understood as with 
drawn or to be withdrawn ". The pope also commanded Ferdinand and 
Isabella to send men to instruct the inhabitants of these newly discovered lands 
in the Catholic faith and in good morals, and, following the precedent of the 
bull Romanus pontifex, 3 forbade anyone to go to them for trade or other 
purposes without special permit frorn the rulers of Castile.* He empowered 
the sovereigns of Castile to enjoy in respect to their discoveries the rights 
previously granted to Portugal in respect to hers, as if the terms of the grants 
to Portugal were repeated- in this bull. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Text: MS. and facsimile. The original manuscript of the promulgated 
bull is in the Archives of the Indies at Seville, Patronato i-i-i, no. I, 

1 See above, p. 9. 

1 There are many evidences of this pope s friendliness to Spain. Cf. Pastor, Ge- 
schichte der Papste, III. 515. H. Rossbach, Das Leben und die Politisch-Kirchliche 
Wirksamkeit des Bernaldino Lopez de Carvajal (1892). See also Vander Linden, 
" Alexander VI.", etc., American Historical Review, XXII. 13-15. 

Doc. I. 

4 It is noteworthy that the restrictions in respect to trade in the prohibited articles, 
which are emphasized in the bull Romanus pontifex (Doc. 1), are omitted here. There 
is plenty of evidence that about this time the Portuguese were finding the commercial 
restrictions imposed by the Church very onerous. Cf. the bulls of Sept. 13, 1496; July 
4, 1505 (see Doc. 1, note 21) ; and Apr. 2, 1506. L. A. Rebello da Silva, Corpo Diplo- 
matico Portuguez (Acad. Real das Sciencias, Lisbon, 1862 ), I. 59 ff., 97 ff. 

56 



May 3, 1493 57 

but it is not now kept in this bundle but is framed and hanging on the 
wall. Photographs of this manuscript are reproduced in the Am. Hist. 
Rev., vol. XIV., opp. p. 776; and in the Boletin del Centra de Estudios 
Americanistas de Sevilla, ano III., num. 7 (March-April, 1915). The 
text, as entered in the secret register of Alexander VI. in the Vatican 
Archives, is published in photographic facsimile in J. C. Heywood, 
Documenta Selecta e Tabulario Secreto Vaticano (1893), whence it is 
reproduced in J. B. Thacher, Columbus (1903-1904), II. 124-136. 

Text : Printed. The Vatican text is printed in Heywood, op. cit. ; Thacher, 
op. cit., II. 125-137; and G. Berchet, Fonti Italiane (1892-1893), I. 5-7 
(pt. III. of the Raccolta di Documenti published by the Reale Commis- 
sione Colombiana). A text from the Simancas Archives, where, in 
1797, Munoz discovered a copy of this previously unknown bull, is in 
Navarrete, Coleccion de Viages (1825-1837), torn. II., no. 17, pp. 23-27. 

Translations: English. Thacher, op. cit., II. 125-137; E. H. Blair and 
J. A. Robertson, Philippine Islands (1903-1909), I. 97-103. Spanish. 
Boletin del Centra de Estudios Americanistas de Sevilla, ano III., num. 7 
(March-April, 1915). 

References : Contemporary and early writings. F. Colon, Historie del 
S. D. Fernando Colombo (1571, etc.), trans, in Churchill, Collection 
of Voyages (1732), vol. II., pp. 501 ff., chs. 42, 43; B. de Las Casas, 
Historia de las Indias (1875), torn. I., c. 79, in Navarrete et al., Coleccion 
de Documentos Jneditos para la Historia de Espqna (1842 ), LXIL; 
G. Zurita, Historia del Rey Don Hernando (1580), lib. I., c. 29; A. de 
Herrera, Historia General de los Castellanos (1730), dec. I., lib. II., c. 4. 

References: Later writings. J. B. Munoz, Historia del Nuevo Mundo 
(1793), torn. I., lib. IV., 18 f. (an English translation of the Historia 
was published in London in 1797) ; O. F. Peschel, Theilung der Erde 
unter Papst Alexander VI. und Julius II. ( 1871 ) ; F. Ehrle, " Historische 
Gehalt der Papstlichen Abtheilung ", in Stimmen aus Maria-Laach, 
XLVI. (1894), 383-388; E. G. Bourne, Essays in Historical Criticism 
(1901), "Demarcation Line of Alexander VI."; H. Harrisse, Diplo 
matic History of America (1897), ch. III.; S. E. Dawson, "Lines of 
Demarcation of Pope Alexander VI." (1899), in the Transactions of 
the Royal Society of Canada, 2d ser., 1899, vol. V., 2, pp. 467 ff. ; J. B. 
Thacher, Columbus (1903-1904), II. 84 ff. ; A. Baum, Demarkationslinie 
Papst Alexanders VI. und ihre Folgen (dissertation, Cologne, 1890) ; 
K. Kretschmer, Die Entdeckung Amerika s (1892), pp. 300 ff. ; L. von 
Pastor, Geschichte der Pdpste, III. (1899), PP- 5 1 7~S 21 > H - Vignaud, 
Histoire Critique de la Grande Entreprise de Christophe Colomb (1911), 
II. 276 ff. ; H. Vander Linden, "Alexander VI. and the Demarcation 
of the Maritime and Colonial Domains of Spain and Portugal ", Am. 
Hist. Rev., XXII. 1-20. For further references, see J. Winsor, Narra 
tive and Critical History, II. (1886) 45, etc., and E. G. Bourne, Spain 
in America (1904), "Critical Essay on Authorities", in A. B. Hart, 
A merica n Natio n . 

* These are also the references for Docs. 6 and 7. 



58 Doc. 5. The Bull Inter Caetcra 

TEXT. 

Alexander episcopus, servus servorum Dei : carissimo in Christo filio 
Fernando regi et carissime in Christo filie Elisabeth regine Castelle, Legionis, 
Aragonum, et Granate illustribus, salutem et apostolicam benedictionem. 
Inter cetera Divine Majestati beneplacita opera et cordis nostri desiderabilia, 
illud profecto potissimum existit, ut fides Catholica et Christiana religio 
nostris presertim temporibus exaltetur, ac ubilibet amplietur et dilatetur, 
animarumque salus procuretur, ac barbare nationes deprimantur, et ad fidem 
ipsam reducantur. Unde cum ad hanc Sacram Petri Sedem, divina favente 
dementia, mentis licet imparibus, evocati fuerimus, cognoscentes vos, 
tanquam veros Catholicos reges et principes, quales semper fuisse novimus, 
et a vobis preclare gesta toti pene jam orbi notissima demonstrant, nedum id 
exoptare, sed omni conatu, studio, et diligentia, nullis laboribus, nullis 
impensis, nullisque parcendo periculis, etiam proprium sanguinem effundendo, 
efficere, ac omnem animum vestrum omnesque conatus ad hoc jam dudum 
dedicasse quenadmodum recuperatio regni Granate a tyrannide Sarrace- 
norum hodiernis temporibus per vos, cum tanta Divini Nominis gloria facta, 
testatur 7 digne ducimur non immerito, et debemus ilia vobis etiam sponte 
et favorabiliter concedere, per que hujusmodi sanctum et laudabile ac im- 
mortali Deo acceptum propositum in dies ferventiori animo ad ipsius Dei 
honorem et imperii Christiani propagationem prosequi valeatis. Sane ac- 
cepimus quod vos, qui dudum animo proposueratis aliquas terras et insulas, 
remotas et incognitas ac per alios hactenus non repertas, querere et hivenire, 
ut illarum incolas et habitatores ad colendum Redemptorem nostrum et 
fidem Catholicam profitendum reduceretis, hactenus in expugnatione et 
recuperatione ipsius regni Granate plurimum occupati, hujusmodi sanctum 
et laudabile propositum vestrum ad optatum finem perducere nequivistis ; 
sed tandem, sicut Domino placuit, regno predicto recuperate, volentes de- 
siderium vestrum adimplere, dilectum filium, Christoforum Colon, cum 
navigiis et hominibus ad similia instructis, non sine maximis laborious et 
periculis ac expensis, destinastis, ut terras remotas et incognitas hujusmodi, 
per mare ubi hactenus navigatum non f uerat, diligenter inquirerent ; qui 
tandem, divino auxilio, facta extrema diligentia, per paries occidentals, ut 
dicitur, versus Indos, in mari occeano navigantes, certas insulas remotissimas, 
et etiam terras firmas, 8 que per alios hactenus reperte non f uerant, invenerunt, 
in quibus quamplurime gentes, pacifice viventes, et, ut asseritur, nudi in- 
cedentes, nee carnibus vescentes, inhabitant ; et, ut prefati nuntii vestri 

* The text is from the original manuscript of the bull, preserved in the Archives of 
the Indies at Seville. The pressmark is Patronato, i-i-i ; but the manuscript is not in 
this legajo, but framed and hanging on the wall. To facilitate comparison with the 
bull Inter cactera of May 4, words in this bull which are not in the latter are printed in 
italics. The variant readings in the Vatican text are few and insignificant. 

7 The conquest of the kingdom of Granada was completed by the capitulation of the 
city of Granada on Jan. 2, 1492. 

* Columbus at first supposed Cuba to be part of the mainland, but he describes it as 
an island in the letter written on his homeward voyage, of which one copy was sent 
to Luis de Santangel, steward of King Ferdinand s household, and another to Gabriel 
Sanchez, treasurer of Aragon. Nearly all the data for the following description might 
have been taken from this letter, which was known in Rome before April 18. Harrisse, 
Diplomatic History, p. 160. A translation of the Santangel letter is given in J. E. Olson 
and E. G. Bourne, The Northmen, Columbus, and Cabot (1906), pp. 263-272, in J. F. 
Jameson s series of Original Narratives of Early American History. 



May 3, 1493 59 

possunt opinari, gentes ipse in insulis et terris predictis habitantes, credunt 
unum Deum Creatorem in celis esse, ac ad fidem Catholicam amplexandum 
et bonis moribus imbuendum satis apti videntur, spesque habetur quod, si 
erudirentur, nomen Salvatoris Domini nostri Jesu Christi in terris et insulis 
predictis facile induceretur ; ac pref atus Christoforus in una ex principalibus 
insulis predictis jam unam turrim * satis munitam, in qua certos Christianos 
qui secum iverant, in custodiam, et ut alias insulas et terras remotas et 
incognitas inquirerent, posuit, construi et edificari fecit; in quibus quidem 
insulis et terris jam repertis, aurum, aromata, et alie quamplurime res 
preciose diversi generis et diverse qualitatis repperiuntur. Unde omnibus 
diligenter, et presertim fidei Catholice exaltatione et dilatatione, prout decet 
Catholicos reges et principes, consideratis, more progenitorum vestrorum, 
clare memorie regum, terras et insulas predictas illarumque incolas et 
habitatores, vobis, divina favente dementia, subjicere et ad fidem Catholicam 
reducere [proposuistis]. 10 Nos igitur hujusmodi vestrum sanctum et lauda- 
bile propositum plurimum in Domino commendantes, ac cupientes ut illud 
ad debitum finem perducatur, et ipsum nomen Salvatoris nostri in partibus 
illis inducatur, hortamur vos plurimum in Domino, et per sacri lavacri sus- 
ceptionem, qua mandatis apostolicis obligati estis, et viscera misericordie 
Domini nostri Jhesu Christi attente requirimus, ut cum expeditionem 
hujusmodi omnino prosequi et assumere prona mente orthodoxe fidei zelo 
intendatis, populos in hujusmodi insulis degentes ad Christianam professionem 
suscipiendam inducere velitis et debeatis, nee pericula, nee labores ullo 
unquam tempore vos deterreant, firma spe fiduciaque conceptis, quod Deus 
Omnipotens conatus vestros feliciter prosequetur. Et, ut tanti negotii pro- 
vinciam apostolice gratie largitate donati, liberius et audacius assumatis, 
motu proprio," non ad vestram vel alterius pro vobis super hoc nobis oblate 
petitionis instantiam, sed de nostra mera liberalitate, et ex certa scientia, ac 
de apostolice potestatis plenitudine, omnes et singiilas terras et insulas 
predictas, sic incognitas, et hactenus per nuntios vestros repertas et reperien- 
das in posterum, que sub dominio actuali temporali aliquorum dominorum 
Christianorum constitute non sint, auctoritate Omnipotentis Dei nobis in 
beato Petro concessa, ac vicariatus Jhesu Christi, qua fungimur in terris, 
cum omnibus illarum dominiis, cum civitatibus, castris, locis, et villis, juri- 
busque et jurisdictionibus ac pertinentiis universis, vobis heredibusque et 
succesoribus vestris, Castelle et Legionis regibus, in perpetuum auctoritate 
apostolica, tenore presentium donamus, concedimus, et assignamus, vosque 
ac heredes et succesores prefatos de illis investimus, illarumgw^ dominos cum 
plena, libera, et omnimoda potestate, auctoritate, et jurisdictione, facimus, 
constituimus, et deputamus ; decernentes nichilominus per hujusmodi dona- 
tionem, concessionem, assignationem, et investituram nostram, nulli Chris- 
tiano principi jus quesitum sublatum intelligi posse aut aufferri debere. 
Et insuper mandamus vobis in virtute sancte obedientie, ut, sicut etiam 
pollicemini et non dubitamus pro vestra maxima devotione et regia magna- 
nimitate vos esse facturos, ad terras et insulas predictas viros probos et Deum 
timentes, doctos, peritos, et expertos, ad instruendum incolas et habitatores 

* In the town of Navidad, in Hispaniola. Cf. Olson and Bourne, Northmen, Colum 
bus, and Cabot (1906), p. 268. 

10 In the bull Inter caetera of May 4, the word proposuistis appears here, but it is not 
in either text of the bull Inter caetera of May 3. 

11 Cf. Doc. 1, note 38. 



60 Doc. 5. The Bull Inter Cactcra 

prefatos in fide Catholica et bonis moribus imbuendum, destinare debeatis, 
omnem debitam diligentiam in premisis adhibentes ; " ac quibuscumque 
personis, etiam cujuscumque dignitatis, status, gradus, ordinis, vel condic- 
tionis, sub excomunicationis late sententie " pena, quam eo ipso, si contra- 
fecerint, incurrant, districtius inhibentes, ne ad insulas et terras prcdictas, 
postquam per vestros nuntios sen ad id missos invent e ct recepte fncrhit, pro 
mercibus habendis vel quavis alia de causa, accedere presumant, absque 
vestra ac heredum et succesorum vestrorum predictorum licentia speciali. 
Et" qnia etiam nonnulli Portugallie Reges in partibus Affrice, Guinee, et 
Miner e Auri, ac alias, insulas, similiter, etiam ex concesione apostolica eis 
facta, reppererunt et acquisiverunt et per Sedeni Apostolicam eis diversa 
privilegia, gratie, libertates, immunitates, exemptiones, et indulta concessa 
fuerunt, 1 * nos, vobis ac heredibus et succesoribus vestris predictis, ut in insulis 
et terris per vos repertis et reperiendis hujusmodi, omnibus et singulis gratiis, 
privilegiis, cxemptionibus, libcrtatibus, facultatibus, inmunitatibus, et indnltis 
hujusmodi, quorum omnium tenores, ac si de verbo ad verbum presentibus 
insererentur, haberi volumus pro snfficienter expresis et insertis, uti, potiri, 
et gaudere libere et licite, possitis ac debeatis in omnibus ct per oninia, pcrinde 
ac si vobis ac heredibus et succesoribus predictis speciali ter concessa fuissent, 
motu, auctoritatc, scicntia, et apostolicc potestatis plenitudine similibus, de 
specialis dono gratie, indulgemus, illaque in omnibus et per omnia ad vos, 
heredes ac succesores vestros predictos extendimus pariter, et ampliamus, 
non obstantibus constitutionibus et ordinationibus apostolicis, nee non omni 
bus illis que in litteris desuper editis concessa sunt, non obstare, ceterisque 
contrariis quibuscunque ; in Illo a quo imperia et dominationes ac bona 
cuncta procedunt confidentes, quod, dirigente Domino actus vestros, si 
hujusmodi sanctum et laudabile negotium prosequamini, brevi tempore, cum 
felicitate et gloria totius populi Christiani, vestri labores et conatus exitum 
felicissimum consequentur. Verum, quia difficile foret presentes litteras ad 
singula queque loca in quibus expediens fuerit deferre, volumus, ac motu et 
scientia similibus decernimus, quod illarum transumptis, manu publici notarii 
inde rogati subscriptis, et sigillo alicujus persone in ecclesiastica dignitate 
constitute seu curie ecclesiastice munitis, ea prorsus fides in judicio et extra 
ac alias ubilibet adhibeatur, que presentibus adhiberetur, si essent exhibite 
et ostense. Nulli ergo omnino hominum liceat hanc paginam nostre exhorta- 
tionis, requisitionis, donationis, concessionis, assignations, investiture, facti, 
constitutionis, deputationis, mandati, inhibitionis, indulti, extensionis, amplia- 
tionis, voluntatis, et decreti, infringere, vel ei ausu temerario contraire. 
Siquis autem hoc attemptare presumpserit, indignationem Omnipotentis Dei 
ac beatorum Petri et Pauli apostolorum ejus se noverit incursurum. 

" In their instructions for Columbus s second voyage, dated May 29, 1493, the Spanish 
sovereigns showed their anxiety to comply with the papal injunction to Christianize the 
islands. With this in view, they appointed Fray Bernardo Boyl to accompany Columbus. 
Navarrete, Viages, torn. II., no. 45. p. 66. 

13 Excommunication is either latae or ferendae sententiae. " The first is incurred as 
soon as the offence is committed and by reason of the offence itself (eo ipso) without 
intervention of any ecclesiastical judge." The Catholic Encyclopedia. 

"The following italicized passage, which is omitted from the bull Inter caeiera of 
May 4 (Doc. 7), corresponds closely to the passage in the bull Eximiae devotionis 
(Doc. 6), beginning Cum autem and ending ampliamus. See below, pp. 66, 75. 

"The reference is to the bulls of 1455, 1456, and 1481, Docs. 1, 2, and 4. 



May 3, 1493 61 

Datum Rome apud Sanctum Petrum, anno Incarnationis Dominice 
millesimo quadrigentesimo nonagesimo tertio, quinto nonas Maii, pontificatus 
nostri anno primo. 

Gratis de mandate sanctissimi Domini nostri Pape. 

B. CAPOTIUS." L. PODOCATIIARUS." 

D. SERRANO." 

FERRARIIS." 



TRANSLATION." 

Alexander, bishop, servant of the servants of God, to the illustrious sover 
eigns, our very dear son in Christ, Ferdinand, king, and our very dear 
daughter in Christ, Isabella, queen, of Castile, Leon, Aragon, and Granada, 
health and apostolic benediction. Among other works well pleasing to the 
Divine Majesty and cherished of our heart, this assuredly ranks highest, that 
in our times especially the Catholic faith and the Christian religion be 
exalted and everywhere increased and spread, that the health of souls be 
cared for and that barbarous nations be overthrown and brought to the faith 
itself. Wherefore inasmuch as by the favor of divine clemency, we, though 
of insufficient merits, have been called to this Holy See of Peter, recognizing 
that as true Catholic kings and princes, such as we have known you always to 
be, and as your illustrious deeds already known to almost the whole world 
declare, you not only eagerly desire but with every effort, zeal, and diligence, 
without regard to hardships, expenses, dangers, with the shedding even of 
your blood, are laboring to that end ; recognizing also that you have long since 
dedicated to this purpose your whole soul and all your endeavors as wit 
nessed in these times with so much glory to the Divine Name in your recovery 
of the kingdom of Granada from the yoke of the Saracens we therefore 
are rightly led, and hold it as our duty, to grant you even of our own accord 
and in your favor those things, whereby with effort each day more hearty 
you may be enabled for the honor of God himself and the spread of the 
Christian rule to carry forward your holy and praiseworthy purpose so 
pleasing to immortal God. We have indeed learned that you, who for a long 
time had intended to seek out and discover certain lands and islands remote 
and unknown and not hitherto discovered by others, to the end that you might 
bring to the worship of our Redeemer and profession of the Catholic faith 
their residents and inhabitants, having been up to the present time greatly 
engaged in the siege and recovery of the kingdom itself of Granada, were 
unable to accomplish this holy and praiseworthy purpose ; but the said king 
dom having at length been regained, as was pleasing to the Lord, you, with 
the wish to fulfill your desire, chose our beloved son Christopher Columbus, 

lf Capotius was the rescribendarius, Serrano the computator. For some particulars 
concerning these and the other signatories of this bull see Vander Linden, op. cit. 

" Lodovico Podocatharo, bishop of Capaccio and archbishop of Benevento, was 
physician to Pope Innocent VIII. and secretary to Alexander VI. In 1500 he was made 
a cardinal. M. Buchberger, Kirchliches Handlexikon. The bull bears the official en 
dorsement " Registrata in Camera Apostolica ". The names in the register are : B. 
Capotius, D. Serrano, A. de Campania, N. Casanova. 

" The deciphering of the name of this abbreviator is due to Professor H. Vander 
Linden. 

"In translating Docs. 5, 6, 7, and 8, free use has been made of the translations in 
Blair and Robertson, Philippine Islands, I. 97-114. 



62 Doc. 5. The Bull Inter Caetera 

whom you furnished with ships and men equipped for like designs, not with 
out the greatest hardships, dangers, and expenses, to make diligent quest for 
these remote and unknown countries through the sea, where hitherto no one 
v had sailed ; and they at length, with divine aid and with the utmost diligence 
sailing in the ocean sea,^ through western waters, as is said, toward the 
Indians^} discovered certain very remote islands and even mainlands, that 
fiitKerto had not been discovered by others ; and therein dwell very many 
peoples living in peace, and, as reported, going unclothed, and not eating 
flesh. Moreover, as your aforesaid envoys are of opinion, these very 
peoples living in the said islands and countries believe in one God, the 
Creator in heaven, and seem sufficiently disposed to embrace the Catholic 
* faith and be trained in good morals. And it is hoped that, were they in 
structed, the name of the Savior, our Lord Jesus Christ, would easily be 
introduced into the said countries and islands. Also, on one of the chief of 
these aforesaid islands the above-mentioned Christopher has already caused 
to be put together and built a fortress fairly equipped, wherein he has sta 
tioned as garrison certain Christians, companions of his, who are to make 
search for other remote and unknown islands and countries. In the islands 
and countries already discovered are found gold, spices, and very many other 
precious things of divers kinds and qualities. Wherefore, after earnest 
consideration of all matters, as becomes Catholic kings and princes, and 
especially of the rise and spread of the Catholic faith, as was the fashion of 
your ancestors, kings of renowned memory, you have purposed with the 
favor of divine clemency to bring under your sway the said countries and 
islands with their residents and inhabitants, and to bring them to the 
Catholic faith. Hence, heartily commending in the Lord this your holy and 
praiseworthy purpose, and desirous that it be duly accomplished, and that 
the name of our Savior be carried into those regions, we exhort you very 
earnestly in the Lord and by your reception of holy baptism, whereby you 
are bound to our apostolic commands, and by the bowels of the mercy of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, enjoin strictly, that inasmuch as with eager zeal for the 
true faith you design to equip and despatch this expedition, you purpose 
. also, as is your duty, to lead the peoples dwelling in those islands to embrace 
the Christian profession ; nor at any time let dangers or hardships deter you 
therefrom, with the stout hope and trust in your hearts that Almighty God 
will further your undertakings. And, in order that you may enter upon 
"- so great an undertaking with greater readiness and heartiness endowed with 
the benefit of our apostolic favor, we, of our own accord, not at your instance 
nor the request of anyone else in your regard, but of our own sole largess 
and certain knowledge and out of the fullness of our apostolic power, by 
the authority of Almighty God conferred upon us in blessed Peter and of the 
vicarship of Jesus Christ which we hold on earth, do by tenor of these presents 
give, grant, and assign^ forever to you and your heirs and successors, kings 
of Castile and Leon, all and singular the aforesaid countries and islands 
thus unknown and hitherto discovered by your envoys and to be discovered 
hereafter, provided however they at no time have been in the actual temporal 
possession of any Christian owner, together with all their dominions, cities, 
camps, places, and villages, and all rights, jurisdictions, and appurtenances 
of the same. And we invest you and your aforementioned heirs and suc 
cessors with them, and make, appoint, and depute you lords of them with 
full and free power, authority, and jurisdiction of every kind, with this 
proviso however, that by this our gift, grant, assignment, and investiture 



Ju. OUU \wutiv* a 



May 3, 1493 63 

no right acquired by any Christian prince is hereby to be understood to be 
withdrawn or taken away. Moreover we command you in virtue of holy 
obedience, that, employing all due diligence in the premises, as you also 
promise nor do we doubt that you will act in accordance with your devoted 
loyalty and royal greatness of spirit you should appoint to the aforesaid 
countries and islands worthy and God-fearing, learned, skilled, and ex 
perienced men to instruct the aforesaid inhabitants and residents in the 
Catholic faith, and to train them in good morals. And under penalty of <& 
excommunication late sententie to be incurred ipso facto, should any thus 
contravene, we strictly forbid all persons of no matter what rank, estate, 
degree, order, or condition, to dare, without your special permit or that of 
your aforesaid heirs and successors, to go for the sake of trade or any other 
reason whatever to the said islands and countries after they have been 
discovered and found by your envoys or persons sent out for that purpose. 
And inasmuch as some kings of Portugal, likewise by apostolic grant made 
to them, have similarly discovered and taken possession of islands in the 
regions of Africa, Guinea, and the Gold Mine, and elsewhere, and divers 
privileges, favors, liberties, immunities, exemptions, and indults have been 
granted to them by the Apostolic See, we through similar accord, authority, 
knowledge, and fullness of apostolic power, by a gift of special favor, do 
grant to you and your aforesaid heirs and successors, that in the islands 
and countries thus discovered and to be discovered by you, you may and 
rightly can use, employ, and enjoy freely and legally, in all things and through 
all things, just as if they had been especially granted to you and your 
aforesaid heirs and successors, all and singular these favors, privileges, 
exemptions, liberties, faculties, immunities, and indults, the terms of all 
of which we wish to be understood as being sufficiently expressed and 
inserted, as if they were inserted word for word in these presents. Moreover 
we similarly extend and enlarge them in all things and through all things 
to you and your aforesaid heirs and successors, apostolic constitutions and 
ordinances as well as all those things that have been granted in the letters 
set forth above or other things whatsoever to the contrary notwithstanding. 
We trust in Him from whom empires and governments and all good things 
proceed, that should you with the Lord s guidance pursue this holy and praise 
worthy undertaking, in a short while your hardships and endeavors will 
attain the most felicitous result, to the happiness and glory of all Christendom. 
But inasmuch as it would be difficult to have these present letters sent to 
all places where desirable, we wish, and with similar accord and knowledge 
do decree that to copies of them, signed by the hand of a notary public com 
missioned therefor and sealed with the seal of any ecclesiastical officer or 
ecclesiastical court, the same respect is to be shown in court and outside as 
well as anywhere else, as would be given to these presents should they be 
exhibited or shown. Let no one, therefore, infringe, or with rash boldness 
contravene this our exhortation, requisition, gift, grant, assignment, investi 
ture, deed, constitution, deputation, mandate, inhibition, indult, extension, 
enlargement, will, and decree. Should anyone presume to do so, be it known 
to him that he will incur the wrath of Almighty God and of the blessed 
apostles Peter and Paul. Given in Rome, at St. Peter s, on the third day of 
May in the year one thousand four hundred and ninety-three of the incar 
nation of our Lord, in the first year of our pontificate. 

Gratis by order of our most holy lord the Pope. 

B. CAPOTIUS. L. PODOCATHARUS. 

D. SERRANO. 

April. FERRARIIS. 



6. 

The Bull Eximiae Devotionis (Alexander VI.}. May j, 

INTRODUCTION. 

Although this bull bears the same date as the preceding, 2 it would seem 
that its expediting was not begun until July. In somewhat more precise and 
emphatic terms it repeats that concession of the earlier bull, which ex 
tended to the Catholic kings in respect to the lands discovered by Columbus 
the privileges previously granted to the kings of Portugal in respect to their 
discoveries in " Africa, Guinea, and the Gold Mine ". 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Text: MS. and facsimile. An official copy of the promulgated bull, made 
in 1515, is in the Archives of the Indies at Seville, Patronato, i-i-i, 
no. 4. A facsimile of the text preserved in the Vatican registers is in 
J. C. Hey wood, Documenta Selecta e Tabulario Secreto Vaticano (1893), 
and is reproduced thence in J. B. Thacher, Columbus (1903-1904), II. 

155, 159- 

Text : Printed. The Vatican text is in Heywood, op. cit. ; Thacher, op. tit., 
II. 156, 160; G. Berchet, Fonti Italiane (1892-1893), I. 3, 4 (pt. III. of 
the Raccolta di Documenti published by the Reale Commissione Colom- 
biana) ; S. E. Dawson, " Lines of Demarcation of Pope Alexander VI.", 
etc. (1899), pp. 535-536, in the Transactions of the Royal Society of 
Canada, 2d ser., 1899-1900, vol. V., 2; and, except the formal conclud 
ing clauses, O. Raynaldus (continuing Baronius), Annales Ecclesiastici 
(1747-1756), XL 213-214. The text of the promulgated bull is in J. de 
Solorzano Pereira, De Indiarum Jure (1629-1639), I. 612. 

Translations. H. Harrisse, Diplomatic History of America (1897), PP- 2O ~ 
24; Dawson, op. cit., pp. 536-537; Thacher, op. cit., II. 157-161 ; Blair 
and Robertson, Philippine Islands (1903-1909), I. 103-105. 

References: See under Doc. 5. 

TEXT. 

In nomine Domini, Amen. Universis et singulis presentes licteras sive 
presens publicum transumpti instrumentum visuris, lecturis, et audituris : 
quod nos, reverendus dominus, Don Didacus Hernandez, thesaurarius 

"The bull as printed by Solorzano Pereira, De Indiarum Jure, I. 612, is dated May 4 
(quarto nonas Mail), and some historians have accepted this as the date of the promul 
gated bull. The text in the Vatican Register is dated May 3 (quinto nonas Mali), which 
the text here printed proves to be that of the promulgated bull. In regard to the expe 
diting of the bull see Vander Linden, " Alexander VI. and the Demarcation of the Mari 
time and Colonial Domains of Spain and Portugal ", American Historical Review, 
XXII. 3-7- 

* Doc. 5. 

*The following text is from an official copy, made in 1515, and preserved in the 
Archives of the Indies, Patronato, i-i-r, no. 4. 

64 



May 3, 1493 65 

ecclesie collegialis Sancti Antolini de Medina Campi, 4 et reverendi in Christo 
patris et domini, Domini Belnardini Gutterez, prothonotarii apostolici et 
abbatis dicte ville Medine, provisor offitialis et vicarius generalis in tem- 
poralibus et spiritualibus, salutem in Domino et presentibus fidem indubiam 
adhibere placeat. Noveritis quod nos, ad spectabilis viri Domini Didaci Sal- 
meron, in jure civili bachalarii, licterarum apostolicarum aliorumque jurium 
et instrumentorum Serenissime Domine nostre domine Joanne, divina favente 
dementia Castelle, Legionis, et Granate regnorum, etc. regine Catholice ad 
suumque regium patrimonium statum, jurisdictionem, facilitates, et pre- 
heminentias concernentium custodis petitionis instantiam et requisitionem, 
vidimus et diligenter inspeximus quasdam licteras apostolicas felicis recorda- 
tionis domini, Domini Alexandri Pape Sexti, in forma ejus vere bulle sigilli 
plumbei in cordula sirici rubei croceique coloris, more Romane curie, pendentis 
bullatas, im pergameno et lingua Latina scriptas, coram nobis in juditio per 
eumdem dominum, bachalarium Didacum Salmeron, in sua originali forma 
productas et presentatas. Et quia per hujusmodi visionem et inspectionem 
prefatas litteras apostolicas sanas, integras, et illesas, omnique prorsus vitio 
et suspitione carere, ut apparebat, reperimus. Ideo, eas, ad prefati domini 
bachalarii, Didaci Salmeron, ulteriorem instantiam, per notarium publicum 
infrascriptum, transumi et exemplari ac in hujusmodi transumpti publici 
formam redegi fecimus et mandavimus, volentes, et ordinaria auctoritate 
qua fungimur decernentes, quod hujusmodi transumpto publico ilia et eadem 
ac similis et tanta fides ubique locorum et terrarum ubi illud exhibitum fuerit 
et productum, tarn in juditio quam extra, adhibeatur, que et qualis et quanta 
eisdem originalibus litteris apostolicis, unde presens transumptum sive ex 
emplar extractum fuit, adhiberetur, si in medium exhiberentur aut obsten- 
derentur. Tenor vero licterarum apostolicarum predictarum de quibus supra 
fit mentio, sequitur et est hujusmodi : 

Alexander episcopus, servus servorum Dei, carissimo in Christo filio 
Ferdinando regi et carissime in Christo filie Elisabeth, regine Castelle, Le 
gionis, Aragonum, et Granate, illustribus, salutem et apostolicam benedic 
tion em. 

Eximie devotionis sinceritas et integra fides quibus nos et Romanam 
reveremini ecclesiam non indigne merentur ut ilia vobis favorabiliter con- 
cedamus per que sanctum et laudabile propositum vestrum et opus inceptum 
in querendis terris et insulis remotis ac incognitis in dies melius et facilius 
ad honorem Omnipotentis Dei et imperii Christiani propagationem ac fidei 
Catholice exaltationem prosequi valeatis. Hodie siquidem omnes et singulas 
terras firmas et insulas remotas et incognitas, versus partes occidentales et 
mare oceanum consistentes, per vos seu nuncios vestros, ad id propterea non 
sine magnis laboribus, periculis, et impensis destinatos, repertas et reperiendas 
imposterum, que sub actuali dominio temporali aliquorum dominorum Chris- 
tianorum constitute non essent, cum omnibus illarum dominiis, civitatibus, 
castris, locis, villis, juribus, et 5 jurisdictionibus universis, vobis, heredibusque 
et successoribus vestris, Castelle et Legionis regibus, imperpetuum, motu 
proprio et ex certa scientia ac de apostolice potestatis plenitudine donavimus, 

*A bull of Sixtus IV. creating the collegiate church of Saint Antolin is printed in 
C. Perez Pastor, La Imprenta en Medina del Campo (1895), pp. 18^ ff. 

* The words juribus et are struck out. They appear in the Vatican text, but not in 
Solorzano. 



66 Doc. 6. Tlie Bull Eximiac Dcvotionis 

concessimus, et assignavimus, prout in nostris inde confectis litteris plenius 
continetur.* Cum 7 autem alias nonnullis Portugallie regibus qui impartibus 
Africa, Guinea, et Minere Auri, ac alias, insulas etiam ex* similibus con- 
cessione et donatione apostolica eis facta repererunt et acquisiverunt, per 
Sedem Apostolicam diversa privilegia, gratie, libertates, immunitates, ex- 
emptiones, f acultates, littere, et indulta concessa f uerint ; nos volentes etiam, 
prout dignum et conveniens existit, vos, heredesque et successores vestros 
predictos, non minoribus gratiis, prerogativis, et favoribus prosequi, motu 
simili, non ad vestram vel alterius pro vobis super hoc oblate petitionis 
instantiam sed de nostra mera liberalitate ac eisdem scientia et apostolice 
potestatis plenitudine, vobis et heredibus et successoribus vestris predictis, 
ut in insulis et terris per vos seu nomine vestro hactenus repertis hujusmodi et 
reperiendis imposterum, omnibus et singulis gratiis et privilegiis, exemptioni- 
bus, libertatibus, facultatibus, immunitatibus, litteris, et indultis regibus 
Portugallie concessis hujusmodi, quorum omnium tenores, ac si de verbo ad 
verbum presentibus insererentur, haberi volumus pro sufficienter expressis 
et insertis, uti, potiri, et gaudere libere et licite possitis et debeatis in omnibus 
et per omnia perinde ac si ilia omnia vobis ac heredibus et successoribus 
vestris prefatis specialiter concessa [fuissent], auctoritate apostolica, tenore 
presentium de specialis dono gratie indulgemus, illaque in omnibus et per 
omnia ad vos heredesque ac successores vestros predictos extendimus pariter 
et ampliamus, ac eisdem modo et forma perpetuo concedimus, non obstantibus 
constitutionibus et ordinationibus apostolicis, nee non omnibus illis que in 
litteris Portugallie regibus concessis hujusmodi concessa sunt, non obstare 
ceterisque contrariis quibuscunque. Verum, quia difficile foret presentes 
litteras ad singula queque loca in quibus expediens fuerit, deferri, volumus, 
ac motu et scientia similibus decernimus, quod illarum transumptis, manu 
publici notarii inde rogati subscriptis et sigillo alicujus persone in ecclesiastica 
dignitate constitute, seu curie ecclesiastice, munitis, ea prorsus fides indubia 
in judicio et extra, ac alias ubilibet, adhibeatur, que presentibus adhiberetur, 
si essent exhibite vel ostense. Nulli ergo omnino hominum liceat hanc 
paginam nostrorum indulti, extensionis, ampliationis, concessionis, voluntatis, 
et decreti infringere, vel ei ausu temerario contraire. Siquis autem hoc 
attemptare presumpserit, indignationem Omnipotentis Dei ac beatorum Petri 
et Pauli apostolorum ejus se noverit incursurum. Datum Rome apud Sanctum 
Petrum, anno Incarnationis Dominice millesimo quadrigentesimo nonagesimo 
tertio, quinto nonas Maii, pontificatus nostri anno primo. L. Podocatharus." 
D. Gallettus. 11 Registrata in secretaria apostolica. Crothonienfsis]." 
Jul[io]. 18 Gratis de mandate b[eati] d[ominij nostri pape. Jo[hannes] 
Nilis." 

The bull Inter caetera of May 3 (Doc. 5) is here referred to. 

7 Compare with the passage that begins here and ends with the word ampliamus, 
twenty lines below, the corresponding italicized passage in the bull Inter caetera, of 
May 3 (Doc. 5), which begins with the words Et quia, p. 60. 

* The Vatican text has in instead of ex. 

*The word fuissent, which appears in the Vatican text, is omitted from the copy 
of the year 1515 and from Solorzano. 

10 Papal secretary. See Doc. 5, note 17. 

11 D. Galetti is mentioned in J. Burchard, Diarium (ed. Thuasne, 1883-1885), II. 285, 
as an apostolic scribe. 

" In 1493 Giovanni Ebu was Bishop of Cotrpne. 

13 This date is the same as that in the margin of the copy of this bull entered in the 
Vatican register. It indicates the month in which the expediting of the bull began. 
See above, note i. 

14 Rescribendarius in the third quarter of the year 1493. Cf. Doc. 8, p. 81 ; and 
Vander Linden, op. cit., p. /, note 19. 



May 3, 1493 67 

Nos, vero, provisor officialis et vicarius predictus, pro tribunal! sedentes ad 
nostrum solitum banchum juris, hora solita causarum consueta im publica 
audientia, sit[uata] in dicta villa Medine, juxta 15 sua manifesta confinia, 
omnibus et singulis prcmissis, tamquam rite et recte factis, auctoritatem 
nostram judiciariam et ordinariam pariter et decretum interponendum 
duximus, et interposuimus presentium per tenorem. In quorum omnium et 
singulorum fidem et testimonium premissorum, presentes litteras sive presens 
publicum exemplar aut transumpti instrumentum ex inde fieri et per notarium 
publicum infrascriptum subscribi et publicari mandavimus, sigillique dicti 
domini abbatis, quo in similibus utimur, jussimus et fecimus impressione 
com [m] uniri, ac manibus nostris roboravimus. Datum et actum in dicta 
villa de Medina, in publica audientia nobis inibi, ut supra pro tribunal! hora 
solita causarum consueta sedentes, anno nativitatis Domini millesimo quin- 
gentesimo quintodecimo, indictione tertia, die vero vigesima secunda mensis 
Martii, pontificatus santissimi in Christo patris et domini nostri Domini 
Leonis, divina providentia Pape Decimi anno tertio, presentibus Aloysio 
Hernandez de Medina et Johanne Garzia de Burgo, notariis audientie abba- 
tialis predicte, et Stefano Saline procuratore causarum dicte ville, et Francisco 
Rodregez clerico benefitiato in logare Carpi, testibus ad premissa habitis, 
vocatis, et rogatis. 

Datharius et prodatarius. Ego, Felecissimus de Mugnonibus de Crevio, 
Spoletane diocesis, publicus imperiali apostolicaque auctoritate notarius et 
judex ordinarius, et ad presens Catholice Majestatis curiam sequens, et 
spetialiter per dictum dominum, provisorem officialem et vicarium, ad hunc 
actum, electus, assumptus, et deputatus, quia, premissis omnibus et singulis 
dum sic ut premittitur, coram prefato domino provisore, ac que per eum 
fierent et dicerentur, una cum prenominatis testibus presens fui, eaque in 
notam sumpsi et recepi, ideo supra insertas apostolicas licteras transumpsi 
et exemplatus sum, et cum suis originalibus comprobavi ac in omnibus con- 
cordare reperi et presens publicum transumpti instrumentum subscripsi et 
publicavi, signoque et nomine meis solitis et consuetis una cum dicti domini 
provisoris manus appositione, et sigilli dicti domini abbatis impressione, 
signavi, in fidem et robur et testimonium omnium et singulorum premissorum, 
rogatus et requisitus. 

Signum [Here follows the ] mei FELECISSIMI 
notarii L notarial sign J predicti. 



TRANSLATION. 

In the name of the Lord, Amen. To all and singular who shall see, read, or 
hear the present letters, or the present public transumpt, we the reverend 
lord, Don Diego Hernandez, treasurer of the collegiate church of Saint 
Antolin of Medina del Campo, and official provisor and vicar general in 
temporalities and spiritualities of the reverend father and lord in Christ, 
Don Bernardo Gutterez, apostolic protonotary and abbot of the said town of 
Medina, health in the Lord, and let certain credence be given to these presents. 

Be it known that, at the instance and request of the petition of the honorable 
Don Diego Salmeron, bachelor in civil law and keeper of the apostolic letters 

"Justain MS. 



68 Doc. 6. The Bull E.vimiae Devotionis 

and of other privileges and instruments concerning the status, jurisdiction, 
faculties, and pre-eminences of the Most Serene Lady, our Lady Joanna, 
by the favor of divine mercy Catholic queen of the kingdoms of Castile, Leon, 
and Granada, and in respect to her royal patrimony, we have seen and dili 
gently inspected certain apostolic letters of our lord, of happy memory, the 
lord Pope Alexander VI., sealed in the form of his true bull, with a leaden 
seal hanging on a red and yellow cord of silk, in the manner of the Roman 
court, written on parchment and in the Latin tongue, produced and pre 
sented in its original form before us in judgment by the said lord, the 
bachelor, Diego Salmeron. And because, upon this view and inspection, we 
found the aforesaid apostolic letters whole, entire, and unimpaired, and, as it 
seemed, utterly without blemish or suspicious appearance, therefore, at the 
further instance of the aforesaid lord bachelor, Diego Salmeron, we have 
caused and ordered these letters to be copied and transcribed and brought into 
the form of this public transumpt by the notary public aforesaid, wishing 
and, by the ordinary authority which we enjoy, decreeing, that that and the 
same and similar and as great credence be given to this public transumpt, 
in whatever places or lands it shall be exhibited and produced, in court or 
out, as any of the same kind and degree as would adhere to the same original 
apostolic letters from which the present transumpt or exemplar was drawn, 
if they should be publicly exhibited or displayed. The tenor of the aforesaid 
apostolic letters of which mention was made above, follows, and is this : 

Alexander," bishop, servant of the servants of God, to the illustrious 
sovereigns, our very dear son in Christ, Ferdinand, king, and our very dear 
daughter in Christ, Isabella, queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, and Granada, 
health and apostolic benediction. The sincerity and whole-souled loyalty 
of your exalted attachment to ourselves and the Church of Rome deserve 
to have us grant in your favor those things whereby daily you may the better 
and more easily be enabled to the honor of Almighty God and the spread of 
Christian government as well as the exaltation of the Catholic faith to carry 
out your holy and praiseworthy purpose and the work already undertaken 
of making search for far-away and unknown countries and islands. For 
this very day of our own accord and certain knowledge, and out of the fullness 
of our apostolic power, we have given, granted, and assigned forever, as 
appears more fully in our letters drawn up therefor, to you and your heirs 
and successors, kings of Castile and Leon, all and singular the remote and 
unknown mainlands and islands lying towards the western parts and the 
ocean sea, that have been discovered or hereafter may be discovered by you 
or your envoys, whom you have equipped therefor not without great hard 
ships, dangers, and expense and with them all their lordships, cities, castles, 
places, villages, rights, and jurisdictions ; provided however these countries 
have not been in the actual temporal possession of any Christian lords. But 
inasmuch as at another time the Apostolic See has granted divers privileges, 
favors, liberties, immunities, exemptions, faculties, letters, and indults to 
certain kings of Portugal, who also by similar apostolic grant and donation 
in their favor, have discovered and taken possession of islands in the regions 
of Africa, Guinea, and the Gold Mine, and elsewhere, with the desire to em 
power by our apostolic authority, as also is right and fitting, you and your 
aforesaid heirs and successors with graces, prerogatives, and favors of no 

18 See Doc. 5, note 19. 



May 3, 1495 69 

less character ; moved also thereto wholly of our similar accord, not at 
your instance nor the petition of anyone else in your favor, but of our own 
sole liberality and out of the same knowledge and fullness of apostolic power, 
we do by tenor of these presents, as a gift of special favor, grant to you and 
your aforesaid heirs and successors that in the islands and countries, already 
thus discovered by you or in your name and to be discovered hereafter, you 
may freely and legally, as is proper, use, employ, and enjoy in all things and 
through all things, exactly the same as if they had been granted especially 
to you and your aforesaid heirs and successors, all and singular the graces 
and privileges, exemptions, liberties, faculties, immunities, letters, and indults 
that have been thus granted to the kings of Portugal, the terms whereof we 
wish to be understood as sufficiently expressed and inserted, as if they had 
been inserted word for word in these presents. Moreover we extend similarly 
and enlarge these powers in all things and through all things to you and your 
aforesaid heirs and successors, to whom in the same manner and form we 
grant them forever, apostolic constitutions and ordinances as well as all 
grants of similar kind made by letters to the kings of Portugal, as well as 
other things whatsoever to the contrary notwithstanding. But as it would 
be difficult to have these present letters sent to all places where desirable, 
we wish and with similar accord and knowledge do decree that to copies of 
them, signed by the hand of a public notary commissioned therefor, and 
sealed with the seal of any ecclesiastical officer or ecclesiastical court, the 
same respect is to be shown in court and outside as well as anywhere else as 
would be given to these presents should they be exhibited or shown. Let 
no one, therefore, infringe or with rash boldness contravene this our indult, 
extension, enlargement, grant, will, and decree. Should any one presume 
to do so, be it known to him that he will incur the wrath of Almighty God 
and of the blessed apostles Peter and Paul. Given at Rome, at St. Peter s, in 
the year of our Lord s incarnation one thousand four hundred and ninety- 
three, the third day of May, the first year of our pontificate. L. Podocatharus. 
D. Gallettus. Registered in the apostolic secretariate. The Bishop of Co- 
trone. July. Gratis, by command of our blessed lord, the pope. Jo. Nilis. 

We, the official provisor and vicar aforesaid, sitting before the tribunal at 
our accustomed law bench at the hour when law suits are usually heard in the 
public audiencia situated in the said town of Medina, near its manifest bound 
aries, have thought that to all and singular the aforesaid, as rightly and cor 
rectly made, our authority and decree as judge and ordinary ought to be 
interposed, and we have interposed them by the tenor of these presents. In 
faith and testimony of these premises, all and singular, we have ordered 
the present letters or the present public exemplar or transumpt to be made 
therefrom, and to be subscribed and published by the notary public whose 
name is signed below, and we have ordered and caused them to be secured 
with the impression of the seal of the said lord abbot, which we use in such 
cases, and we have confirmed them with our hand. Given and done by us 
in the said town of Medina, as we sat in the public audiencia (as above) 
before our tribunal at the hour when causes are usually heard, in the year 
of the nativity of our Lord one thousand five hundred and fifteen, in the 
third indiction, on the twenty-second day of the month of March, in the 
third year of the pontificate of the most Holy Father and lord in Christ, our 
lord, by divine providence, Pope Leo X., there being present Luis Hernandez 



70 Doc. 6. The Bull E.vimiac Devotionis 

of Medina and Juan Garcia of Burgos, notaries of the audiencia of the abbey 
aforesaid, and Estevan de Salinas, attorney in legal proceedings of the said 
town, and Francisco Rodriguez, beneficed clerk in the village of Carpio, had, 
called, and summoned as witnesses to the aforesaid. 

Datary and prodatary. I, Felecissimo di Mugnano of Crevio in the diocese 
of Spoleto, by imperial and apostolic authority notary public and ordinary 
judge, at present following the court of his Catholic Majesty, and especially 
elected, chosen, and deputed for this act by the said lord, the official provisor 
and vicar, because (in the manner aforesaid in the premises, all and singular) 
I, together with the aforenamed witnesses, was present before the said 
lord provisor and took notes of those things that were done and said by 
him, therefore I have transcribed the apostolic letters inserted above, and 
I have copied them and have compared them with the originals and have 
found them to agree in all respects, and I have subscribed and published the 
present public transumpt, and having been summoned and required, in faith 
and confirmation and testimony of all and singular the aforesaid, I have 
marked it with my usual customary sign and name, together with the apposi 
tion of the sign manual of the said lord provisor and the impression of the 
seal of the said lord abbot. 
Sign [here follows the notarial sign] of 

me, FELECISSIMO, the notary aforesaid. 



7. 

The Bull Inter Caetera (Alexander VI.}. May 4, 1493. 

INTRODUCTION. 

Like the bull Eximiae devotionis of May 3, the bull Inter caetera of May 4 
is a restatement of part of the bull Inter caetera of May 3. Taken together 
the two later bulls cover the same ground as the bull Inter caetera of May 3, 
for which they form a substitute. The changes introduced into the bull 
Inter caetera of May 4, are, however, of great importance, and highly 
favorable to Spain. Instead of merely granting to Castile the lands discovered 
by her envoys, and not under Christian rule, the revised bull draws a line of 
demarcation one hundred leagues west of any of the Azores or Cape Verde 
Islands, and assigns to Castile the exclusive right to acquire territorial pos 
sessions and to trade in all the lands west of that line, which at Christmas, 
1492, were not in the possession of any Christian prince. The general safe 
guard to the. possible conflicting rights of Portugal is lacking. All persons 
are forbidden to approach the lands west of the line without special license 
from the rulers of Castile. 

It is not probable that by this bull Alexander VI. intended to secure to 
Portugal an eastern route to the Indies, as some writers have maintained. 
In the bulls of May 3, the earlier papal grants to Portugal are said to have 
given her rights in the region of Guinea and the Gold Mine, but the Indies 
are not mentioned. The bull of May 4 does not name Portugal and refers 
to her only in the clause which excepts from the donation any lands west of 
the demarcation line, which at Christmas, 1492, might be in the possession 
of any Christian prince. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Text: MS. and facsimile. The original manuscript of the promulgated bull 
is in the Archives of the Indies at Seville, Patronato, i-i-i, no. 3. A 
photograph of this manuscript is reproduced in the Boletin del Centra 
de Estudios Americanistas de Sevilla, ano III., num. 7 (March-April, 
1915). A facsimile of the text found in the Vatican registers is in J. C. 
Heywood, Documenta Selccta e Tabttlario Secreto Vaticano (1893), 

1 Doc. 6. 

Doc. 5. For some unknown reason the bull of May 4 was antedated by several 
weeks. It was expedited in June, and thus is actually prior to the bull Eximiae devo 
tionis, which, also antedated, was expedited in July. Vander Linden, " Alexander VI. 
and the Demarcation ". American Historical Review, XXII. 3-8. 

71 



72 Doc. 7. The Bull Inter Caetera 

whence it is reproduced in J. B. Thacher, Columbus (1903-1904), II. 
139-151. An authenticated transcript of the bull, belonging to Columbus, 
is partly reproduced in facsimile in the Autografos dc Cristobal Colon 
(1892), opp. p. 20, published by the Duchess of Berwick and Alba ; and 
the copy entered in Columbus s Book of Privileges is reproduced in the 
facsimiles of that work. (See F. G. Davenport, " Texts of Columbus s 
Privileges ", American Historical Review, XIV. 764.) 

Text: Printed. The Vatican text is in Heywood, op. cit. ; Thacher, op. cit., 
II. 140-153; G. Berchet, Fonti Italiane (1892-1893), I. 8-n (pt. III. of 
the Raccolta di Documents published by the Reale Commissione Colom- 
biana) ; S. E. Dawson, " Line of Demarcation of Pope Alexander VI.", 
etc. (1899), pp. 529-531, in the Transactions of the Royal Society of 
Canada, 2d ser., 1899, vol. V., 2, pp. 467 ff. The text of the promulgated 
bull, preserved in the Archives of the Indies, is printed in J. de Solorzano 
Pereira, DC Indiarum Jure .(1629-1639), I. 608-610, and in Navarrete, 
Coleccion de Viages (1825-1837), II. 28-34. The text in J. Ramos- 
Coelho, Alguns Documentos (1892), pp. 66-68, is from a manuscript 
in the National Archives at Lisbon. One or another of the above- 
mentioned texts will be found in various bullaria and other printed works. 

Translations:" English. The earliest English rendering is doubtless that 
published in 1555 in R. Eden s translation of Peter Martyr (Pietro 
Martire d Anghiera), Decades of the Newe Worlde or West India. 
This version (together with the Latin text) is in J. Fiske, Discovery of 
America (1892), II. 580-593, and in A. B. Hart, American History 
told by Contemporaries (1897-1901), I. 40-43. Other translations are 
in the Memorials of Columbus (1823), pp. 172-183, a translation of 
G. B. Spotorno, Codice Diplomatico Colombo- Americano (1823) ; B. F. 
Stevens, Christopher Columbus; his Own Book of Privileges, 1502 
(1893), pp. 182-197; Dawson, op. cit., pp. 532-534; Thacher, op. cit., 
II. 141-153; and in Blair and Robertson, Philippine Islands (1903- 
1909), I. 105-111. Spanish. Boletin del Centra de Estudios Amcri- 
canistas de Sevilla, ano III., num. 7 (March-April, 1915) ; Navarrete, 
op. cit., II. 29-35. 

References. Same as for Doc. 5. 



TEXT.* 

Alexander episcopus, servus servorum Dei : carissimo in Christo filio 
Fernando regi, et carissime in Christo filie Elisabeth regine Castelle, Legionis, 
Aragonum, Sicilie, et Granate, illustribus, salutem et apostolicam benedic- 
tionem. 

Inter cetera Divine Majestati beneplacita opera et cordis nostri * desidera- 
bilia, illud profecto potissimum existit, ut fides Catholica et Christiana 
religio " nostris presertim temporibus exaltetur, ac ubilibet amplietur et 

1 The following text is from the original manuscript of the promulgated bull, pre 
served in the Archives of the Indies at Seville, Patronato, i-i-i, no. 3. yariant readings 
are given from the text of the Vatican register, reproduced in facsimile in Heywood, 
Documenta Selecta. Words in this bull, not in the bull Inter caetera of May 3, 1493, 
are printed in italics. 

4 The Vatican text reads vcstri. The Vatican text reads lex. 



May 4, 1493 " :5 

dilatetur, animarumque salus procuretur, ac barbare nationes deprimantur 
et ad fidem ipsam reducantur. Unde cum ad hanc Sacram Petri Sedem, 
divina favente dementia, meritis licet imparibus, evocati fuerimus, cognos- 
centes vos, tanquam veros Catholicos reges et principes, quales semper f uisse 
novimus, et a vobis preclare gesta toti pene jam orbi notissima demonstrant, 
nedum id exoptare, sed omni conatu, studio, et diligentia, nullis laboribus, 
nullis impensis, nullisque parcendo periculis, etiam proprium sanguinem 
effundendo, efficere, ac omneni animum vestrum omnesque conatus ad hoc 
jam dudum dedicasse quemadmodum recuperatio regni Granate a tyrannide 
Saracenorum hodiernis temporibus per vos, cum tanta Divini Nominis gloria 
facta, testatur * digne ducimur * non immerito, et debemus ilia vobis etiam 
sponte et favorabiliter concedere, per que hujusmodi sanctum et laudabile ac 
immortali Deo acceptum propositum in dies ferventiori animo ad ipsius Dei 
honorem et imperil Christiani propagationem prosequi valeatis. Sane ac- 
cepimus quod vos, qui dudum animo proposueratis aliquas insulas et terras 
firmas" remotas et incognitas ac per alios hactenus non repertas, querere et 
invenire, ut illarum incolas et habitatores ad colendum Redemptorem nostrum 
et fidem Catholicam profitendum reduceretis, hactenus in expugnatione et 
recuperatione ipsius regni Granate plurimum occupati, hujusmodi sanctum et 
laudabile propositum vestrum ad optatum finem perducere nequivistis ; sed 
tandem, sicut Domino placuit, regno predicto recuperato, volentes desiderium 
adimplere vestrum, dilectum filium Cristophorum Colon, virum utique dignum 
et plurimum commendandum, ac tanto negotio aptum, cum navigiis et 
hominibus ad similia instructis, non sine maximis laboribus et periculis ac 
expensis, destinastis, ut terras firmas et insulas remotas et incognitas hujus 
modi per mare, ubi hactenus navigatum non fuerat, diligenter inquireret; 
qui tandem, divino auxilio, facta extrema diligentia, in mari oceano navi- 
gantes, certas insulas remotissimas, et etiam terras firmas, 11 que per alios 
hactenus reperte non fuerant, invenerunt, in quibus quamplurime gentes, 
pacifice viventes, et, ut asseritur, nudi incedentes, nee carnibus vescentes, 
inhabitant ; et, ut pref ati nuntii vestri possunt opinari, gentes ipse in insulis 
et terris predictis habitantes credunt unum Deum Creatorem in celis esse, ac 
ad fidem Catholicam amplexandum et bonis moribus imbuendum satis apti 
videntur, spesque habetur quod, si erudirentur, nomen Salvatoris, Domini 
nostri Jhesu Christi, in terris et insulis predictis facile induceretur ; ac pre- 
fatus Cristophorus in una ex principalibus insulis predictis jam unam turrim " 
satis munitam, in qua certos Christianos qui secum iverant, in custodiam, et ut 
alias insulas et terras firmas remotas et incognitas inquirerent, posuit, construi 
et edificari fecit ; in quibusquidem " insulis et terris jam repertis, aurum, 
aromata, et alie quamplurime res preciose diversi generis et diverse qualitatis 
reperiuntur. Unde omnibus diligenter, et presertim fidei Catholice exalta- 
tione et dilatatione, prout decet Catholicos reges et principes, consideratis, 
more progenitorum vestrorum, clare memorie regum, terras firmas et insulas 
predictas illarumque incolas et habitatores, vobis, divina favente dementia, 
subjicere et ad fidem Catholicam reducere proposuistis. Nos igitur hujusmodi 
vestrum sanctum et laudabile propositum plurimum in Domino commen- 
dantes, ac cupientes ut illud ad debitum finem perducatur, et ipsum nomen 

The Vatican text reads deducantur. 7 The Vatican text reads tani. 

Cf. Doc. 5, note 7. * The Vatican text reads du.rimus. 

"Note the several instances of the introduction of this adjective. 

" Cf. Doc. 5, note 8. 1J Cf. ibid., note 9. " The Vatican text reads qiiibitsdam. 



74 Doc. /. The Bull Inter Caetera 

Salvatoris nostri in partibus illis inducatur, hortamur vos plurimum in 
Domino, et per sacri lavacri susceptionem, qua mandatis apostolicis obligati 
estis, et viscera misericordie Domini nostri Jhesu Christi attente requirimus, 
ut 14 cum expeditionem hujusmodi omnino prosequi et assumere prona mente 
orthodoxe fidei zelo intendatis, populos in hujusmodi insulis et terris degentes 
ad Christianam religionem suscipiendam inducere velitis et debeatis, nee 
pericula, nee labores ullo unquam tempore vos deterreant, firma spe fiduciaque 
conceptis, quod Deus Omnipotens conatus vestros feliciter prosequetur. Et, 
ut tanti negotii provinciam apostolice gratie largitate donati liberius et 
audacius assumatis, motu proprio," non ad vestram vel alterius pro vobis 
super hoc nobis oblate petitionis instanciam, sed de nostra mera liberalitate 
et ex certa scientia ac de apostolice potestatis plenitudine, omnes insulas et 
terras firmas inventas et inveniendas, detectas et detegendas versus occidentem 
et meridiem fabricando et constituendo unam lineam" a polo Arctico 
scilicet septentrione ad polum Antarcticum scilicet meridiem, sive terre firme 
et insule invent e ct inveniende sint versus Indiam aut versus aliam quancunque 
partem, que line a distet a qualibet insularum, que vulgariter nnncupantur de 
los Azores et Caboverde, centum lends" versus occidentem et meridiem, 
ita quod omnes insule et terre firme reperte et reperiende, detecte et detegende, 
a prefata linea versus occidentem et meridiem, per alium re gem aut principem 
Christian-urn non fuerint actualiter possesse usque ad diem nativitatis do mini 
nostri Jhesu Christi proxime preteritum a 19 quo incipit annus presens millesi- 
mus quadringentesimus nonages-imus tertius, quando fuerunt per nuntios 
et capitaneos vestros invente alique predictarum insularum, auctoritate 
Omnipotentis Dei nobis in beato Petro concessa, ac vicariatus Jhesu Christi, 
qua fungimur in terris, cum omnibus illarum dominiis, civitatibus, castris, 
locis et villis, juribusque et jurisdictionibus* ac pertinentiis universis, vobis 
heredibusque et successoribus vestris, Castelle et Legionis regibus, in per- 
petuum tenore presentium donamus, concedimus, et assignamus, vosque et 
heredes ac successores prefatos illarum dominos cum plena, libera, et 
omnimoda potestate, auctoritate, et jurisdictione, facimus, constituimus, et 
deputamus ; decernentes nichilominus per hujusmodi donationem, conces- 
sionem, et assignationem nostram nulli Christiano principi, qui actualiter 
prefatas insulas aut terras firmas possederit usque ad predictum diem Nativi 
tatis Domini nostri Jhesu Christi, jus quesitum sublatum intelligi posse aut 
auferri debere. Et insuper mandamus vobis in virtute sancte obedientie, ut, 
sicut etiam pollicemini et non dubitamus pro vestra maxima devotione et regia 
magnanimitate vos esse facturos, ad terras firmas et insulas predictas viros 
probos et Deum timentes, doctos, peritos, et expertos, ad instruendum incolas 
et habitatores prefatos in fide Catholica et bonis moribus imbuendum destinare 

"The Vatican text reads et. " Cf. Doc. 1, note 38. 

14 Of the many commentaries on the phrase, " versus occidentem et meridiem ", the 
best appears to be that of Vander Linden, in his article on " Alexander VI. and the 
Demarcation" in the American Historical Review, XXII. 1-20. 

" It is highly probable that this line was suggested by Columbus. Cf. Dawson, Lines 
of Demarcation, pp. 491-493; and Vander Linden, op cit. 

18 A discussion of ancient and medieval measures of length, including the marine 
league, is in Dawson, Lines of Demarcation, pp. 502-517, 545, 546. Kretschmer calcu 
lates that, reckoning a league as equal to four Roman or Italian miles, each equal to 
about 1480 metres, and coupling from San Antonio, the most westerly of the Cape Verde 
Islands, the longitude of the first demarcation line was 31 west. Entdeckung, p. 303. 

" The Vatican text reads in. 



May 4., 1493 75 

debeatis, omnem clebitam diligentiam in premissis adhibentes, ac quibuscunque 
personis cujuscunque dignitatis, etiam imperialis el regalis, status, gradus, 
ordinis, vel conditionis, sub excommunicationis late sententie pena, quam eo 
ipso si contrafecerint, incurrant, districtius inhibemus, ne ad insulas et terras 
firmas, inventas et inveniendas, detectas et detegendas versus occidentem et 
meridiem, fabricando et constituendo lineam a polo Arctico ad polum Antarc- 
ticum, sive terre firme et insule invente et inveniende sint versus Indiam aut 
versus aliam quancunque partem, que linea distet a qualibet insularum, que 
vulgariter nuncupantur de los Azores et Caboverde, centum leucis versus 
occidentem et meridiem, ut prefertur, pro mercibus habendis vel quavis alia 
de causa, accedere presumant absque vestra ac heredum et successorum 
vestrorum predictorum licentia speciali, non obstantibus constitutionibus et 
ordinationibus apostolicis, ceterisque contrariis quibuscunque, in Illo a quo 
imperia et dominationes ac bona cuncta procedunt confidentes, quod, dirigente 
Domino M actus vestros, si hujtismodi sanctum et laudabile propositum pro- 
sequamini, brevi tempore, cum felicitate et gloria totius populi Christiani, 
vestri labores et conatus exitum felicissimum consequentur. Verum, quia 
difficile foret presentes litteras ad singula queque loca in quibus expediens 
fuerit deferri, volumus, ac motu et scientia similibus decernimus, quod illarum 
transtmiptis manu publici notarii inde rogati subscriptis, et sigillo alicujus 
persone in ecclesiastica dignitate constitute, seu curie ecclesiastice munitis, ea 
prorsus fides in judicio et extra ac alias ubilibet adhibeatur, que presentibus 
adhiberetur, si essent exhibite vel ostense. Nulli ergo omnino hominum liceat 
hanc paginam nostre commendationis, ortationis, requisitionis, donationis, 
concessionis, assignationis, constitutionis, deputationis, decreti, mandati, in- 
hibitionis, et voluntatis, infringere, vel ei ausu temerario contraire. Si quis 
autem hoc attemptare presumpserit, indignationem Omnipotentis Dei ac 
beatorum Petri et Pauli apostolorum ejus se noverit incursurum. 

Datum Rome apud Sanctum Petrum, anno Incarnationis Dominice mil- 
lesimo quadringentesimo nonagesimo tertio, quarto nonas Maii, pontificatus 
nostri anno primo. 

Gratis de mandato sanctissimi Domini nostri pape. 
Jun[io]. Pro r[eferenda]rio, Pro Jo. BUF[OLINUS], M 

A. DE MUCCIARELLIS. A. SANTOSEVERINO." 

L. PODOCA.THARUS. 



TRANSLATION.* 1 

Alexander, bishop, servant of the servants of God, to the illustrious 
sovereigns, our very dear son in Christ, Ferdinand, king, and our very dear 
daughter in Christ, Isabella, queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Sicily, and 
Granada, health and apostolic benediction. Among other works well pleasing 
to the Divine Majesty and cherished of our heart, this assuredly ranks highest, 
that in our times especially the Catholic faith and the Christian religion be 
exalted and be everywhere increased and spread, that the health of souls be 

29 The Vatican text omits Domino. 

21 The reading of these names is due to Professor yander Linden, whose article in the 
American Historical Review, XXII. 1-20, contains information concerning the signa 
tories of this bull. 

" See Doc. 5, note 19. 
6 



76 Doc. j. The Bull Inter C act era 

cared for and that barbarous nations be overthrown and brought to the 
faith itself. Wherefore inasmuch as by the favor of divine clemency, we, 
though of insufficient merits, have been called to this Holy See of Peter, 
recognizing that as true Catholic kings and princes, such as we have known 
you always to be, and as your illustrious deeds already known to almost the 
whole world declare, you not only eagerly desire but with every effort, zeal, 
and diligence, without regard to hardships, expenses, dangers, with the shed 
ding even of your blood, are laboring to that end ; recognizing also that you 
have long since dedicated to this purpose your whole soul and all your en 
deavors as witnessed in these times with so much glory to the Divine Name 
in your recovery of the kingdom of Granada from the yoke of the Saracens 
we therefore are rightly led, and hold it as our duty, to grant you even of our 
own accord and in your favor those things whereby with effort each day 
more hearty you may be enabled for the honor of God himself and the spread 
of the Christian rule to carry forward your holy and praiseworthy purpose 
so pleasing to immortal God. We have indeed learned that you, who for a 
long time had intended to seek out and discover certain islands and main 
lands remote and unknown and not hitherto discovered by others, to the end 
that you might bring to the worship of our Redeemer and the profession 
of the Catholic faith their residents and inhabitants, having been up to the 
present time greatly engaged in the siege and recovery of the kingdom itself 
of Granada we^e unable to accomplish this holy and praiseworthy purpose ; 
but the said kingdom having at length been regained, as was pleasing to the 
Lord, you, with the wish to fulfill your desire, chose our beloved son, Christo 
pher Columbus, a man assuredly worthy and of the highest recommendations 
and fitted for so great an undertaking, whom you furnished with ships and 
men equipped for like designs, not without the greatest hardships, dangers, 
and expenses, to make diligent quest for these remote and unknown main 
lands and islands through the sea, where hitherto no one had sailed ; and they 
at length, with divine aid and with the utmost diligence sailing in the ocean 
sea, discovered certain very remote islands and even mainlands that hitherto 
had not been discovered by others ; wherein dwell very many peoples living 
in peace, and, as reported, going unclothed, and not eating flesh. Moreover, 
as your aforesaid envoys are of opinion, these very peoples living in the said 
islands and countries believe in one God, the Creator in heaven, and seem 
sufficiently disposed to embrace the Catholic faith and be trained in good 
morals. And it is hoped that, were they instructed, the name of the Savior, 
our Lord Jesus Christ, would easily be introduced into the said countries and 
islands. Also, on one of the chief of these aforesaid islands the said Christo 
pher has already caused to be put together and built a fortress fairly equipped, 
wherein he has stationed as garrison certain Christians, companions of his, 
who are to make search for other remote and unknown islands and mainlands. 
In the islands and countries already discovered are found gold, spices, and 
very many other precious things of divers kinds and qualities. Wherefore, 
as becomes Catholic kings and princes, after earnest consideration of all 
matters, especially of the rise and spread of the Catholic faith, as was the 
fashion of your ancestors, kings of renowned memory, you have purposed 
with the favor of divine clemency to bring under your sway the said main 
lands and islands with their residents and inhabitants and to bring them to 
the Catholic faith. Hence, heartily commending in the Lord this your holy 
and praiseworthy purpose, and desirous that it be duly accomplished, and 



May 4, 1493 77 

that the name of our Savior be carried into those regions, we exhort you very 
earnestly in the Lord and by your reception of holy baptism, whereby you 
are bound to our apostolic commands, and by the bowels of the mercy of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, enjoin strictly, that inasmuch as with eager zeal for the 
true faith you design to equip and despatch this expedition, you purpose also, 
as is your duty, to lead the peoples dwelling in those islands and countries to 
embrace the Christian religion ; nor at any time let dangers or hardships 
deter you therefrom, with the stout hope and trust in your hearts that Al 
mighty God will further your undertakings. And, in order that you may 
enter upon so great an undertaking with greater readiness and heartiness 
endowed with the benefit of our apostolic favor, we, of our own accord, not 
at your instance nor the request of anyone else in your regard, but of our own 
sole largess and certain knowledge and out of the fullness of our apostolic 
power, by the authority of Almighty God conferred upon us in blessed Peter 
and of the vicarship of Jesus Christ, which we hold on earth, do by tenor 
of these presents, should any of said islands have been found by your envoys 
and captains, give, grant, and assign to you and your heirs and successors, 
kings of Castile and Leon, forever, together with all their dominions, cities, 
camps, places, and villages, and all rights, jurisdictions, and appurtenances, 
alljslands and mainlands found and to be found, discovered and to be dis 
covered towards the west and south, by drawing and establishing a line from 
the Arctic pole, namely the north, to the Antarctic pole, namely the south, no 
matter whether the said mainlands and islands are found and to be found in 
the direction of India or towards any other quarter, the said line to be distant 
one hundred leagues towards the west and south from any of the islands 
commonly known as the Azores and Cape Verde. With this proviso how 
ever that none of the islands and mainlands, found and to be found, dis 
covered and to be discovered, beyond that said line towards the west and 
south, be in the actual possession of any Christian king or prince up to the 
birthday of our Lord Jesus Christ just past from which the present year one 
thousand four hundred and ninety-three begins. And we make, appoint, and 
depute you and your said heirs and successors lords of them with full and 
free power, authority, and jurisdiction of every kind ; with this proviso how 
ever, that by this our gift, grant, and assignment no right acquired by any 
Christian prince, who may be in actual possession of said islands and main 
lands prior to the said birthday of our Lord Jesus Christ, is hereby to be 
understood to be withdrawn or taken away. Moreover we command you in 
virtue of holy obedience that, employing all due diligence in the premises, 
as you also promise nor do we doubt your compliance therein in accordance 
with your loyalty and royal greatness of spirit you should appoint to the 
aforesaid mainlands and islands worthy, God-fearing, learned, skilled, and 
experienced men, in order to instruct the aforesaid inhabitants and residents 
in the Catholic faith and train them in good morals. Furthermore, under 
penalty of excommunication late sententie to be incurred ipso facto, should 
anyone thus contravene, we strictly forbid all persons of whatsoever rank, 
even imperial and royal, or of whatsoever estate, degree, order, or condition, 
to dare, without your special permit or that of your aforesaid heirs and suc 
cessors, to go for the purpose of trade or any other reason to the islands or 
mainlands, found and to be found, discovered and to be discovered, towards 
the west and south, by drawing and establishing a line from the Arctic pole 
to the Antarctic pole, no matter whether the mainlands and islands, found 



78 Doc. 7. The Bull Inter Caetera 

and to be found, lie in the direction of India or toward any other quarter 
whatsoever, the said line to be distant one hundred leagues towards the west 
and south, as is aforesaid, from any of the islands commonly known as the 
Azores and Cape Verde ; apostolic constitutions and ordinances and other 
decrees whatsoever to the contrary notwithstanding. We trust in Him from 
whom empires and governments and all good things proceed, that, should you, 
with the Lord s guidance, pursue this holy and praiseworthy undertaking, in 
a short while your hardships and endeavors will attain the most felicitous 
result, to the happiness and glory of all Christendom. But inasmuch as it 
would be difficult to have these present letters sent to all places where desir 
able, we wish, and with similar accord and knowledge do decree, that to 
copies of them, signed by the hand of a public notary commissioned there 
for, and sealed with the seal of any ecclesiastical officer or ecclesiastical 
court, the same respect is to be shown in court and outside as well as any 
where else as would be given to these presents should they thus be exhibited 
or shown. Let no one, therefore, infringe, or with rash boldness contravene, 
this our recommendation, exhortation, requisition, gift, grant, assignment, 
constitution, deputation, decree, mandate, prohibition, and will. Should any 
one presume to attempt this, be it known to him that he will incur the wrath 
of Almighty God and of the blessed apostles Peter and Paul. Given at Rome, 
at St. Peter s, in the year of the incarnation of our Lord one thousand four 
hundred and ninety-three, the fourth of May, and the first year of our 
pontificate. 

Gratis by order of our most holy lord, the pope. 
June. For the referendary, For J. BUFOLINUS, 

A. DE MUCCIARELLIS. A. SANTOSEVERINO. 

L. PODOCATHARUS. 



8. 

The Bull Dudum Siquidem (Alexander VI.). September 26, 1493. 

INTRODUCTION. 

Not long after the interview of March 9, 1493, between Columbus and 
John II. of Portugal, 1 the latter caused an armada to be fitted out to take 
possession of the lands found by Columbus. A report 2 of these hostile prepa 
rations having reached the Spanish sovereigns they at once despatched Lope 
de Herrera to the Portuguese court to request that ambassadors be sent them, 
and that the caravels should not sail, or Portuguese subjects go to those parts, 
until it should be determined within whose seas the discoveries lay. 

Meanwhile the King of Portugal had sent Ruy de Sande to the Spanish 
sovereigns to entreat them (among other things) to prohibit their subjects 
from fishing south of Cape Bojador till the limits of the possessions of both 
kingdoms should be fixed, and to make these limits the parallel of the 
Canaries, leaving the navigation south of this line to the Portuguese. 1 In 
the middle of August the Portuguese ambassadors, Pero Diaz and Ruy de 
Pina, arrived in Barcelona, and an attempt at settlement was made. In the 
midst of the negotiations the Spanish sovereigns appealed to the Pope, who, on 
September 26, granted them a fourth bull, which confirmed the bull Inter 
caetera of May 4,* extended it so as to secure to Spain any lands discovered 
by her in her westward navigations, even though they should be in the eastern 
regions and belong to India, excluded the subjects of all other crowns from 
navigating or fishing or exploring in those parts, without, license from Spain, 
and revoked all the earlier papal grants to Portugal which might seem to give 
her a claim to lands not already actually possessed by her in those regions. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Texts: MS. Two original manuscripts of the promulgated bull, written 
on parchment and with the leaden seal affixed, are in the Archives of the 
Indies at Seville, Patronato, i-i-i, nos. 2. and 5. A manuscript copy, 

1 See introduction to Doc. I. 

1 The report came from the Duke of Medina-Sidonia. A letter in respect to this 
from the sovereigns to the duke, dated May 2, 1493, is printed in Navarrete, Viagts, 
torn. II., no. 16, pp. 22-23. 

Las Casas quotes Columbus as stating that King John " said that there was mainland 
to the south". J. E. Olson and E. G. Bourne, Northmen, Columbus, and Cabot (1906), 
p. 326. For these negotiations see Herrera, Historia General, dec. I., lib. II., c. 5 ; Zurita, 
Historic, torn. I., lib. I., c. 25 ; Munoz, Historia, torn. I., lib., IV., 26. 

4 Doc. 7. 

79 



80 Doc. 8. The Bull Dudum Siquidem 

probably dating from the first years of the sixteenth century, is inserted 
at the beginning of a manuscript of the Columbus Codex, preserved in 
the Library of Congress. This bull has not been found in the Vatican 
registers, and it is a curious fact that neither of the original manuscripts 
of the promulgated bull bears the customary endorsement " Registrata ". 

Texts : Printed. The text of the promulgated bull has been printed by J. de 
Solorzano Pereira, De Indiarum Jure (1629-1639), I. 613, and from 
this source in G. Berchet, Fonti Italiane (1892-1893), I. 15-16 (pt. III. 
of the Raccolti di Documenti published by the Reale Commissione 
Colombiana) ; S. E. Dawson, " Line of Demarcation of Pope Alex 
ander VI.", etc. (1899), pp. 538-539, in the Transactions of the Royal 
Society of Canada, 2d ser., 1899-1900, vol. V., 2; and J. B. Thacher, 
Columbus (1903-1904), II. 162-164. It has also been printed in the 
Coleccion de Documentos Ineditos . . . de Ultramar, 2d ser., torn. V., 
Documentos Legislatives (ed. A. M. Fabie, 1890-1897), I. 1-4. 

Translations: A Spanish translation of the bull, made in 1554 by Gracian 
de Aldrete, secretary of Philip II., and printed in Navarrete, Coleccion 
de Viages (1825-1837), torn. II., app., pp. 404-406, has been erroneously 
supposed by several modern historians to be the basis of Solorzano s 
Latin text. The English translation in Blair and Robertson, Philippine 
Islands (1903-1909), I. 111-114, is from the Spanish version. Thacher s 
(op. cit., II. 163-164) and Dawson s (op. cit., pp. 539-540) are from 
Solorzano s text. 

References: See under Doc. 9. 



TEXT. 

Alexander episcopus, servus servorum Dei : carissimo in Christo filio 
Ferdinando regi et carissime in Christo filie Elisabeth regine Castelle, 
Legionis, Aragonum, et Granate, illustribus, salutem et apostolicam benedic- 
tionem. 

Dudum siquidem omnes et singulas insulas et terras firmas, inventas et 
inveniendas versus occidentem et meridiem, que sub actuali dominio temporal! 
aliquorum dominorum Christianorum constitute non essent, vobis heredi- 
busque et subcessoribus vestris Castelle et Legionis regibus, imperpetuum, 
motu proprio et ex certa scientia ac de apostolice potestatis plenitudine donavi- 
mus, concessimus, et assignavimus, vosque ac heredes et successores prefatos 
de illis investivimus, illarumque dominos cum plena, libera, et omnimoda 
potestate, auctoritate, et jurisdictione, constituimus et deputavimus, prout 
in nostris inde confectis litteris, quarum tenores, ac si de verbo ad verbum, 
presentibus insererentur haberi volumus pro sufficienter expressis, plenius 
continetur.* Cum autem contingere posset quod nuntii et capitanei aut 
vassalli vestri, versus occidentem aut meridiem navigantes, ad partes orientales 
applicarent, ac insulas et terras firmas que Indie fuissent vel essent, repperi- 
rent, nos, volentes etiam vos favoribus prosequi gratiosis, motu et scientia ac 
potestatis plenitudine similibus, donationem, concessionem, assignationem, 
et litteras predictas, cum omnibus et singulis in eisdem litteris contends 

* The text is from the original manuscript of the bull, preserved in the Archives of 
the Indies at Seville, Patronato, r-i-i, no. 5. 

*The reference is to the bull Inter caetera of May 4, Doc. 7. 



September 26, 1493 81 

clausulis, ad omnes et singulas insulas et terras firmas, inventas et inveniendas 
ac detectas et detegendas, que navigando aut itinerando versus occidentem 
aut meridiem hujusmodi sint vel fuerint aut apparuerint, sive in partibus 
occidentalibus vel meridionalibus et orientalibus et Indie existant, auctoritate 
apostolica, tenore presentium, in omnibus et per omnia, perinde ac si in 
litteris predictis de eis plena et expressa mentio facta fuisset, extendimus 
pariter et ampliamus, vobis ac heredibus et successoribus vestris predictis, 
per vos vel alium seu alios, corporalem insularum ac terrarum predictarum 
possessionem, propria auctoritate libere apprehendendi ac perpetuo retinendi, 
illasque adversus quoscunque impedientes etiam defendendi, plenam et 
liberam facultatem concedentes, ac quibuscunque personis etiam cujuscunque 
dignitatis, status, gradus, ordinis, vel condicionis, sub excommunicationis 
late sententie pena, quam contrafacientes eo ipso incurrant, districtius in- 
hibentes, ne ad partes predictas ad navigandum, piscandum, vel inquirendum 
insulas vel terras firmas aut quovis alio respectu seu colore ire vel mittere 
quoquo modo presumant absque expressa et spetiali vestra ac heredum et 
successorum predictorum licentia, Non obstantibus constitutionibus et ordi- 
nationibus apostolicis, ac quibusvis donationibus, concessionibus, facultatibus, 
et assignationibus per nos vel predecessores nostros quibuscunque regibus, 
principibus, infantibus, aut quibusvis aliis personis aut ordinibus et miliciis, 
de predictis partibus, maribus, insulis, atque terris, vel aliqua eorum parte, 
etiam ex quibusvis causis, etiam pietatis vel fidei aut redemptionis captivorum, 
et aliis quantuncunque urgentissimis, et cum quibusvis clausulis etiam deroga- 
toriarum derogatoriis, fortioribus, effkacioribus, et insolitis, etiam quascunque 
sententias, censuras, et penas in se continentibus, que suum per actualem 
et realem possessionem non essent sortite effectum, licet forsan aliquando 
illi quibus donationes et concessiones hujusmodi facte fuissent, aut eorum 
nuntii, ibidem navigassent, quas tenores illarum etiam presentibus pro suffi- 
cienter expressis et insertis habentes, motu, scientia, et potestatis plenitudine 
similibus, omnino revocamus, ac quo ad terras et insulas per eos actualiter 
non possessas pro infectis haberi volumus, nee non omnibus illis que in litteris 
predictis voluimus non obstare, ceterisque contrariis quibuscunque. Datum 
Rome apud Sanctum Petrum, anno Incarnationis Dominice millesimo quad- 
ringentesimo nonagesimo tertio, sexto kalendas Octobris, pontificatus nostri 
anno secundo. Gratis de mandate sanctissimi domini nostri pape. 

Jo[lIANNES] NlLIS.* P. GORMAZ." 

Sept[embri]. 

7 The reference to fishing is doubtless explained by the fact that Spain, yielding to 
the demands of Portugal, had just agreed to forbid her subjects to fish south of Cape 
Bojador. One of the two treaties between Spain and Portugal, concluded at Tordesillas 
on June 7, 1494, relates to the fisheries from Cape Bojador to the Rio do Ouro. This 
treaty is printed in J. Ramos-Coelhos, Algs. Docs. (1892), pp. 80 ff. 

* This refers to the Portuguese military Order of Christ, to which Pope Calixtus 
had granted the spiritualities of Guinea, and beyond, as far as to the Indians. See Doc. 2. 

* Cf. Doc. 6, note 14. 

10 In the second copy of the bull the name of L. Alvarus is substituted. The name of 
the pontifical secretary, L. Podocatharus, appears on the dorse of both copies of the bull. 



82 Doc. 8. The Bull Dudum Siquidem 

TRANSLATION." 

Alexander, bishop, servant of the servants of God, to the illustrious 
sovereigns, his very dear son in Christ, Ferdinand, king, and his very dear 
daughter in Christ, Isabella, queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, and Granada, 
health and apostolic benediction. 

A short while ago of our own accord, and out of our certain knowledge, and 
fullness of our apostolic power, we gave, conveyed, and assigned forever 
to you and your heirs and successors, kings of Castile and Leon, all islands 
and mainlands whatsoever, discovered and to be discovered, toward the west 
and south, that were not under the actual temporal dominion of any Christian 
lords. Moreover, we invested therewith you and your aforesaid heirs and 
successors, and appointed and deputed you as lords of them with full and 
free power, authority, and jurisdiction of every kind, as more fully appears 
in our letters given to that effect, the terms whereof we wish to be understood 
as if they were inserted word for word in these presents. But since it may 
happen that your envoys and captains, or vassals, while voyaging toward the 
west or south, might bring their ships to land in eastern regions and there 
discover islands and mainlands that belonged or belong to India, with the 
desire moreover to bestow gracious favors upon you, through our similar 
accord, knowledge, and fullness of power, by apostolic authority and by 
tenor of these presents, in all and through all, just as if in the aforesaid 
letters full and express mention had been made thereof, we do in like manner 
amplify and extend our aforesaid gift, grant, assignment, and letters, with 
all and singular the clauses contained in the said letters, to all islands and 
mainlands whatsoever, found and to be found, discovered and to be dis 
covered, that are or may be or may seem to be in the route of navigation or 
travel toward the west or south, whether they be in western parts, or in the 
regions of the south and east and of India. We grant to you and your afore 
said heirs and successors full and free power through your own authority, 
exercised through yourselves or through another or others, freely to take 
corporal possession of the said islands and countries and to hold them forever, 
and to defend them against whosoever may oppose, With this strict prohi 
bition however to all persons, of no matter what rank, estate, degree, order 
or condition, that under penalty of excommunication latae sententiae, which 
such as contravene are to incur ipso facto, no one without your express 
and special license or that of your aforesaid heirs and successors shall, for 
no matter what reason or pretense, presume in any manner to go or send 
to the aforesaid regions for the purpose of navigating or of fishing, or 
of searching for islands or mainlands notwithstanding apostolic consti 
tutions and ordinances, and any gifts, grants, powers, and assignments 
of the aforesaid regions, seas, islands, and countries, or any portion of 
them, made by us or our predecessors to any kings, princes, infantes, or 
any other persons, orders, or knighthoods, for no matter what reasons, even 
for motives of charity or the faith, or the ransom of captives, or for other 
reasons, even the most urgent ; notwithstanding also any repealing clauses, 
even though they are of the most positive, mandatory, and unusual char 
acter; and no matter what sentences, censures, and penalties of any kind 
they may contain ; providing however these grants have not gone into effect 
through actual and real possession, even though it may have happened that 

11 See Doc. 5, note 19. 



83 

the persons to whom such gifts and grants were made, or their envoys, 
sailed thither at some time through chance. Wherefore should any such 
gifts or grants have been made, considering their terms to have been suffi 
ciently expressed and inserted in our present decree, we through similar 
accord, knowledge, and fullness of our power do wholly revoke them and 
as regards the countries and islands not actually taken into possession, we 
wish the grants to be considered as of no effect, notwithstanding what may 
appear in the aforesaid letters, or anything else to the contrary. Given at 
Rome, at St. Peter s, on the twenty-sixth day of September, in the year of 
the incarnation of our Lord one thousand four hundred and ninety-three, 
the second year of our pontificate. 

Gratis by order of our most holy lord the Pope. 

JOHANNES NILIS. P. GORMAZ. 

September. 



9. 

Treaty between Spain and Portugal concluded at Tordesillas, June 
7, 1494. Ratification by Spain, July 2, 1494. [Ratification 
by Portugal, September 5, 1404.] 

INTRODUCTION. 

In the negotiations begun at Barcelona in the middle of August, 1493, 
Spain insisted that just as her navigators would refrain from visiting the 
regions reserved to Portugal which Spain described as the Madeiras, 
Azores, Cape Verde, and other islands discovered prior to 14/9, and the 
region from the Canaries down towards Guinea so the Portuguese must 
keep away from Spain s discoveries. 2 No agreement, however, could be 
reached, because, as the Spanish sovereigns wrote to Columbus, the Portu 
guese ambassadors were not informed as to what belonged to Spain. Ac 
cordingly, in November, 1493, a magnificent embassy, headed by Garcia de 
Carvajal, brother of the Spanish ambassador in Rome, and Pedro de Ayala, 
was despatched to the Portuguese court ; but it accomplished nothing. In 
March, 1494, the Portuguese commissioners, Ruy de Sousa, Joao de Sousa, 
his son, and Ayres de Almada, treated directly with the Spanish sovereigns 
in Medina del Campo. Portugal felt aggrieved by the papal bull, 4 which 
designated as the eastern limit of the Spanish demarcation a meridian only 
one hundred leagues west of the Azores or Cape Verde Islands. As their 
ships were continually sailing to these islands, the Portuguese considered the 
limits too narrow. They therefore wished another meridian to be agreed 
on, farther to the west, half-way between the Cape Verde Islands and the 
lands discovered by Columbus. 6 King John " was certain that within those 
limits famous lands and things must be found." This new line of demarca 
tion was agreed to by Ferdinand and Isabella, and on June 7, at Tordesillas 

1 See introduction to Doc. 8. "Zurita, Historia, lib. I., c. 25. 

* " Porque ellos no vienen inf ormados de lo que es nuestro." Navarrete, Stages. 
torn. II., no. 71, p. 108. 

4 Doc. 7. 

Zurita, op. cit., lib. I., c. 29, ff. 35, 36. Harrisse suggests that the Portuguese had in 
view the acquisition of those islands in the northwest Atlantic fancifully displayed on 
the maps of Fra Mauro and other early cartographers. Discovery of North America 
(1892), pp. 57, 58. The voyages of Caspar Corte-Real to the northwest lend some sup 
port to this suggestion but, according to Las Casas, the southwest was the special region 
in which at this time King John hoped to discover new lands. J. E. Olson and E. G. 
Bourne, Northmen, Columbus, and Cabot (1906), p. 326. There are a number of indica 
tions that both Spaniards and Portuguese coveted particularly the south Atlantic. 

84 



Tordesillas, 1494 85 

near Vallaclolid, the Spanish representatives, Don Enrique Enriques, Don 
Gutierre de Cardenas, and Dr. Rodrigo Maldonado, concluded a treaty with 
the above-mentioned plenipotentiaries of Portugal. According to this treaty 
all lands lying east of a meridian located 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde 
Islands, and discovered by Portugal, were to pertain to that country and all 
lands west of the line, discovered by Spain, were to pertain to Spain. If the 
sovereign of either country discovered lands within the bounds assigned to 
the other, he must surrender them to the other monarch. Within ten months 
after the date of the treaty each party was to send one or two caravels with 
pilots, astrologers, and mariners (the same number on each side) to assemble 
at the Grand Canary, sail to the Cape Verde Islands and thence west to deter 
mine the boundary ; if the line should intersect land, boundary towers or 
marks were to be erected. Spanish ships crossing the Portuguese seas east 
of the line must follow the most direct route to their destination. Lands 
discovered by Spain within the twenty days next following the conclusion of 
the treaty were to belong to Portugal if situated within the first 250 leagues 
west of the Cape Verde Islands, otherwise to Spain. The pope was asked to 
confirm the treaty upon the request of either or both parties thereto. 

Since in the then existing state of knowledge it was impossible to deter 
mine the position of the delimiting meridian, the treaty led to further 
disagreements and its interpretation has been a matter of dispute down to 
modern times. At different periods, in accordance with her changing inter 
ests, Portugal claimed now one and now another of the Cape Verde group 
as the point of departure for measurement westwards. Another debated 
question was the number of leagues in a degree.* 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Text: MS. The original manuscript of the ratification signed by Ferdinand 
and Isabella at Arevalo, July 2, 1494, is in the National Archives at 
Lisbon, gav. 17, mac.o 2, no. 24. The original manuscript of the ratifi 
cation signed by John II. at Setubal on September 5, 1494, is in the 
Archives of the Indies, " Legajo escogido ". 

Text: Printed. J. Ramos-Coelho, Alguns Documentos (1892), pp. 69-80; 
G. F. von Martens, Supplement au Recucil des Traites (1802, etc.), I. 
372-388; C. Calvo, Receuil des Traites (1862-1866), I. 19-36; J. F. 
Pacheco et al., Coleccion de Documentos Ineditos (1864-1884), XXX. 
258-285; M. Fernandez de Navarrete, Coleccion de Viages (1825-1837), 
II. 130-143, and thence in J. B. Thacher, Columbus (1903-1904), II. 165- 
175; Boletin del Centra de Estudios Americanistas, ano III., no. 7. 
This treaty is also contained in the official collections of treaties of some 

* For an account of the knowledge of nautical astronomy in Portugal at this time, see 
J. Bensaude, L Astronomie Nautique au Portugal a I Epoque des Grandes Decouvertes 
(1912), and the Collection de Documents, relative to this subject, now being published 
under his direction by order of the Portuguese ministry of public instruction. 



86 Doc. p. Spain Portugal 

of the South American states, and in various publications of those 
states dealing with boundary disputes. There are many differences 
between these abovementioned texts, due in some cases to the modern 
izing of the language, and in some cases, apparently, to the fact that they 
are translations from Portuguese into Spanish. 

Translation,: English. Thacher, op. cit., II. 175-186; Argentine Republic, 
Arbitration upon a Part of the National Territory of Misiones, I. Ar 
gentine Evidence (1893), PP- 1 3~ 2 4> an d thence in the Report of the 
American Historical Association for 1895, pp. 524-534. The most im 
portant parts of the treaty are translated in E. H. Blair and J. A. 
Robertson, Philippine Islands (1903-1909), I. 115-129. 

References : Contemporary and early writings. Documents in Navarrete, 
op. cit., torn. II., nos. 16 (p. 22), 50 (p. 76), 54 (p. 78), 63 (p. 91), 67 
(p. 96), 68 (p. 97), 69 (p. 106), 71 (p. 108), 79 (p. 154). Ruy de Pina, 
Chronica d El Rei Joad II., in J. F. Correa da Serra, Collecqao de Livros 
Ineditos de Historia Portuguese, (pub. by the Acad. Real das Scien- 
cias, Lisbon, 1790, etc.), torn. II. , c. 66; Garcia de Resende, Chronica de 
D. Joam II. (1752), cc. 166-168; J. de Barros, Da Asia, I. (1778), 
dec. I., liv. III., c. ii ; G. Zurita, Historia del Rey Don Hernando (1580), 
torn. I., lib. I., cc. 25, 29 ; A. de Herrera, Historia General de los Hechos 
de los Castellanos (1730), torn. I., dec. L, lib. II., cc. 5, 8, 10; Viscount 
de Santarem, Quadro Elenientar (1842-1876), I. 392-393. 

References: Later writings. J. B. Mufioz, Historia del Nuevo-Mundo 
(1793), torn. I., lib. IV., 26-30; H. Schafer, Geschichte von Portugal 
(1836-1854), III. 162-163, in Heeren and Ukert, Geschichte der Euro- 
pdischen Staaten; H. Harrisse, Diplomatic History of America (1897), 
chs. 7 and following; S. E. Dawson, "Line of Demarcation of Pope 
Alexander VI.", etc. (1899), pp. 496-526, in the Transactions of the 
Royal Society of Canada, 2d ser., 1899-1900, vol. V., 2; E. G. Bourne, 
Essays in Historical Criticism (1901), pp. 201-203; H. Vander Linden, 
" Alexander VI. and the Demarcation of the Maritime and Colonial 
Domains of Spain and Portugal ", Am. Hist. Rev., XXII. 1-20. 



TEXT. 

Don Fernando e Dona Ysabel, por la gracja de Dios rrey e rreyna de 
Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, de Segilia, de Granada, de Toledo, de Valencia, 
de Galizia, de Mallorcas, de Sevilla, de Cerdefia, de Cordova, de Corgega, de 
Murgia, de Jahen, del Algarbe, de Algezira, de Gibraltar, de las yslas de 
Canaria, conde e condesa de Barcelona e senores de Vizcaya e de Molina, 
duques de Atenas e de Neopatria, condes de Rosellon e de Qerdania, marqueses 
de Oristan e de Gogeano, en uno con el Pringipe Don Juan, nuestro muy 
caro e muy amado hijo primogenito, heredero de los dichos nuestros rreynos 
e senorios. Por quanto por Don Enrrique Enrriques," nuestro mayordomo 

T The text is from the original manuscript of the ratification by Ferdinand and 
Isabella, in the National Archives at Lisbon, gav. 17, mago 2, no. 24. 

Son of the Admiral Don Fadrique Enriques. His family history is given by Dr. 
Lorenzo Galindez de Carvajal (cf. Doc. 13, note 17) in his Adiciones Genealogicas, 
published in Navarrete s Coleccion de Docttmentos Ineditos para la Historia de Espana, 
torn. XVIII., pp. 454 ff. 



Tordcsillas, 1494 87 

mayor, e Don Gutierre cle Cardenas, commisario mayor de Leon, nuestro 
contador mayor," y el Doctor Rodrigo Maldonado, 10 todos del nuestro consejo, 
fue tratado, asentado, e capitulado por nos y en nuestro nonbre e por virtud 
de nuestro poder, con el Serenisimo Don Juan, por la gragia de Dios rrey de 
Portugal e de los Algarbes de aquende e alende el mar en Africa, senor de 
Guinea, nuestro muy caro e muy amado hermano, e con Ruy de Sosa, senor 
de Usagres e Berengel, e Don Juan de Sosa su hi jo, almotagen mayor" del 
dicho Serenisimo Rey, nuestro hermano, e Arias de Almadana, corregidor 
de los fechos geviles de su corte " e del su desenbargo," todos del consejo 
del dicho Serenisimo Rey nuestro hermano, en su nonbre e por virtud de su 
poder sus enbaxadores, que a nos vinieron sobre la diferengia de lo que a 
nos y al dicho Serenisimo Rey nuestro hermano pertenesge de lo que hasta 
siete dias deste mes de Junio, en que estamos, de la fecha desta escriptura, 
esta por descubrir en el mar ogeano ; en la qual dicha capitulation los dichos 
nuestros procuradores, entre otras cosas, prometieron que dentro de gierto 
termino en ella contenido, nos otorgariamos, confirmariamos, jurariamos, 
ratificariamos, e aprovariamos la dicha capitulation por nuestras personas ; 
e nos, queriendo complir e cunpliendo todo lo que asi en nuestro nonbre fue 
asentado e capitulado e otorgado gerca de lo suso dicho, mandamos traer 
ante nos la dicha escriptura de la dicha capitulation e asiento para la ver e 
esaminar, e el tenor della de verbo ad verbum es este que se sigue : 

En el nonbre de Dios Todo poderoso, Padre e Fijo e Espiritu Santo, tres 
personas rrealmente distintas e apartadas e una sola esengia divina. Mani- 
fiesto e notorio sea a todos quantos este publico ynstrumento vieren, como 
en la villa de Tordesillas, a siete dias del mes de Junio, ano del nasgimiento 
de nuestro Senor Jhesu Christo de mill e quatrogientos e noventa e quatro 
afios, en presengia de nos, los secretaries y escrivanos e notarios publicos de 
yuso escriptos, estando presentes los honrrados Don Enrrique Enrriques, 
mayordomo mayor de los muy altos e muy poderosos pringipes, los senores 
Don Fernando e Dona Isabel, por la gragia de Dios rrey e rreyna de Castilla, 
de Leon, de Aragon, de Segilia, de Granada, etc., Don Gutierre de Cardenas, 
contador mayor de los dichos senores rrey e rreyna, e el Doctor Rodrigo 
Maldonado, todos del consejo de los dichos senores Rey e Reyna de Castilla, 
e de Leon, de Aragon, de Segilia e de Granada, etc., sus procuradores bastantes 
de la una parte, e los honrrados Ruy de Sosa, senor de Usagres e Berengel, 

* The contadorcs mayores, who at this time numbered two, were the heads of the 
financial administration of Spain. For a full account of their functions see " Organi 
zation de la Hacienda en la Primera Mitad del Siglo XVI " in F. de Laiglesia, 
Estudios Historicos, 1515-1555 (Madrid, 1908). 

10 He had been sent to Portugal in 1479 to negotiate the treaty of Alcaqovas. See Doc. 
3, introduction. 

11 It was the business of the almotace mor to supply the Portuguese court with pro 
visions, and to see that the roads over which the sovereign had to travel were in order. 
H. da Gama Barros, Historia da Administraqao Publica em Portugal nos Seculos XII. 
a XV. (1885-1896), I. 602-003. 

" The corregedor da corte was a magistrate who exercised in the place where the King 
of Portugal was, the police, administrative, and judicial functions exercised by the 
local corregedores. A few years before the date of this treaty, the single corregedor da 
corte was replaced by two corregedores, of whom one took cognizance of civil, the other 
of criminal, causes. Gama Barros, op. cit., I. 603, 604. 

" The desembargo d el rei was a kind of privy-council, whose members were generally 
lawyers. Ibid., p. 593. 



88 Doc. p. Spain Portugal 

e Don Juan de Sosa, su hijo, almotagen mayor del muy alto e muy exgelente 
senor, el senor Don Juan, por la gragia de Dios rrey de Portugal e de los 
Algarbes de aquende e de allende el mar en Africa, e senor de Guinea, e 
Arias de Almadana, corregidor de los fechos geviles en su corte, e del su 
desenbargo, todos del consejo del dicho senor Rey de Portugal, e sus enbaxa- 
d.ores e procuradores bastantes, segund amas las dichas partes lo mostraron 
por las cartas de poderes e procuragiones de los dichos senores sus consti- 
tuyentes, de las quales su tenor de verbo ad verbuwi es este que se sigue : 

[Here follow the full powers granted by Ferdinand and Isabella to 
Don Enrique Enriques, Don Gutierre de Cardenas, and Dr. Rodrigo 
Maldonado on June 5, 1494; and the full powers granted by Joao II. to 
Ruy de Sousa, Joao de Sousa, and Arias d Almadana on March 8, 1494.] 

E luego los dichos procuradores de los dichos senores Rey e Reyna de 
Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, de Segilia, de Granada, etc., e del dicho senor 
Rey de Portugal e de los Algarbes, etc., dixeron : 

[i.] Que, por quanto entre los dichos senores, sus constituyentes, ay 
gierta diferengia sobre lo que a cada una de las dichas partes pertenege de lo 
que fasta oydia, de la fecha desta capitulation, esta por descubrir en el mar 
ogeano, porende que ellos por bien de paz e concordia, e por conservagion del 
debdo e amor quel dicho senor Rey de Portugal tiene con los dichos senores 
Rey e Reyna de Castilla e de Aragon, etc., a sus Altezas plaze, e los dichos 
sus procuradores en su nonbre e por virtud de los dichos sus poderes otorgaron 
e consintieron que se haga e sefiale por el dicho mar ogeano una rraya o linea 
derecha de polo a polo, conviene a saber, del polo Artico al polo Antartico, 
que es de norte a sul, la qual rraya o linea se aya de dar e de derecha, como 
dicho es, a tresientas e setenta leguas de las Yslas del Cabo Verde, hasia la 
parte del poniente," por grados o por otra manera, como mejor y mas presto 
se pueda dar, de manera que no scan mas, e que todo lo que hasta aqui se ha 
fallado e descubierto e de aqui adelante se hallare e descubriere por el 
dicho senor Rey de Portugal y por sus navios, asy yslas, como tierra firme, 
desde la dicha rraya e linea, dada en la forma suso dicha, yendo por la dicha 
parte del levante dentro de la dicha rraya a la parte del levante, o del norte, 
o del sul della, tanto que no sea atravesando la dicha rraya, que esto sea 
e finque e pertenesca al dicho senor Rey de Portugal e a sus subgesores para 
sienpre jamas; e que todo lo otro, asi yslas, como tierra firme, halladas y 
por hallar, descubiertas y por descubrir, que son o fueren halladas por los 
dichos senores Rey e Reyna de Castilla e de Aragon, etc., e por sus navios, 
desde la dicha rraya, dada en la forma susodicha, yendo por la dicha parte 
del poniente, despues de pasada la dicha rraya, hasia el poniente, o el norte, 

14 A meridian 370 leagues west of San Antonio, the most westerly of the Cape Verde 
Islands, is in about 46 W. longitude ; i. e., east of the mouth of the Gurupy River. The 
question where, in 1494, the Spanish and Portuguese governments supposed the line 
to fall is elaborately discussed by Harrisse, Diplomatic History, and Dawson, Line of 
Demarcation. From both the Portuguese and the Spanish maps of the early sixteenth 
century, it appears that it was then believed that the line passed west of Newfoundland 
(Baccallaos). Columbus and his heirs never assented to the new line, which, on account 
of its more westerly position, deprived him of part of the region in which he had been 
granted important rights. See Harrisse s introduction to B. F. Stevens, Christopher 
Columbus: his own Book of Privileges, 1502 (1893), pp. Iviii, lix. For the methods 
employed at this time to determine latitude and longitude, see the works edited and 
written by J. Bensaude, and referred to above, note 6. 



TordcsiUas, 1^94 89 



o el sul della, que todo sea e finque e pertenesca a los dichos senores Rey e 
Reyna de Castilla e de Leon, etc., e a sus subgesores para sienpre jamas. 

[2.] Yten, los dichos procuradores prometieron e seguraron, por virtud 
de los dichos poderes, que de oy en adelante no enbiaran navios algunos, 
conviene a saber : los dichos senores Rey e Reyna de Castilla, e de Leon, e de 
Aragon, etc., por esta parte de la rraya a la parte del levante aquende de la 
dicha rraya, que queda para el dicho senor Rey de Portugal e de los Algarbes, 
etc., ni el dicho senor Rey de Portugal a la otra parte de la dicha rraya que 
queda para los dichos senores Rey e Reyna de Castilla, e de Aragon, etc., 
a descubrir e buscar tierras ni yslas algunas, ni a contratar, ni rrescatar, ni 
conquistar en manera alguna ; pero que, si acaesgiere que, yendo asi aquende 
de la dicha rraya, los dichos navios de los dichos senores Rey e Reyna de 
Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, etc., hallasen qualesquier yslas o tierras en 
lo que asi queda para el dicho senor Rey de Portugal, que aquello tal sea e 
finque para el dicho senor Rey de Portugal e para sus herederos para sienpre 
jamas ; e sus Altezas gelo ayan de mandar luego dar e entregar. E si los 
navios del dicho senor Rey de Portugal hallaren qualesquier yslas e tierras 
en la parte de los dichos senores Rey e Reyna de Castilla, e de Leon, e Aragon, 
etc., que todo lo tal sea e finque para los dichos senores Rey e Reyna de 
Castilla, de Leon, e de Aragon, etc., e para sus herederos para sienpre jamas ; 
e que el dicho senor Rey de Portugal gelo aya luego de mandar dar e entregar. 

[3.] Yten, para que la dicha linea o rraya de la dicha partition se aya de 
dar e de derecha e la mas cjerta que ser pudiere por las dichas tresientas e 
setenta leguas de las dichas yslas del Cabo Verde hasia la parte del poniente, 
como dicho es, es concordado e asentado por los dichos procuradores de anbas 
las dichas partes, que dentro de diez meses primeros siguientes, contados 
desde el dia de la fecha desta capitulation, los dichos senores sus consti- 
tuyentes ayan de enbiar dos o quatro caravelas, conviene a saber, una o dos 
de cada parte, o mas o menos, segund se acordare por las dichas partes que son 
negesarias, las quales para el dicho tienpo scan juntas en la ysla de la Grand 
Canaria, y enbien en ellas cada una de las dichas partes, personas, asi pilotos 
como astrologos y marineros y qualesquier otras personas que convengan, 
pero que sean tantos de una parte, como de otra ; y que algunas personas de 
los dichos pilotos e astrologos e marineros e personas que sepan que enbiaren 
los dichos senores Rey e Reyna de Castilla e de Leon, de Aragon, etc., 
vayan en el navio o navios, que enbiare el dicho senor Rey de Portugal e de 
los Algarbes, etc. ; e asi mismo algunas de las dichas personas que enbiare 
el dicho senor Rey de Portugal vayan en el navio o navios, que enbiaren los 
dichos senores Rey e Reyna de Castilla e Aragon, tantos de una parte como 
de otra, para que juntamente puedan mejor ver e rreconoscer la mar e los 
rrumos e vientos e grades de sol e norte e senalar las leguas sobredichas, 
tanto que para faser el seiialamiento e limite convirran todos juntos los que 
fueren en los dichos navios que enbiaren amas las dichas partes e llevaren 
sus poderes ; " los quales dichos navios todos juntamente continuen su camino 
a las dichas yslas del Cabo Verde, e desde alii tomaran surrota derecha al 
poniente hasta las dichas tresientas e setenta leguas, medidas como las dichas 
personas, que asi fueren, acordaren que se deven medir, sin perjuisio de las 
dichas partes ; y alii donde se acabaren se haga el punto e serial que convenga 
por grados de sol o de norte, o por singradura de leguas, o como mejor se 

"This stipulation was not carried out. See introduction to Doc. 10. 



90 Doc. p. Spain Portugal 

pudieren concordar. La qual dicha rraya senalen desde el dicho polo artico 
al dicho polo antartico, que es de norte a sul, como dicho es, y aquello que 
senalaren lo escrivan e firmen de sus nonbres las dichas personas, que asi 
f ueren embiadas por amas las*dichas partes, las quales han de llevar f acultad 
e poderes de las dichas partes, cada uno de la suya, para haser la dicha senal 
e limitagion y fecha por ellos, seyendo todos comformes que sea avida por 
senal e limitation perpetuamente para sienpre jamas, para que las dichas 
partes, ni alguna dellas, ni sus subgesores para sienpre jamas no la puedan 
contradezir, ni quitar, ni rremover en tiempo alguno, ni por alguna manera 
que sea o ser pueda. E sy caso fuere que la dicha rraya e limite de polo a 
polo, como dicho es, tocare en alguna ysla o tierra firme, que al comiengo de 
la tal ysla o tierra, que asi fuere hallada, donde tocare la dicha rraya, se 
haga alguna senal o torre, e que en derecho de la tal senal o torre se continue 
dend en adelante otras senales por la tal ysla o tierra, en derecho de la dicha 
rraya, las quales partan lo que a cada una de las partes pertenesgiere della, 
e que los subditos de las dichas partes no scan osados los unos de pasar a la 
parte de los otros, ni los otros de los otros pasando la dicha serial o limite en 
la tal ysla o tierra. 

[4.] Yten, por quanto para yr los dichos navibs de los dichos senores 
Rey e Reyna de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, etc., desde sus rreynos e senorios 
a la dicha su parte allende de la dicha rraya, en la manera que dicho es, es 
forgado que ayan de pasar por las mares desta parte de la rraya que quedan 
para el dicho senor Rey de Portugal, porende es concordado y asentado que 
los dichos navios de los dichos senores Rey e Reyna de Castilla, de Leon, 
de Aragon, etc., puedan yr e venir e vayan e vengan libre, segura, e pagifi- 
camente, sin contradigion alguna por las dichas mares que quedan con el 
dicho senor Rey de Portugal dentro de la dicha rraya, en todo tienpo, y 
cada e quando sus Altezas y sus subgesores quisieren, e por bien tovieren ; los 
quales vayan por sus caminos derechos e rrotas desde sus rreynos para 
qualquier parte de lo que esta dentro de su rraya e limite, donde quisieren 
enbiar a descobrir e conquistar, e a contratar, e que lleven sus caminos 
derechos por donde ellos acordaren de yr, para qualquier cosa de la dicha su 
parte, e de aquellos no puedan apartarse, salvo lo que el tienpo contrario 
les fisiere apartar, tanto que no tomen ni ocupen, antes de pasar la dicha rraya, 
cosa alguna de lo que fuere f allado por el dicho senor Rey de Portugal en la 
dicha su parte ; e si alguna cosa hallaren los dichos sus navios antes de pasar 
la dicha rraya, como dicho es, que aquello sea para el dicho senor Rey de 
Portugal e sus Altezas gelo ayan de mandar luego dar e entregar. E porque 
podria ser que los navios e gentes de los dichos senores Rey e Reyna de 
Castilla, e de Aragon, etc., o por su parte, avran hallado hasta veynte dias 
deste mes de Junio, en que estamos, de la fecha desta capitulagion, algunas 
yslas e tierra firme dentro de la dicha rraya que se ha de faser de polo a 
polo, por linea derecha, en fin de las dichas tresientas e setenta leguas, 
contadas desde las dichas yslas del Cabo Verde al poniente, como dicho es, 
es concordado e asentado, por quitar toda dubda, que todas las yslas e tierra 
firme que scan halladas e descubiertas en qualquier manera hasta los dichos 
veynte dias deste dicho mes de Junio, aun que scan halladas por los navios 
e gentes de los dichos senores Rey e Reyna de Castylla e de Aragon, etc., 
con tanto que sea dentro de las dosientas e ginquenta leguas primeras de las 
dichas trezientas e setenta leguas, contandolas desde las dichas yslas del Cabo 
Verde al poniente hasia la dicha rraya, en qualquier parte dellas para los 



Tordcsillas, 1494 91 

dichos polos que scan halladas dentro de las dichas dosientas e ginquenta 
leguas hasiendose una rraya, o linea derecha de polo a polo donde se acabaren 
las dichas dosientas e ginquenta leguas, queden e finquen para el dicho senor 
Rey de Portugal e de los Algarbes, etc., e para sus subgesores e rreynos para 
sienpre jamas. E que todas las yslas e tierra firme que hasta los dichos veynte 
dias deste mes de Junio, en que estamos, scan falladas e descubiertas por los 
navios de los dichos senores Rey e Reyna de Castilla e de Aragon, etc., e por 
sus gentes, o en otra qualquier manera, dentro de las otras giento e veynte 
leguas, que quedan para cunplimiento de las dichas trezientas e setenta 
leguas, en que ha de acabar la dicha rraya que se ha de faser de polo a polo, 
como dicho es, en qualquier parte de las dichas giento e veynte leguas para 
los dichos polos, que scan halladas fasta el dicho dia, queden e finquen para 
los dichos senores Rey e Reyna de Castilla e de Aragon, etc., e para sus 
subgesores e sus rreynos para sienpre jamas, como es e ha de ser suyo lo que 
es o fuere hallado, allende de la dicha rraya de las dichas tresientas e setenta 
leguas que quedan para sus Altezas, como dicho es, aun que las dichas giento 
e veynte leguas son dentro de la dicha rraya de las dichas trezientas e setenta 
leguas que quedan para el dicho senor Rey de Portugal e de los Algarbes, 
etc., como dicho es. E si fasta los dichos veynte dias deste dicho mes de Junio 
no son hallados por los dichos navios de Sus Altezas cosa alguna dentro de 
las dichas giento e veynte leguas, y de alii adelante lo hallaren, que sea para 
el dicho senor Rey de Portugal, como en el capitulo suso escripto es contenido. 
Lo qual todo que dicho es, e cada una cosa e parte dello, los dichos Don 
Enrrique Enrriques, mayordomo mayor, e Don Gutierre de Cardenas, con- 
tador mayor, e Doctor Rodrigo Maldonado, procuradores de los dichos muy 
altos e muy poderosos pringipes, los senores el Rey e la Reyna de Castilla, 
de Leon, de Aragon, de Segilia, e de Granada, etc., e por virtud del dicho 
su poder que de suso va encorporado, e los dichos Ruy de Sosa e Don Juan 
de Sosa su hijo e Arias de Almadana, procuradores e enbaxadores del dicho 
muy alto e muy exgelente pringipe el senor Rey de Portugal e de los Algarbes 
de aquende e allende en Africa, senor de Guinea, e por virtud del dicho su 
poder, que de suso va encorporado, prometieron e seguraron, en nonbre de 
los dichos sus constituyentes, que ellos e sus subgesores e rreynos e senorios 
para sienpre jamas ternan e guardaran e conpliran rrealmente e con efecto, 
gesante todo f raude e cautela, engano, ficgion, e simulagion, todo lo contenido 
en esta capitulagion, e cada una cosa e parte dello, e quisieron e otorgaron 
que todo lo contenido en esta dicha capitulagion, e cada una cosa e parte dello, 
sea guardado e conplido e esecutado, como se ha de guardar e conplir e 
esecutar todo lo contenido en la capitulagion de las pases fechas e asentadas 
entre los dichos senores Rey e Reyna de Castilla e de Aragon, etc., e el senor 
Don Alfonso Rey de Portugal, que santa gloria aya, e el dicho senor Rey, 
que agora es de Portugal, su fijo, seyendo pringipe, el ano que paso, de mill 
e quatrogientos e setenta e nueve anos ; " e so aquellas mismas penas, vinculos, 
e firmezas e obligagiones, segund e de la manera que en la dicha capitulagion 
de las dichas pazes se contiene, e obligaronse que las dichas partes ni alguna 
deltas, ni sus subgesores para sienpre jamas, no yran ni vernan contra lo que 
de suso es dicho y espagificado ; ni contra cosa alguna ni parte dello, directe 
ni yndirecte, ni por otra manera alguna en tienpo alguno, ni por alguna 
manera, pensada o no pensada, que sea o ser pueda, so las penas contenidas 
en la dicha capitulagion de las dichas pases, e la pena pagada o non pagada, o 

" The treaty of Alcaqovas, Doc. 3. 
7 



92 Doc. p. Spain Portugal 

gragiosamente rremetida, que esta obligation e capitulation e asiento quede 
e finque firme, estable, e valedera para sienpre jamas ; para lo qual todo asy 
tener e guardar e cunplir e pagar los dichos procuradores, en nonbre de los 
dichos sus eonstituyentes, obligaron los bienes, cada uno de la dicha su parte, 
muebles e rrayes, patrimoniales e fiscales, e de sus subditos e vasallos, avidos 
e por aver ; e renungiaron qualesquier leys e derechos de que se puedan 
aprovechar las dichas partes e cada una dellas, para yr o venir contra lo 
suso dicho o contra alguna parte dello, e por mayor seguridad e firmeza de 
lo susodicho, juraron a Dios e a Santa Maria e a la serial de la Cruz, en que 
pusieron sus manos derechas, e a las palabras de los Santos Evangelios do 
quiere que mas largamente son escriptos, en anima de los dichos sus eon 
stituyentes, que ellos y cada uno dellos ternan e guardaran e cunpliran todo 
lo suso dicho, y cada una cosa e parte dello, rrealmente e con efeto, cesante 
todo fraude, cautela, e engano, ficgion, e simulagion, e no lo contradiran en 
tienpo alguno, ni por alguna manera. So el qual dicho juramento juraron 
de no pedir absolution ni rrelaxagion del a nuestro muy Santo Padre, ni a 
otro ningund legado ni prelado que gela pueda dar, e aun que propio motu 
gela den, no usaran della, antes por esta presente capitulation suplican en el 
dicho nonbre a nuestro muy Santo Padre, que a Su Santidad plega confirmar 
e aprovar esta dicha capitulation, segund en ella se contiene e mandando 
expedir sobre ello sus bullas a las partes, o a qualquier dellas que las pidieren ; 
e mandando encorporar en ellas el tenor desta capitulation, poniendo sus 
gensuras a los que contra ella fueren o pasaren en qualquier tienpo que sea 
o ser pueda ; " e asi mismo los dichos procuradores en el dicho nonbre se 
obligaron so la dicha pena e juramento, que dentro de giento dias primeros 
siguientes, contados desde el dia de la fecha desta capitulation, daran la 
una parte a la otra, y la otra a la otra, aprovagion e rratificagion desta dicha 
capitulation, escriptas en pergamino e firmadas de los nonbres de los dichos 
senores sus eonstituyentes e selladas con sus sellos de plomo pendiente; e 
en la escriptura que ovieren de dar los dichos senores Rey e Reyna de Castilla 
e Aragon, etc., aya de firmar e consentir e otorgar el muy esclarescido e 
ylftistrisimo sefior el senor pringipe Don Juan su hijo, de lo qual todo que 
dicho es, otorgaron dos escripturas de un tenor, tal la una como la otra, las 
quales firmaron de sus nonbres e las otorgaron ante los secretaries e escrivanos 
de yuso escriptos, para cada una de las partes la suya, e qualquiera que 
paresgier vala, como si anbas a dos paresgiesen ; que f ueron f echas e otorgadas 
en la dicha villa de Tordesillas, el dicho dia e mes e ano suso dichos. El 
comisario mayor, 1 * Don Enrrique, Ruy de Sosa, Don Juan de Sosa, el 
Doctor Rodrigo Maldonado, Ligengiatus Arias. Testigos que fueron pre- 
sentes, que vieron aqui firmar sus nonbres a los dichos procuradores e 
enbaxadores e otorgar lo suso dicho, e faser el dicho juramento : el comisario 
Pedro de Leon, e el comisario Fernando de Torres, vesinos de la villa de 
Valladolid, el comisario Fernando de Gamarre, comisario de Zagra e Cenete, 
contino " de la casa de los dichos rrey e rreyna, nuestros senores, e Juan 
Suares de Sequeira e Ruy Leme e Duarte Pacheco, continos de la casa del 
sefior Rey de Portugal, para ello llamados. Y yo Fernand Alvares de Toledo, 
secretario del rrey e de la rreyna nuestros senores e del su consejo e su 
escrivano de camara e notario publico en la su corte e en todos los sus rreynos 

17 The treaty was confirmed by Julius II., Jan. 24, 1506, Doc. 11. 

a> Don Gutierre de Cardenas. 

19 The continos were the king s body-guards. 



Tordesillas, 1494 93 

e senorios, f uy presente a todo lo que dicho es en uno con los dichos testigos e 
con Estevan Vaez, secretario del dicho senor Rey de Portugal, que por 
abtoridad que los dichos rrey e rreyna nuestros senores le dieron para dar fe 
deste abto en sus rreynos, que fue asi mismo presente a lo que dicho es ; e a 
ruego e otorgamiento de todos los dichos procuradores e enbaxadores que en 
mi presengia e suya aqui firmaron sus nonbres, este publico ynstrumento de 
capitulation fise escrivir ; el qual va escripto en estas seys fojas de papel de 
pliego entero, escriptas de anbas partes, con esta en que van los nonbres de los 
sobre dichos, e mi signo ; e en fin de cada plana va seiialado de la serial de 
mi nonbre e de la serial del dicho Estevan Vaez : e porende fise aqui mio 
signo, que es a tal. En testimonio de verdad, Fernand Alvares. E yo el 
dicho Estevan Vaez, que por abtoridad que los dichos senores Rey e Reyna 
de Castilla e de Leon me dieron para faser publico en todos sus rreynos e 
senorios, juntamente con el dicho Fernand Alvares a ruego e rrequerimiento 
de los dichos enbaxadores e procuradores a todo presente f uy ; e por f e e 
certidumbre dello aqui de mi publico serial la signe, que tal es. 

La qual dicha escriptura de asiento e capitulation e concordia suso en- 
corporada, vista e entendida por nos, e por el dicho pringipe Don Juan 
nviestro hijo, la aprovamos, loamos, e confirmamos e otorgamos e rratificamos 
e prometemos de tener e guardar e conplir todo lo suso dicho en ella contenido, 
e cada una cosa e parte dello, rrealmente e con efeto, gesante todo fraude e 
cautela, ficgion, e simulation, e de no yr ni venir contra ello, ni contra parte 
dello en tienpo alguno, ni por alguna manera que sea o ser pueda ; e por mayor 
firmeza, nos y el dicho pringipe Don Juan nuestro hijo juramos a Dios, e a 
Santa Maria, e a las palabras de los Santos Evangelios do quier que mas 
largamente son escriptas, e a la serial de la Cruz, en que corporalmente pusimos 
nuestras manos derechas en presengia de los dichos Ruy de Sosa, e Don 
Juan de Sosa, e Lic.enc.iado Arias de Almadana, enbaxadores e procuradores 
del dicho Serenisimo Rey de Portugal nuestro hermano, de lo asi tener e 
guardar e cunplir e cada una cosa e parte de lo que a nos yncunbe, rrealmeiite 
e con efeto, como dicho es, por nos e por nuestros herederos e subgesores, e 
por los dichos nuestros rreynos e senorios e subditos e naturales dellos, so 
las penas e obligagiones, vinculos, e rrenungiagiones, en el dicho contrato de 
capitulation e concordia de suso escripto contenidas. Por certification e 
corroboragion de lo qual, firmamos en esta nuestra carta nuestros nonbres e 
la mandamos sellar con nuestro sello de plomo pendiente en filos de seda a 
colores. Dada en la villa de Arevalo, a doss dias del mes de Jullio, ano del 
nasgimiento de nuestro Senor Jhesu Christo, de mill e quatrogientos e noventa 
e quatro anos. 

Yo, EL REY. Yo, LA REYNA. Yo, EL PRINQIPE. 

Yo, FERNAND ALVARES de Toledo, secretario del rrey e de la rreyna, 
nuestros senores, la fise escrevir por su mandado. 

. . . doctor." 

TRANSLATION. 

Don Ferdinand and Dona Isabella, by the grace of God king and queen 
of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Sicily, Granada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, Majorca, 
Seville, Sardinia, Cordova, Corsica, Murcia, Jaen, Algarve, Algeciras, Gibral- 

M The editor has been unable to decipher the signature above this word. 



94 Doc. p. Spain Portugal 

tar, and the Canary Islands, count and countess of Barcelona, lord and lady 
of Biscay and Molina, duke and duchess of Athens and Neopatras, count and 
countess of Roussillon and Cerdagne, marquis and marchioness of Oristano 
and Gociano, together with the Prince Don John, our very dear and very 
beloved first-born son, heir of our aforesaid kingdoms and lordships. Whereas 
by Don Enrique Enriques, our chief steward, Don Gutierre de Cardenas, 
chief commissary of Leon, our chief auditor, and Doctor Rodrigo Maldonado, 
all members of our council, it was treated, adjusted, and agreed for us and 
in our name and by virtue of our power with the most serene Dom John, by 
the grace of God, king of Portugal and of the Algarves on this side and 
beyond the sea in Africa, lord of Guinea, our very dear and very beloved 
brother, and with Ruy de Sousa, lord of Sagres and Berenguel, Dom Joao de 
Sousa, his son, chief inspector of weights and measures of the said Most Se 
rene King our brother, and Ayres de Almada, magistrate of the civil cases in 
his court and member of his desembargo, all members of the council of the 
aforesaid Most Serene King our brother, [and acting] in his name and by 
virtue of his power, his ambassadors, who came to us in regard to the con 
troversy over what part belongs to us and what part to the said Most Serene 
King our brother, of that which up to this seventh day of the present month 
of June, the date of this instrument, is discovered in the ocean sea, in which 
said agreement our aforesaid representatives promised among other things 
that within a certain term specified in it we should sanction, confirm, swear 
to, ratify, and approve the above-mentioned agreement in person : we, wish 
ing to fulfill and fulfilling all that which was thus adjusted, agreed upon, and 
authorized in our name in regard to the above-mentioned, ordered the said 
instrument of the aforesaid agreement and treaty to be brought before us that 
we might see and examine it, the tenor of which, word for word, is as follows : 

In the name of God Almighty, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, three truly 
separate and distinct persons and only one divine essence. Be it manifest 
and known to all who shall see this public instrument, that at the village of 
Tordesillas, on the seventh day of the month of June, in the year of the 
nativity of our Lord Jesus Christ 1494, in the presence of us, the secretaries, 
clerks, and notaries public subscribed below, there being present the honorable 
Don Enrique Enriques, chief steward of the very exalted and very mighty 
princes, the lord and lady Don Ferdinand and Dona Isabella, by the grace of 
God king and queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Sicily, Granada, etc., Don 
Gutierre de Cardenas, chief auditor of the said lords, the king and queen, and 
Doctor Rodrigo Maldonado, all members of the council of the said lords, the 
king and queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Sicily, Granada, etc., their qualified 
representatives of the one part, and the honorable Ruy de Sousa, lord of 
Sagres and Berenguel, Dom Juan de Sousa, his son, chief inspector of 
weights and measures of the very exalted and very excellent lord Dom John, 
by the grace of God king of Portugal and of the Algarves on this side and 
beyond the sea in Africa, lord of Guinea, and Ayres de Almada, magistrate 
of civil cases in his court and member of his desembargo, all of the council 
of the said lord King of Portugal, and his qualified ambassadors and repre 
sentatives, as was proved by both the said parties by means of the letters of 
authorization and procurations from the said lords their constituents, the 
tenor of which, word for word, is as follows : 



Tordcsillas, 1494 95 

[Here follow the full powers granted by Ferdinand and Isabella to Don 
Enrique Enriques, Don Gutierre de Cardenas, and Dr. Rodrigo Maldonado 
on June 5, 1494; and the full powers granted by John II. to Ruy de Sousa, 
Joao de Sousa, and Ay res Almada on March 8, 1494.] 

" Thereupon it was declared by the above-mentioned representatives of 
the aforesaid King and Queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Sicily, Granada, 
etc., and of the aforesaid King of Portugal and the Algarves, etc. : 

[i.] That, whereas a certain controversy exists between the said lords, 
their constituents, as to what lands, of all those discovered in the ocean sea 
up to the present day, the date of this treaty, pertain to each one of the said 
parts respectively ; therefore, for the sake of peace and concord, and for the 
preservation of the relationship and love of the said King of Portugal for the 
said King and Queen of Castile, Aragon, etc., it being the pleasure of their 
Highnesses, they, their said representatives, acting in their name and by 
virtue of their powers herein described, covenanted and agreed that a bound 
ary or straight line be determined and drawn north and south, from pole to 
pole, on the said ocean sea, from the Arctic to the Antarctic pole. This 
boundary or line shall be drawn straight, as aforesaid, at a distance of three 
hundred and seventy leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands, being calcu 
lated by degrees, or by any other manner as may be considered the best and 
readiest, provided the distance shall be no greater than abovesaid. And all 
lands, both islands and mainlands, found and discovered already, or to be 
found and discovered hereafter, by the said King of Portugal and by his 
vessels on this side of the said line and bound determined as above, toward the 
east, in either north or south latitude, on the eastern side of the said bound, 
provided the said bound is not crossed, shall belong to, and remain in the 
possession of, and pertain forever to, the said King of Portugal and his 
successors. And all other lands, both islands and mainlands, found or to 
be found hereafter, discovered or to be discovered hereafter, which have 
been discovered or shall be discovered by the said King and Queen of Castile, 
Aragon, etc., and by their vessels, on the western side of the said bound, 
determined as above, after having passed the said bound toward the west, 
in either its north or south latitude, shall belong to, and remain in the posses 
sion of, and pertain forever to, the said King and Queen of Castile, Leon, 
etc., and to their successors. 

[2.] Item, the said representatives promise and affirm by virtue of the 
powers aforesaid, that from this date no ships shall be despatched namely 
as follows : the said King and Queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, etc., for this 
part of the bound, and its eastern side, on this side the said bound, which 
pertains to the said King of Portugal and the Algarves, etc. ; nor the said 
King of Portugal to the other part of the said bound which pertains to the 
said King and Queen of Castile, Aragon, etc. for the purpose of discovering 
and seeking any mainlands or islands, or for the purpose of trade, barter, 
or conquest of any kind. But should it come to pass that the said ships of 
the said King and Queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, etc., on sailing thus on 
this side of the said bound, should discover any mainlands or islands in the 
region pertaining, as abovesaid, to the said King of Portugal, such mainlands 

" From this, the beginning of the treaty proper, as far as to " The said Don Enrique 
Enriques ", on p. 98, the translation is taken from Blair and Robertson, Philippine 
Islands, I. 122-128. 



96 Doc. p. Spain Portugal 

or islands shall pertain to and belong forever to the said King of Portugal 
and his heirs, and their Highnesses shall order them to be surrendered to him 
immediately. And if the said ships of the said King of Portugal discover 
any islands and mainlands in the regions of the said King and Queen of 
Castile, Leon, Aragon, etc., all such lands shall belong to and remain forever 
in the possession of the said King and Queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, etc., 
and their heirs, and the said King of Portugal shall cause such lands to be 
surrendered immediately. 

[3.] Item, in order that the said line or bound of the said division may 
be made straight and as nearly as possible the said distance of three hundred 
and seventy leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands, as hereinbefore stated, 
the said representatives of both the said parties agree and assent that within 
the ten months immediately following the date of this treaty their said con 
stituent lords shall despatch two or four caravels, namely, one or two by 
each one of them, a greater or less number, as they may mutually consider 
necessary. These vessels shall meet at the Grand Canary Island during this 
time, and each one of the said parties shall send certain persons- in them, to 
wit, pilots, astrologers, sailors, and any others they may deem desirable. But 
there must be as many on one side as on the other, and certain of the said 
pilots, astrologers, sailors, and others of those sent by the said King and 
Queen of Castile, Aragon, etc., and who are experienced, shall embark in 
the ships of the said King of Portugal and the Algarves ; in like manner 
certain of the said persons sent by the said King of Portugal shall embark 
in the ship or ships of the said King and Queen of Castile, Aragon, etc. ; a 
like number in each case, so that they may jointly study and examine to better 
advantage the sea, courses, winds, and the degrees of the sun or of north 
latitude, and lay out the leagues aforesaid, in order that, in determining 
the line and boundary, all sent and empowered by both the said parties in the 
said vessels, shall jointly concur. These said vessels shall continue their 
course together to the said Cape Verde Islands, from whence they shall lay 
a direct course to the west, to the distance of the said three hundred and 
seventy degrees, measured as the said persons shall agree, and measured 
without prejudice to the said parties. When this point is reached, such 
point will constitute the place and mark for measuring degrees of the sun 
or of north latitude either by daily runs measured in leagues, or in any other 
manner that shall mutually be deemed better. This said line shall be drawn 
north and south as aforesaid, from the said Arctic pole to the said Ant 
arctic pole. And when this line has been determined as abovesaid, those 
sent by each of the aforesaid parties, to whom each one of the said parties 
must delegate his own authority and power, to determine the said mark and 
bound, shall draw up a writing concerning it and affix thereto their signatures. 
And when determined by the mutual consent of all of them, this line shall 
be considered as a perpetual mark and bound, in such wise that the said 
parties, or either of them, or their future successors, shall be unable to deny 
it, or erase or remove it, at any time or in any manner whatsoever. And 
should, perchance, the said line and bound from pole to pole, as aforesaid, 
intersect any island or mainland, at the first point of such intersection of 
such island or mainland by the said line, some kind of mark or tower shall 
be erected, and a succession of similar marks shall be erected in a straight line 
from such mark or tower, in a line identical with the above-mentioned bound. 
These marks shall separate those portions of such land belonging to each one 



Tordesillas, 1494 97 

of the said parties ; and the subjects of the said parties shall not dare, on either 
side, to enter the territory of the other, by crossing the said mark or bound 
in such island or mainland. 

[4.] Item, inasmuch as the said ships of the said King and Queen of Castile, 
Leon, Aragon, etc., sailing as before declared, from their kingdoms and 
seigniories to their said possessions on the other side of the said line, must 
cross the seas on this side of the line, pertaining to the said King of Portugal, 
it is therefore concerted and agreed that the said ships of the said King and 
Queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, etc., shall, at any time and without any 
hindrance, sail in either direction, freely, securely, and peacefully, over the 
said seas of the said King of Portugal, and within the said line. And when 
ever their Highnesses and their successors wish to do so, and deem it expe 
dient, their said ships may take their courses and routes direct from their 
kingdoms to any region within their line and bound to which they desire 
to despatch expeditions of discovery, conquest, and trade. They shall take 
their courses direct to the desired region and for any purpose desired therein, 
and shall not leave their course, unless compelled to do so by contrary weather. 
They shall do this provided that, before crossing the said line, they shall not 
seize or take possession of anything discovered in his said region by the said 
King of Portugal ; and should their said ships find anything before crossing 
the said line, as aforesaid, it shall belong to the said King of Portugal, and 
their Highnesses shall order it surrendered immediately. And since it is 
possible that the ships and subjects of the said King and Queen of Castile, 
Leon, etc., or those acting in their name, may discover before the twentieth 
day of this present month of June, following the date of this treaty, some 
islands and mainlands within the said line, drawn straight from pole to pole, 
that is to say, inside the said three hundred and seventy leagues west of the 
Cape Verde Islands, as aforesaid, it is hereby agreed and determined, in 
order to remove all doubt, that all such islands and mainlands found and 
discovered in any manner whatsoever up to the said twentieth day of this 
said month of June, although found by ships and subjects of the said King 
and Queen of Castile, Aragon, etc., shall pertain to and remain forever in 
the possession of the said King of Portugal and the Algarves, and of his suc 
cessors and kingdoms, provided that they lie within the first two hundred and 
fifty leagues of the said three hundred and seventy leagues reckoned west of 
the Cape Verde Islands to the above-mentioned line in whatsoever part, 
even to the said poles, of the said two hundred and fifty leagues they may be 
found, determining a boundary or straight line from pole to pole, where the 
said two hundred and fifty leagues end. Likewise all the islands and main 
lands found and discovered up to the said twentieth day of this present 
month of June by the ships and subjects of the said King and Queen of 
Castile, Aragon, etc., or in any other manner, within the other one hundred 
and twenty leagues that still remain of the said three hundred and seventy 
leagues where the said bound that is to be drawn from pole to pole, as afore 
said, must be determined, and in whatever part of the said one hundred and 
twenty leagues, even to the said poles, they that are found up to the said day 
shall pertain to and remain forever in the possession of the said King and 
Queen of Castile, Aragon, etc., and of their successors and kingdoms ; just 
as whatever is or shall be found on the other side of the said three hundred 
and seventy leagues pertaining to their Highnesses, as aforesaid, is and must 
be theirs, although the said one hundred and twenty leagues are within the 



98 Doc. p. Spain Portugal 

said bound of the said three hundred and seventy leagues pertaining to the 
said King of Portugal, the Algarves, etc., as aforesaid. 

And if, up to the said twentieth day of this said month of June, no lands 
are discovered by the said ships of their Highnesses within the said one 
hundred and twenty leagues, and are discovered after the expiration of that 
time, then they shall pertain to the said King of Portugal as is set forth in 
the above. 

The said Don Enrique Enriques, chief steward, Don Gutierre de Cardenas, 
chief auditor, and Doctor Rodrigo Maldonado, representatives of the said 
very exalted and very mighty princes, the lord and lady, the king and queen 
of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Sicily, Granada, etc., by virtue of their said power, 
which is incorporated above, and the said Ruy de Sousa, Dom Joao de Sousa, 
his son, and Arias de Almadana, representatives and ambassadors of the said 
very exalted and very excellent prince, the lord king of Portugal and of the 
Algarves on this side and beyond the sea in Africa, lord of Guinea, by virtue 
of their said power, which is incorporated above, promised, and affirmed, in 
the name of their said constituents, [saying] that they and their successors 
and kingdoms and lordships, forever and ever, would keep, observe, and ful 
fill, really and effectively, renouncing all fraud, evasion, deceit, falsehood, and 
pretense, everything set forth in this treaty, and each part and parcel of it ; 
and they desired and authorized that everything set forth in this said agree 
ment and every part and parcel of it be observed, fulfilled, and performed as 
everything which is set forth in the treaty of peace concluded and ratified 
between the said lord and lady, the king and queen of Castile, Aragon, etc., 
and the lord Dom Alfonso, king of Portugal (may he rest in glory) and the 
said king, the present ruler of Portugal, his son, then prince in the former 
year of 1479, must be observed, fulfilled, and performed, and under those 
same penalties, bonds, securities, and obligations, in accordance with and in 
the manner set forth in the said treaty of peace. Also they bound themselves 
[by the promise] that neither the said parties nor any of them nor their suc 
cessors forever should violate or oppose that which is abovesaid and speci 
fied, nor any part or parcel of it, directly or indirectly, or in any other manner 
at any time, or in any manner whatsoever, premeditated or not premeditated, 
or that may or can be, under the penalties set forth in the said agreement 
of the said peace ; and whether the fine be paid or not paid, or graciously 
remitted, that this obligation, agreement, and treaty shall continue in force 
and remain firm, stable, and valid forever and ever. That thus they M will 
keep, observe, perform, and pay everything, the said representatives, acting 
in the name of their said constituents, pledged the property, movable and 
real, patrimonial and fiscal, of each of their respective parties, and of their 
subjects and vassals, possessed and to be possessed. They renounced all 
laws and rights of which the said parties or either of them might take advan 
tage to violate or oppose the foregoing or any part of it ; and for the greater 
security and stability of the aforesaid, they swore before God and the Blessed 
Mary and upon the sign of the Cross, on which they placed their right hands, 
and upon the words of the Holy Gospels, wheresoever they are written at 
greatest length, and on the consciences of their said constituents, that they, 
jointly and severally, will keep, observe, and fulfill all the aforesaid and each 
part and parcel of it, really and effectively, renouncing all fraud, evasion, 

"/. e., the constituents. 



Tordesillas, 1494 99 

deceit, falsehood, and pretense, and that they will not contradict it at any 
time or in any manner. And under the same oath they swore not to seek 
absolution or release from it from our most Holy Father or from any other 
legate or prelate who could give it to them. And even though, proprio motu, 
it should be given to them, they will not make use of it ; rather, by this present 
agreement, they, acting in the said name, entreat our most Holy Father that 
his Holiness be pleased to confirm and approve this said agreement, accord 
ing to what is set forth therein ; and that he order his bulls in regard to it 
to be issued to the parties or to whichever of the parties may solicit them, 
with the tenor of this agreement incorporated therein, and that he lay his 
censures upon those who shall violate or oppose it at any time whatsoever. 
Likewise, the said representatives, acting in the said names, bound themselves 
under the same penalty and oath, that within the one hundred days next 
following, reckoned from the day of the date of this agreement, the parties 
would mutually exchange the approbation and ratification of this said agree 
ment, written on parchment, signed with the names of the said lords, their 
constituents, and sealed with their hanging leaden seals ; and that the instru 
ment which the said lords, the king and queen of Castile, Aragon, etc., should 
have to issue, must be signed, agreed to, and sanctioned by the very noble 
and most illustrious lord, Prince Don Juan, their son. Of all the foregoing 
they authorized two copies, both of the same tenor exactly, which they signed 
with their names and executed before the undersigned secretaries and nota 
ries public, one for each party. And whichever copy is produced, it shall be 
as valid as if both the copies which were made and executed in the said town 
of Tordesillas, on the said day, month, and year aforesaid, should be pro 
duced. The chief deputy, Don Enrique, Ruy de Sousa, Dom Juan de Sousa, 
Doctor Rodrigo Maldonado, Licentiate Ayres. Witnesses who were present 
and who saw the said representatives and ambassadors sign their names here 
and execute the aforesaid, and take the said oath : The deputy Pedro de 
Leon and the deputy Fernando de Torres, residents of the town of Valladolid, 
the deputy Fernando de Gamarra, deputy of Zagra and Cenete, contino of 
the house of the said king and queen, our lords, and Joao Suares de Sequeira, 
Ruy Leme, and Duarte Pacheco, continos of the house of the said King of 
Portugal, summoned for that purpose. And I, Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, 
secretary of the king and queen, our lords, member of their council, and their 
scrivener of the high court of justice, and notary public in their court and 
throughout their realms and lordships, witnessed all the aforesaid, together 
with the said witnesses and with Estevan Vaez, secretary of the said King 
of Portugal, who by the authority given him by the said king and queen, our 
lords, to certify to this act in their kingdoms, also witnessed the abovesaid ; 
and at the request and with the authorization of all the said representatives 
and ambassadors, who in my presence and his here signed their names, I 
caused this public instrument of agreement to be written. It is written on 
these six leaves of paper, in entire sheets, written on both sides, together 
with this leaf, which contains the names of the aforesaid persons and my 
sign ; and the bottom of every page is marked with the notarial mark of my 
name and that of the said Estevan Vaez. And in witness I here make my 
sign, which is thus. In testimony of truth : Fernando Alvarez. And I, 
the said Estevan Vaez (who by the authority given me by the said lords, the 
king and queen of Castile, and of Leon, to make it public throughout their 
kingdoms and lordships, together with the said Fernando Alvarez, at the 



100 Doc. p. Spain Portugal 

request and summons of the said ambassadors and representatives witnessed 
everything), in testimony and assurance thereof signed it here with my 
public sign, which is thus. 

The said deed of treaty, agreement, and concord, above incorporated, hav 
ing been examined and understood by us and by the sa*id Prince Don John, 
our son, we approve, commend, confirm, execute, and ratify it, and we promise 
to keep, observe, and fulfill all the abovesaid that is set forth therein, and 
every part and parcel of it, really and effectively. We renounce all fraud, 
evasion, falsehood, and pretense, and we shall not violate or oppose it, or 
any part of it, at any time or in any manner whatsoever. For greater security, 
we and the said prince Don John, our son, swear before God and Holy Mary, 
and by the words of the Holy Gospels, wheresoever they are written at 
greatest length, and upon the sign of the Cross upon which we actually placed 
our right hands, in the presence of the said Ruy de Sousa, Dom Joao de 
Sousa, and Licentiate Ay res .de Almada, ambassadors and representatives 
of the said Most Serene King of Portugal, our brother, thus to keep, observe, 
and fulfill it, and every part and parcel of it, so far as it is incumbent upon 
us, really and effectively, as is abovesaid, for ourselves and for our heirs 
and successors, and for our said kingdoms and lordships, and the subjects and 
natives of them, under the penalties and obligations, bonds and abjurements 
set forth in the said contract of agreement and concord above written. In 
attestation and corroboration whereof, we sign our name to this our letter 
and order it to be sealed with our leaden seal, hanging by threads of colored 
silk. Given in the town of Arevalo, on the second day of the month of July, 
in the year of the nativity of our Lord Jesus Christ, 1494. 

I, THE KING. I, THE QUEEN. I, THE PRINCE. 

I, FERNANDO ALVAREZ de Toledo, secretary of the king and of the queen, 
our lords, have caused it to be written by their mandate. 

. doctor. 



10. 

Compact between Spain and Portugal, signed by the Catholic 
Sovereigns at Madrid, May 7, 1495. 

INTRODUCTION. 

The rulers of Spain and Portugal did not put into effect the provision of 
the treaty of Tordesillas * for despatching caravels within ten months in order 
to determine the line of demarcation. On May 7, 1495, * ne Spanish monarchs 
signed an agreement that during the following September commissioners 
should assemble on the frontier of the two kingdoms to decide upon the 
method of fixing the line; that upon notification by either party, the other 
party must cause the said line to be determined in accordance with the method 
approved by the commissioners ; that the departure of the caravels should be 
postponed, and orders given to place the line on all hydrographical maps 
made in either kingdom. 

The main stipulations of this compact were not carried out. Apparently 
it was not until 1512 that either monarch planned an expedition to determine 
the line. 1 The earliest of existing maps on which the line of demarcation 
appears, is the Cantino map, of 1502. On the Munich- Portuguese map of 
1519, and on the Weimar-Spanish (1527) and Ribero (1529) maps, this 
line does duty also as the prime meridian. 3 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Text: MS. The original manuscript of the compact signed by Ferdinand 
and Isabella at Madrid on May 7, 1495, is in the National Archives at 
Lisbon, gav. 10, mac.o 5, no. 4. A manuscript nearly identical but dated 
April 15, and lacking the royal signatures, which have been cut out, is 
in the Archives of the Indies, at Seville, Patronato 2-1-1/18, no. 8. 

Text: Printed. The text of the manuscript dated April 15 is in Navarrete, 
Coleccion de Viages (1825-1837), torn. II., no. 91, pp. 170173. 

Translation. A translation of the text as printed in Navarrete is in Blair 
and Robertson, Philippine Islands (1903-1909), I. 131-135. 

References. See references of Doc. 9. 

Doc. 9. C/. Doc. 12, note 5. 

1 All of the above-mentioned maps, and some others on which the demarcation line 
appears, are included among the Maps illustrating Early Discovery and Exploration in 
America, 1502-1530, reproduced by photography from original manuscripts, and issued, 
together with text and key maps, under the direction of E. L. Stevenson (1903, 1906). 

IOI 



102 Doc. JO. Spain Portugal 

TEXT. 

Don Fernando e Dona Ysabel, por la gragia de Dios rrey e rreyna de Castilla 
[etc.] : Por quanto en la capitulation e asiento * que se hizo entre nos y el 
Serenisimo Rey de Portugal e de los Algarbes de aquende e de allend el 
mar en Africa, e Seiior de Guinea, nuestro muy caro e muy amado hermano, 
sobre la partigion del mar ogeano, fue asentado e capitulado entre otras 
cosas que, desde el dia de la fecha de la dicha capitulagion fasta diez meses 
primeros siguientes, ayan de ser en la ysla de la Grand Canada caravelas 
nuestras y suyas, con astrologos, pilotos, e marineros, e personas que nos 
y el acordaremos, tantos de la una parte como de la otra, para yr a fazer e 
senalar la linea de la partigion del dicho mar, que ha de ser a trezientas e 
setenta leguas de las yslas del Cabo Verde a la parte del poniente, por linea 
derecha del polo Artico al polo Antartico, que es de norte a sul, en que somos 
concordados en la partigion del dicho mar por la dicha capitulagion, segund 
mas largamente en ella es contenido ; e agora nos, considerando como la linea 
de la dicha partigion se puede mejor hazer e justificar por las dichas trezientas 
e setenta leguas, siendo primeramente acordado e asentado por los dichos 
astrologos, pilotos, e marineros e personas, antes de la yda de las dichas cara 
velas, la forma e orden que en el demarcar e senalar de la dicha linea se aya de 
tener, e asi por se escusar debates e diferengias que sobre ello, entre las per 
sonas que asi fueren, podrian aconteger, si despues de ser partidos lo oviesen 
alia de ordenar ; e viendo asimismo que yendo las dichas caravelas e personas 
antes de se saber ser hallada ysla o tierra en cada una de las dichas partes del 
dicho mar, a que luego ordenadamente ayan de yr, no aprovecharia ; por tanto, 
para que todo se mejor pueda haser, e con declaragion e certificagion de anbas 
las partes, avemos por bien e por esta presente carta nos plaze, que los dichos 
astrologos, pilotos, e marineros e personas en que nos acordaremos con el 
dicho rrey, nuestro hermano, tantos de la una parte como de la otra, e que 
razonablemente para esto puedan bastar, se ayan de juntar e junten en alguna 
parte de la f rontera destos nuestros rreynos con el dicho rreyno de Portugal, 
los quales ayan de consultar, acordar, e tomar asiento dentro de todo el mes 
de Setienbre * primero que verna deste ano de la fecha desta carta la manera 
en que la linea de la partigion del dicho mar se aya de haser por las dichas 
tresientas e setenta leguas por rrota derecha al poniente de las dichas yslas 
del Cabo Verde del polo Artico al polo Antartico, que es de norte a sul, como 
en la dicha capitulagion es contenido ; y aquello en que se concordaren, siendo 
todos conformes e fuere asentado e senalado por ellos, se aprovara e con- 
firmara por nos y por el dicho rrey, nuestro hermano, por nuestras cartas- 
patentes ; y si antes o 7 despues que fuere tornado el dicho asiento por los 
dichos astrologos, pilotos, e marineros que asi fueren nonbrados, yendo cada 
una de las partes por la parte del dicho mar que pueden yr segund lo con- 

* The following text is taken from the original manuscript of the compact signed by 
Ferdinand and Isabella at Madrid, May /, 1495, preserved in the National Archives 
at Lisbon, gav. 10, mac.o 5, no. 4; from an eighteenth-century copy of this manuscript 
in the same archives (same pressmark) ; and from the nearly identical manuscript, 
dated Apr. 15, preserved in the Archives of the Indies. Since a part of the first of these 
manuscripts is indecipherable, considerable use has been made of the two last-mentioned 
texts. 

* The Treaty of Tordesillas, Doc. 9. 

* The draft signed in April reads Julio. 

1 The words antes o are not in the draft of the compact drawn up in April. 



Madrid, 1495 103 



tenido en la dicha capitulation, e guardandose en* ello lo que en ella se 
contiene, f uere hallado e * se hallare ysla to o tierra que parezca a qualquier 
de las partes ser en parte donde se pueda baser la dicha linea segund la forma 
dela dicha capitulation, e mandando rrequirer la una parte a la otra que 
manden senalar la linea suso dicha, seremos nos y el dicho rrey, nuestro 
hermano, obligados de mandar haser e senalar la dicha linea, segund la orden 
del asiento que fuere tornado por los astrologos, pilotos, e marineros, e per- 
sonas suso dichas que asi fueren nonbrados dentro de diez meses primeros 
contados del dia que qualquier de las partes rrequiriere a la otra ; y en caso 
que no sea en el medio dela dicha linea, lo que asi se hallare se hara declara- 
cjon quantas leguas ay dello a la dicha linea, asy de nuestra parte como de 
la parte del dicho Serenisimo Rey, nuestro hermano, no dexando por ende 
en qualquier ysla o tierra que mas acerca dela dicha linea despues por el 
tienpo se hallare haser la dicha declaration ; e por se haser lo que dicho es 
no se dexara de tener la manera suso dicha, hallandose ysla o tierra debaxo 
de la dicha linea, como dicho es, e hasta el dicho tienpo de los dichos diez 
meses despues que la una parte rrequiriere a la otra, como dicho es, nos plaze 
por esta nuestra carta prorrogar e alargar la yda de las dichas caravelas 
e personas, syn enbargo del termino que cerca dello en la dicha capitulation 
f ue asentado e capitulado ; e bien asi nos plase e avremos por bien, para mas 
notification e declaration de la partition del dicho mar que entre nos y el 
dicho rrey nuestro hermano por la dicha capitulation es fecha, e para que 
nuestros subditos e naturales tengan mas ynformacjon por donde de aqui 
adelante ayan de navegar e descobrir, e asi los subditos e naturales del dicho 
rrey nuestro hermano, de mandar, como de fecho mandaremos, so graves 
penas, que en todas las cartas de marear que en nuestros rreynos e senorios 
se hisieren de aqui adelante los que ovieren de yr por el dicho mar ogeano, 
se ponga la linea de la dicha partition, figurandose del dicho polo Artico al 
dicho polo Antartico, que es de norte a sul, en el conpas delas dichas trezientas 
e setenta leguas delas dichas yslas del Cabo Verde por rrota derecha ala 
parte del poniente, como dicho es, dela forma que acordaren la medida della 
los dichos astrologos e pilotos e marineros que asi se juntaren, siendo todos 
con formes ; e queremos e otorgamos que esta presente carta, ni lo en ella 
contenido, no perjudique en cosa alguna delas que son contenidas e asentadas 
en la dicha capitulation, mas que todas e cada una dellas se cunplan e guarden 
para todo sienpre en todo e por todo syn falta alguna, asy e tan enteiramente 
como en la dicha capitulation son asentadas ; por quanto esta carta mandamos 
asi faser, solamente para que los dichos astrologos e personas se junten e 
dentro del dicho tienpo tomen asiento dela orden e manera en que la dicha 
demarcation se aya de haser, e para prorrogar e alargar el tienpo dela yda 
delas dichas caravelas e personas fasta tanto que sea sabido ser hallada en cada 
una delas dichas partes la dicha ysla o tierra a que ayan de yr, e para mandar 
poner enlas dichas cartas de marear la linea dela dicha partigion ; como todo 
mas cunplidamente de suso es contenido. Lo qual todo que dicho es pro- 
metemos e seguramos por nuestra fe palabra rreal de cunplir e guardar e 
mantener syn arte, ni cautela, ni fingimiento alguno, asy e a tan enteramente 

1 From this point the compact of May 7 is legible except for a few words. 
* The words fuere hallado e are not in the draft made in April. 

" Between the words hallare and ysla the draft made in April contains the words 
de aqui adelante. 



104 Doc. 10. Spain Portugal 

como en ella es contenido. E por firmeza de todo lo que dicho es, mandamos 
dar esta nuestra carta, firmada de nuestros nonbres e sellada con nuestro sello 
de plomo, pendiente en filos de seda a colores. Dada en la nuestra villa de 
Madrid, a siete dias del mes de Mayo, ano del nasgimiento de nuestra Senor 
Jhesu Christo de mill e quatrocjentos e noventa e cjnco afios. 

Yo, EL REY. Yo, LA REYNA. 

Yo, FERNAND ALVARES de Toledo, secretario del rrey e dela rreyna, nuestros 
senores, la fes escrevir por su mandado. 

Registrada. 

TRANSLATION." 

Don Ferdinand and Doiia Isabella, by the grace of God king and queen of 
Castile, etc. : Inasmuch as, among other things in the treaty and compact 
regarding the division of the ocean sea, negotiated between ourselves and 
the Most Serene King of Portugal and the Algarves on either side of the 
sea in Africa, and lord of Guinea, our most dear and beloved brother, it was 
agreed and covenanted that, within the first ten months following the date of 
this treaty, our caravels and his, accompanied by astrologers, pilots, sailors, 
and others, agreed upon by ourselves and himself a like number on either 
side should be in the island of the Grand Canary in order to proceed to the 
determination and drawing of the divisional line of the said sea, which 
must be three hundred and seventy leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands, 
in a straight north and south line from the Arctic to the Antarctic pole, as 
covenanted between us by the said treaty of the division of the said sea, as 
is more fully set forth therein, and inasmuch as we now consider that the 
line of the said division at the distance of the said three hundred and seventy 
leagues can be determined and calculated better if the said astrologers, pilots, 
sailors, and others come to a definite conclusion and agreement regarding 
the manner and order of procedure to be observed in the determination and 
marking of the said line before the sailing of the said caravels, by so doing 
avoiding disputes and controversies that might arise regarding it among 
those going, if these had to be arranged after the departure ; and inasmuch 
as it would be quite useless for the said caravels and persons to go before 
knowing that any island or mainland had been found in each one of the said 
parts of the said sea, and to which they must proceed immediately and orderly : 
Now therefore, in order that all this may be done to better advantage, and with 
the full and free consent of both sides, we agree and by this present letter 
consent that the said astrologers, pilots, sailors, and others determined upon 
with the said king, our brother a like number on either side, and of sufficient 
number for this matter must assemble, and they shall assemble, along any 
part of the frontier of these our kingdoms and the kingdom of Portugal. 
During the whole month of [September] first following the date of this letter 
these men shall consult upon, covenant concerning, and determine the manner 
of making the said divisional line of the said sea at the distance of the said 
three hundred and seventy leagues west of the said Cape Verde Islands, by 
means of a straight north and south line from the Arctic to the Antarctic 
pole, as is set forth in the said treaty. And whatever they determine upon 

"This translation is reprinted from Blair and Robertson, Philippine Islands, I. 131- 
135. A few changes, indicated by brackets, have been made to bring it into conformity 
with the text of May 7. 



Madrid, 1495 105 

unanimously, and whatever is concluded and marked out by them, shall be 
approved and confirmed through our letters-patent, by us and by the said king 
our brother. And if [before or] after the said astrologers, pilots, and sailors, 
appointed as abovesaid, shall have arrived at a conclusion, each one of the 
said parties going to that part of the said sea, according to the permission of 
the said treaty, and thereby observing the contents of said treaty, any island 
or mainland shall be found, which either of the parties consider to be so 
situated that the said line can be determined in accordance with the stipula 
tions of the said treaty, and the one party shall cause notification to be given 
the other party that they shall cause the line abovesaid to be marked out, 
we and the said king our brother shall be obliged to have the said line deter 
mined and marked out in accordance with the method determined upon by 
the astrologers, pilots, and sailors, and others abovesaid, and appointed as 
abovesaid, within the period of the first ten months reckoned from the date 
that either of the parties notified the other. And should it prove that the land 
thus found is not cut by the said line, a declaration of its distance from the 
said line shall be given, both on our own part and that of the said most serene 
king our brother. They shall not, however, neglect to make the said declara 
tion regarding any island or mainland which shall be found afterwards, during 
the period, nearer the said line. And in doing the aforesaid, they shall not 
neglect to observe the manner aforesaid, whenever any island or mainland 
is found in the neighborhood of the said line as aforesaid, and up to the said 
time of the said ten months after the notification of one party by the other, 
as aforesaid. It is our pleasure in this our letter to postpone and defer the 
departure of the said caravels and persons, notwithstanding the limit set 
and determined in the above-mentioned treaty in regard to it. And we there 
fore are pleased and consider it advantageous for the better notification 
and declaration of the division of the said sea made by the said treaty be 
tween ourselves and the said king our brother, and in order that both our 
subjects and natives and the subjects and natives of the said king our brother 
may be better informed henceforth as to the regions wherein they may navi 
gate and discover to order (as in truth we shall order), under severe 
penalties, that the line of the said division be placed on all hydrographical 
maps made hereafter in our kingdoms and seigniories by those journeying 
in the said ocean sea. This line shall be drawn straight from the said Arctic 
to the said Antarctic pole, north and south, at the distance of the said three 
hundred and seventy leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands, as aforesaid, 
being measured as determined unanimously by the said astrologers, pilots, 
and sailors meeting as abovesaid. And we purpose and stipulate that neither 
this present letter nor anything contained therein, be prejudicial in any 
manner to the contents and compacts of the said treaty, but rather that they, 
all and singular, be observed throughout, in toto without any failure, and in 
the manner and entirety set forth in the said treaty ; inasmuch as we have 
caused the present letter to be made in this manner, simply in order that 
the said astrologers and persons shall assemble and, within the said time, 
shall determine the order of procedure and the method to be observed in 
making the said line of demarcation, and in order to postpone and defer the 
departure of the said caravels and persons until the said island or mainland 
whither they must go is known to have been found in each one of the said 
parts, and in order to command that the line of the said division be placed 
on the said hydrographical maps, all of which is set forth most fully in the 



106 Doc. 10. Spain Portugal 

above. We promise and engage on our kingly faith and word to fulfill 
and observe all of the foregoing, without any artifice, deceit, or pretense in 
the manner and in the entirety set down in the above. And in confirmation 
of the above, we cause this our letter to be given, signed with our names, and 
sealed with our leaden seal hanging from threads of colored silk. 

[Given in our town of Madrid, the seventh day of the month of May, in 
the year of the nativity of our Lord Jesus Christ, 1495. 

I, THE KING. I, THE QUEEN. 

I, FERNANDO ALVAREZ de Toledo, secretary of the king and of the queen, 
our lord and lady, have caused it to be written, by their command. 

Registered.] 



11. 

The Bull Ea Quae (Julius II.). January 24, 1506. 

INTRODUCTION. 

In 1498 Vasco da Gama reached Calicut by way of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Two years later, Pedro Alvarez Cabral, hastening to India in command of a 
Portuguese fleet to follow up Gama s successes, landed, near 16 south, upon 
the coast of Brazil, of which, nearly three months previously, Pinzon, and, 
shortly after, Diego de Lepe, had taken formal possession for Castile. The 
fact that this portion of South America extended beyond the east or Portu 
guese side of the line of demarcation further complicated the relations of the 
two countries, whose rivalry now became intense. Expeditions in which 
Vespucius, detached for a time from Spanish service, sailed under a Portu 
guese captain (1501-1502, 1503-1504), acquainted the Portuguese with the 
vast extent of the Brazilian coast, and far to the north, in 1500 and 1501, 
Gaspare Corte-Real visited lands which the Portuguese located on their side of 
the line. 1 -The line, therefore, now had a new value for the Portuguese and it 
was probably this fact that induced King Emmanuel to ask Pope Julius II. to 
confirm the treaty of Tordesillas that had established it. 2 

Julius II. was well disposed toward King Emmanuel, who was so zealously 
laboring for the extension of the faith in Morocco, in Guinea, and notably 
in India, where the foundations of a colonial empire were beginning to be 
laid. In the early summer of 1505, a Portuguese embassy of obedience 
reached Rome, and before its return to Portugal in the following October, 
had obtained from the pontiff a number of important concessions. In the 
following spring, the pope bestowed upon the king the consecrated golden 
rose. 4 A few months after the return of the embassy and before the bestowal 

1 As in the Cantino map, compiled from Portuguese data in 1502. This map, which 
shows the line of demarcation passing west of the land discovered hy Corte-Real, is 
photographically reproduced in the size of the original in E. L. Stevenson, Maps illus 
trating Early Discovery and Exploration in America (1903). Parts of it are repro 
duced in H. Harrisse, Les Corte-Real (1883), portfolio, and in id., Discovery of North 
America (1892), opp. pp. 79 and nr. 

"F. A. de Varnhagen, Historia Geral do Brazil (1854-1857), I. 28. 

* For a detailed account of this embassy, see the Marquis MacSwiney de Mashanaglass, 
Le Portugal et le Saint-Siege, III. 22-29, and by the same author, " Une Ambassade 
Portugaise a Rome sous Jules II.", in the Revue d Histoire Diplomatique, 1903, pp. 50-65, 
and separately printed by Plon, Paris, 1903. 

* An interesting account of the golden roses sent by the popes to the kings of Portugal 
in the sixteenth century is given in the former of the volumes cited in the preceding 
note. For the gift of the golden rose to Alfonso V., see Doc. 1, note 26. 

8 107 



108 Doc. ii. The Bull Ea Quac 

of the rose, in response to a request from King Emmanuel, the pope granted 
three bulls, all dated January 24, I5o6. 5 Of these bulls, the one here printed 
enjoined the Archbishop of Braga and the Bishop of Vizeu to confirm the 
treaty of Tordesillas, and cause it to be inviolably observed. The Archbishop 
of Braga was the distinguished prelate, Diogo da Souso, who had been 
elevated to this dignity only a few months previously, when he had been in 
Rome as head of the aforementioned embassy of obedience. The Bishop of 
Vizeu was Jorge da Costa, who had been created cardinal of Lisbon in 1476 
and who as cardinal protector of Portugal resided in Rome from about that 
date till his death in 1508. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Text: MS. The original manuscript of the promulgated bull is in the 
National Archives at Lisbon, Coll. de Bullas, mac,o 6, no. 33. 

Text: Printed. J. Ramos-Coelho, Alguns Documentos (1892), pp. 142-143; 
L. A. Rebello da Silva, Corpo Diplomatico Portuguez (Acad. Real das 
Sciencias, Lisbon, 1862 ), I. 91-93. 

Reference: Marquis MacSwiney de Mashanaglass, Le Portugal et le Saint- 
Siege (1898-1904), III. 1-42. Although not directly referring to the 
bull of January 24, 1506, this work throws light on the relations existing 
between King Emmanuel and the Pope at this date. 



TEXT." 

Julius, episcopus, servus servorum Dei : Venerabilibus f ratribus, archi- 
episcopo Bracharensi 7 et episcopo Visensi, 8 salutem et apostolicam bene- 
dictionem. 

Ea que pro bono pacis et quietis inter personas quaslibet, presertim Ca- 
tholicos reges, per concordiam terminata sunt, ne in redicive contencionis 
scrupulum relabantur, sed firma perpetuo et inconcussa permaneant, libenter, 
cum a nobis petitur, apostolico munimine roboramus. Exhibita siquidem 
nobis nuper pro parte carissimi in Christo filii nostri Emanuelis, Portugalie et 
Algarbiorum regis illustris, petitio continebat quod olim, postquam per Sedem 
Aj3ostolicam clare memorie Johanni, regi Portugalie et Algarbiorum [conces- 
sum f uerat] " quod ipse Johannes et rex Portugalie et Algarbiorum pro tempore 
existens, per mare occeanum navegare aut insulas et portus et loca firma infra 
dictum mare existencia, perquirere, et inventa sibi retinere liceret, ac omnibus 
aliis, sub excommunicationis et aliis penis tune expressis, ne mare hujusmodi 
contra voluntatem prefati regis navigare, aut insulas et loca ibidem repperta 

1 These bulls are printed in L. A. Rebello da Silva, Corpo Diplomatico Portuguez 
(Acad. Real das Sciencias, Lisbon, 1862 ), I. 88-93. 

6 The text is from the original manuscript of the promulgated bull, preserved in the 
National Archives at Lisbon, Coll. de Bullas, mago 6, no. 33. Dr. Achille Ratti, prefect 
of the Vatican Library, has kindly collated it with the Vatican text. 

7 Diogo da Souso, see introduction. 
" Jorge da Costa, see introduction. 

9 Some such words as " concessum f uerat " are wanted before " quod ipse ". " Johannes 
et Rex " should be in the dative. 



January 24, 1506 109 

occupare presumerent,inhibitum fuerat ; cum inter prefatumjohannem Regem 
ex una, et carissimum in Christo filium nostrum Ferdinandum, Aragonum tune 
Castelle et Legionis regem illustrem, super certis insulis Lasamillis 10 nuncu- 
patis, per prefatum regem inventas et occupatas," ex alia partibus, lis, contro- 
versia, et questionis materia exorte fuissent^partes ipse litibus, controversiis, 
et questionibus hujusmodi obviare, ac pacem et concordiam inter se pro 
subditorum suorum commoditate nutrire et vigere desiderantes, ad certas 
honestas concordiam, conventionem, et compositionem devenerunt, per quam 
inter cetera voluerunt quod Portugalie et Algarbiorum a certis Castelle vero 
et Legionis regibus pro tempore existentibus a certis aliis locis usque ad 
certa alia loca tune expressa per dictum mare navigare et insulas novas 
perquirere et capere ac sibi retinere liceret, prout in quodam instrumento 
publico desuper confecto dicitur plenius contineri."- Quare " pro parte prefati 
Emanuelis Regis nobis fuit humiliter supplicatum, ut concordie, conventioni, 
et compositioni predictis pro illorum subsistencia firmiori robur apostolice 
confirmationis adjicere, ac alias in premissis oportune providere de benignitate 
apostolica dignaremur.-- Nos igitur, qui inter personas quascumque, presertim 
regali dignitate fulgentes, pacem et concordiam vigere intensis desideriis 
affectamus, de premissis certam noticiam non habentes, hujusmodi suppli- 
cationibus inclinati, fraternitati vestre per apostolica scripta mandamus, 
quatinus vos vel alter vestrum, si est ita,\:oncordiam, conventionem, et com 
positionem predictas, ac prout illas concernunt, omnia et singula in dicto 
instrumento contenta, et inde secuta quecunque de utriusque regis consensu 
approbare et confirmare, illamque perpetue firmitatis robur obtinere de- 
cernentes, auctoritate nostra curetis, supplentes omnes et singulos defectus, 
si qui forsan intervenerunt in eisdem. Et nichilominus, si confirmationem et 
approbationem predictas per vos vigore presencium fieri contigerit, ut pre- 
fertur, faciatis dictam concordiam inviolabiliter observari, ac eosdem reges 
concordia et illius confirmatione et approbatione predictis pacifice gaudere, 
non permittentes eos inter se, aut per quoscunque alios, desuper indebite 
molestari, contradictores auctoritate nostra, appellatione postposita, com- 
pescendo. Non obstantibus constitutionibus et ordinationibus apostolicis 
contrariis quibuscunque, aut si eisdem regibus vel " quibusvis aliis, com- 
muniter vel divisim, ab Apostolica sit Sede indultum, quod interdici, suspendi 
vel excommunicari non possint, per litteras apostolicas non facientes plenam 
et expressam ac de verbo ad verbum de indulto hujusmodi mentionem. 

Datum Rome apud Sanctum Petrum, anno Incarnationis Dominice mil- 
lesimo quingentesimo quinto," nono kalendas Februarii, pontificatus nostri 
anno tercio. 

Jo. DE SALDANA." 

18 In the Vatican text, Lassanullis. A Portuguese translation of this bull, preserved 
in the National Archives at Lisbon, reads " certas Ilhas chamadas Antilhas ". Corp. 
Dip!. Port., I. 92, note. Lasamillis is probably a mistake for " Las Antillas ". 

11 Thus also in the Vatican text. 

" The treaty of Tordesillas, Doc. 9. 

" The Vatican text reads Quocirca. 

14 The Vatican text reads et. 
. " The Vatican text reads sexto. 

"Joao de Saldanha seems to have represented Portugal at Rome, whence, Oct. 21, 
1504, he wrote to King John that on account of the reports regarding the Indies and 
Guinea the moment was especially opportune for despatching an embassy of obedience. 
Rebello da Silva, Corp. Dipl. Port., I. 43-45. 



110 Doc. ii. The Bull Ea Quae 

TRANSLATION. 

Julius, bishop, servant of the servants of God, to the venerable brothers, 
the archbishop of Braga and the bishop of Vizeu, health and apostolic 
benediction. 

Those agreements, which have been concluded for the promotion of peace 
and quiet between any persons whatsoever, and especially between Catholic 
kings, we gladly confirm by granting our apostolic protection, when this is 
sought from us, in order that they may not again become matters of con 
tention but remain forever firm and unshaken. A request recently addressed 
to us on the part of our very dear son in Christ, Emmanuel, the illustrious 
king of Portugal and of the Algarves, stated that inasmuch as some time 
ago the permission was granted by the Apostolic See to John, of illustrious 
memory, king of Portugal and the Algarves, to the effect that the said John 
and any king of Portugal and of the Algarves for the time being, should be 
permitted to navigate the ocean sea, or seek out the islands, ports, and main 
lands lying within the said sea, and to retain those found for himself, and 
to all others it was forbidden under penalty of excommunication, and other 
penalties, then expressed, from presuming to navigate the sea in this way 
against the will of the aforesaid king, or to occupy the islands and places 
found there ; and inasmuch as between the aforesaid King John, on the one 
part, and our very dear son in Christ, Ferdinand, at that time the illustrious 
king of Aragon, Castile, and Leon, on the other part, in regard to certain 
islands called Las Antillas, which had been discovered and occupied by the 
aforesaid king, strife, controversy, and occasion for dispute had arisen, the 
said parties desiring to prevent strifes, controversies, and disputes of this 
kind, and to foster and strengthen peace and concord between themselves 
for the benefit of their subjects, came to a certain honorable agreement, 
convention, and compact, whereby, among other things, they resolved that 
the kings of Portugal and the Algarves should have the right to navigate the 
said sea within certain specified limits and seek out and take possession of 
newly discovered islands and that the kings for the time being of Castile 
and Leon should have the same right within certain other specified limits, 
as is said to be more fully set forth in a certain public instrument drawn up 
in regard to the matter. Wherefore the aforesaid King Emmanuel has 
humbly besought us to deign to add the authority of the apostolic confirma 
tion to the aforesaid agreement, convention, and compact for the purpose 
of establishing them more firmly and out of our apostolic good-will to 
make other fitting provisions in respect to the aforesaid. We, therefore, 
who strive with intense desire to foster peace and concord between all persons, 
especially between those whose royal office renders them conspicuous, not 
having certain knowledge of the aforesaid, but favorably disposed to these 
petitions, do by these apostolic writings enjoin Your Fraternity that you 
(or either one of you, if so be) do proceed to approve and confirm by our 
authority the aforesaid agreement, convention, and compact and everything 
set forth in the said instrument relating thereto, and all that has followed 
thereupon with the consent of both kings, decreeing it to possess perpetual 
authority, and supplying all and singular defects if perchance any should be 
contained therein. And furthermore if the aforesaid confirmation and 
approbation are enacted by you, by the authority of these presents, as is 
aforesaid, you shall cause the said agreement to be inviolably observed, and 



January 24, 1506 111 

the said kings to enjoy in peace the aforesaid agreement and the confirma 
tion and approbation thereof, not permitting them without just cause to molest 
one another, or to be molested by any other on this account, and restraining 
the disobedient, by our authority, without appeal, all apostolic constitutions 
and ordinances to the contrary notwithstanding, even if an indult has been 
granted by the Apostolic See to the said kings or to any others, together or 
individually, to the effect that they cannot be interdicted or suspended or 
excommunicated by apostolic letters not making full and express mention, 
word for word, of the said indult. 

Given at Rome, at St. Peter s, on the twenty-fourth day of January, in the 
year of the incarnation of our Lord, 1505, in the third year of our pontificate. 

Jo. DE SALDANA. 



12. 

The Bull Praecelsae Devotionis (Leo X.). November j, 

INTRODUCTION. 

In March, 1513, Leo X. became pope, and King Emmanuel soon gained 
his highest favor. A letter from the king to the pope, dated June 6, 1513, 
set forth the Portuguese successes in India, and especially in Malacca, the 
great emporium of the spice trade, captured by Albuquerque in 1511. The 
pope s enthusiastic reception of this news and of the later report of Portu 
guese victories in Morocco greatly pleased the king, who expressed his 
appreciation by sending to Rome in the spring of 1514 an embassy of obedi 
ence of unequalled splendor. 3 In return the pope showered favors upon the 
monarch who had so marvellously enlarged the field of missionary enter 
prise. Like Julius II., Leo X. sent the king the consecrated golden rose, 
and granted the requests preferred by the Portuguese ambassadors. When 
the embassy of obedience left Rome, late in May or early in June, Portuguese 
affairs remained in the hands of the ordinary ambassador, Joao de Faria, 
who obtained further concessions from the pope, among which was the bull 
of June /, 1514, which gave to the king the patronage of ecclesiastical 
benefices in Africa and in all other places beyond the sea, acquired or to be 
acquired from the infidels, and subjected them to the spiritual jurisdiction 
of the Order of Christ. 8 On November 3, a bull was issued which renewed 
the earlier donations to Portugal, and amplified them in the way in which the 
bull of September 26, 1493,* extended the grants previously made to Castile. 
The bull of November 3 granted to Portugal the lands and other property 
acquired from the infidels, not only from capes Bojador and Nao to the Indies, 
but in any region whatsoever, even if then unknown. Thus it appears that 
Pope Leo X. regarded the demarcation line as confined to one hemisphere, 
where it served to determine for both powers the route that must be followed 
to the Indies. For the present bull permitted the Portuguese, following 
the eastern route, to acquire lands from the infidels, even though these lands 
were situated more than half-way around the globe. The Portuguese desired 

1 Printed in Rebello da Silva, Corp. Dipl. Port., I. 196-199, and in Roscoe, Leo the 
Tenth, vol. I., app., p. xxxiv. 

For documents relating to this embassy, see Roscoe, op. cit., appendix ; MacSwiney 
de Mashanaglass, Le Portugal et le Saint-Siege, III., appendix; J. Ramos-Coelho, 
Alguns Documentos (1892), pp. 353-356; Rebello da Silya, op. cit., I. 234-243; and 
Ciutiis, Ambassade Portuguaise. See also the description in Goes, Chronica do Rei D. 
Manoel, pt. III., cc. 55-57- 

3 The bull is printed in Rebello da Silva, Corp. Dipl. Port., I. 254-257. In regard to the 
Order of Christ, see Doc. 2, note 14. 

4 Doc. 8. This bull had revoked the papal grants to Portugal in so far as they might 
be interpreted as giving her exclusive claim to the Indies. 

112 



November ,77 113 



this bull, it is almost certain, because they harbored doubts as to whether 
Malacca, or at any rate the coveted Moluccas, which had been visited by 
them at the end of 1511 or early in 1512, were on their side of the line. As 
early as 1512 the rumor was current that the Moluccas lay within the Spanish 
demarcation, and in the autumn of that year the Portuguese ambassador 
in Spain was much disturbed by King Ferdinand s project of an expedition 
to seize those islands for the Spanish crown." 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Text: MS. The original manuscript of the promulgated bull is in the 
National Archives at Lisbon, Coll. de Bullas, mago 29, no. 6. 

Text: Printed. Bullarum Collectio (Lisbon, 1707), pp. 8-53; L. A. Rebello 
da Silva, Corpo Diplomatico Portuguez (Acad. Real das Sciencias, 
Lisbon, 1862 ), I. 275-298. A synopsis and extract are in Blair and 
Robertson, Philippine Islands (1903-1909), I. 136-138. 

References : Contemporary and early writings. Damiao de Goes, Chronica 
do Rci D. Manoel ( 1 749) , pt. III., cc. 55-57. 

References: Later writings. L. von Pastor, Geschichte der Papste, 
band IV., abt. I. (1906), pp. 50-53; Marquis MacSwiney de Mashana- 
glass, Le Portugal et le Saint-Siege, I. (1898), 21-28; III. (1904), 
85-128; Salvatore de Ciutiis, Une Ambassade Portugaise a Rome 
(1899) ; W. Roscoe, Life of Leo the Tenth (1846), I. 361-364; J. T. 
Medina, Juan Diaz de Soils (1897), torn. I., c. 6, torn. II., docs. 22, 30, 31. 



TEXT." 

Leo episcopus, servus servorum Dei. Ad perpetuam rei memoriam. 

Precelse devotionis et indefessum fervorem, integre fidei puritatem, in- 
geniique in Sanctam Sedem Apostolicam observantiam, excelsarumque virtu- 
tum flagrantiam, quibus charissimus in Christo filius noster, Emmanuel 
Portugallie et Algarbiorum rex illustris, sese nobis et dicte sedi multipliciter 
gratum, obsequiosum, et acceptum prebuit, apud archana mentis nostre digne 
revolventes, presertim cum, magistra rerum experientia teste, perpendimus 
ac apertis documentis in dies clare conspicimus, quam sedula vigilantia sua 
Sublimitas et Serenitas suorum predecessorum Portugallie regum gesta 
sequendo, plerumque in persona, non sine gravissimis laboribus et expensis, 
nixa sit et continuo ferventius enititur, ut Salvatori nostro ac nomini Chris- 
tiano infensa Maurorum et aliorum infidelium immanitas nedum a fidelium 
finibus arceatur quinimo suis flagitiis male perdita, et arctetur funditus et 
deleatur, et Christiana religio, optata pace freta, votiva in omnibus suscipiat 
incrementa ; hiis considerationibus et plerisque aliis legitimis causis suadenti- 
bus, congruum et opere pretium existimamus, ea que a predecessoribus 
nostris, Romanis pontificibus, ipsius Emanuelis Regis predecessoribus pre- 

* Medina, Juan Diaz de Soils, torn. I., c. 6, torn. II., docs. 22, 30, 31. 

*The text is taken from the original manuscript in the National Archives at Lisbon, 
Coll. de Bullas, mac.o 29, no. 6. On the back is the endorsement " Registrata apud me 
Ja: Sadoletum." 



114 Doc. 12. The Bull Praecclsac Devotionis 

fatis concessa comperimus, nostro etiam munimine confovere ac alia etiam 
de novo concedere, ut exinde Celsitudo sua, Apostolice Sedi predicte 
ulteriori munificentia premunita, in prosecutione promissorum non solum 
ardentius inflametur, sed et liberali ac munifica compensatione accepta ceteros 
reddat et faciat ad similia promptiores, et ejus erga nos et sedem predictam 
devotio augeatur, et pro laboribus quos Universali Ecclesie circa Catholice 
et apostolice fidei exaltationem bene serviendo sustinet condignos honores 
et gratias reportet. 

Dudum siquidem a felicis recordationis Nicolao papa V. et Sixto IV. 
Romanis pontificibus, predecessoribus nostris, emanarunt diverse littere, 
tenoris subsequentis. 

[Here follow the bulls of June 18, 1452 (a part of which is printed above, 
Doc. 1, note 37) ; of January 8, 1455 (Doc. 1) ; and of June 21, 1481 
(Doc. 4), which includes the bulls of January 8, 1455, and of March 13, 
1456 (Doc. 2), and the part of the treaty of Alcac.ovas relating to Guinea 
(Doc. 3).] 

Nos igitur, qui ejusdem Emmanuelis Regis, fidei augmentum et propaga- 
tionem jugiter procurantis, commoda et utilitates supremis desideriis affecta- 
mus, motu proprio, non ad ipsius Emanuelis Regis vel alicujus alterius 
pro eo nobis super hoc oblate petitionis instantiam, sed de nostra mera delib- 
eratione et ex certa nostra scientia ac de apostolice potestatis plenitudine, 
omnes et singulas literas predictas ac omnia et singula in eis contenta et inde 
secuta quecumque rata et grata habentes, auctoritate apostolica, tenore 
presentium approbamus et innovamus ac confirmamus, supplentes omnes et 
singulos defectus, tam juris quam facti, siqui forsan intervenerint in eisdem, 
ac perpetue firmitatis robur obtinere debere decernimus. 

Et pro potiori cautela, omnia et singula in eisdem litteris contenta, ac 
quecunque alia imperia, regna, principatus, ducatus, provincias, terras, 
civitates, opida, castra, dominia, insulas, portus, maria, littora, et bona 
quecunque, mobilia et immobilia, ubicunque consistentia, per eundem 
Emanuelem Regem et predecessores suos a dictis infidelibus, etiam solitaria 
quecunque recuperata, detecta, inventa, et acquisita, ac per ipsum Emanuelem 
Regem et successores suos in posterum recuperanda, acquirenda, detegenda, 
et invenienda, tam a Capitibus de Bogiador et de Naon usque ad Indos quam 
etiam ubicunque et in quibuscunque partibus, etiam nostris temporibus forsan 
ignotis, eisdem auctoritate et tenore de novo concedimus ; litterasque supra- 
dictas ac omnia et singula in illis contenta ad premissa etiam extendimus et 
ampliamus, ac in virtute sancte obedientie et indignationis nostre pena quibus 
cunque fidelibus Christianis, etiam si imperiali regali, et quacunque alia 
prefulgeant dignitate, ne eundem Emmanuelem Regem et successores suos 
quomodolibet in premissis impedire, ac eisdem infidelibus auxilium, con- 
silium, vel favorem prestare presumant, auctoritate et tenore premissis 
inhibemus. 

Quocirca venerabilibus fratribus nostris archiepiscopo Ulixbonensi/ et 
Egiptanensi ac Funchalensi * episcopis, per apostolica scripta motu simili 
mandamus quatinus ipsi, vel duo aut unus eorum, per se vel alium seu alios, 

Martin da Costa, brother of Jorge da Costa. Doc. 11, introduction. 
* Idanha-Velha, with see at Guarda. In 1514 the bishop was Pedro Vasques. 
Funchal is the chief town on the island of Madeira. In 1514 its bishop was Diogo 
Pinheiro. 



November j, 1514 115 

presentes litteras ac omnia et singula in eis contenta, ubi et quanclo expe- 
dierit, ac quotiens pro parte Emanuelis Regis et successorum suorum pre- 
dictorum fuerint super hoc requisiti solemniter publicantes, ac eisdem 
Emanueli Regi et successoribus in premissis efficacis defensionis presidio 
assistentes, faciant auctoritate nostra presentes et alias litteras et in eis 
contenta hujusmodi inviolabiliter observari, non permittentes eos super illis 
per quoscunque quomodolibet molestari ; contradictores per censuram ecclesi- 
asticam, appellatione postposita, compescendo ; invocato etiam ad hoc, si 
opus fuerit, auxilio brachii secularis. Et nihilominus, legitimis super hiis 
habendis servatis processibus, 10 illos quos censuras et penas per eos pro 
tempore latas eos " incurrisse constiterit, quotiens expedient, iteratis vicibus, 
aggravare procurent. 

Non obstantibus recolende niemorie Bonifacii Pape VIII., similiter pre- 
decessoris nostri, qua inter alia cavetur ne quis extra suam civitatem et 
diocesiin, nisi in certis exceptis casibus, et in illis ultra unam dietam a fine 
sue diocesis ad judicium evocetur, seu ne judices ab Apostolica Sede deputati, 
extra civitatem et diocesim in quibus deputati fuerint, contra quoscunque 
procedere, aut alii, vel aliis vices suas committere presumant, 12 et de duabus 
dietis in concilio generali " edita ac aliis apostolicis constitutionibus ac omnibus 
illis que idem Nicolaus et alii predecessores, qui similes eidem Regi Portu- 
gallie fecerunt concessiones, in eorum litteris voluerunt non obstare, con- 
trariis quibuscunque ; aut si aliquibus, communiter vel divisim, ab eadem sit 
sede indultum quod interdici, suspendi, vel excommunicari non possint per 
litteras apostolicas non facientes plenam et expressam ac de verbo ad verbum 
de indulto hujusmodi mentionem. 

Nulli ergo omnino hominum liceat hanc paginam nostre approbationis, 
innovationis, confirmationis, suppletionis, decreti, concessionis, extensionis, 
ampliations, inhibitionis, et mandati infringere, vel ei ausu temerario con- 
traire. Siquis autem hoc attemptare presumpserit, indignationem Omnipo- 
tentis Dei ac beatorum Petri et Pauli apostolorum ejus se noverit incursurum. 

Datum Rome apud Sanctum Petrum, anno Incarnationis Dominice mil- 
lesimo quingentesimo quartodecimo, tertio nonas Novembris, pontificatus 
nostri anno secundo. JA. SADOLETUS." B. DE COMITIBUS. 



TRANSLATION. 

Leo, bishop, servant of the servants of God. For an abiding remembrance. 

Meditating fittingly in the inmost counsels of our heart upon the un 
wearied fervor of lofty devotion, the purity of blameless faith, the respect 
for the Holy Apostolic See, and the ardor of lofty virtues, whereby our very 

""The steps whereby a controversy is discussed in judgment constitute a process." 
O. .1. Reichel, Canon Law (1896), II. 262. 

" This word, which is in the manuscript, should be omitted to make sense. 

" See the Corpus Juris Canonici, Sexti Decretal, lib. I., tit. III., c. XI. (pt. II., p. 942, 
in Friedberg s edition). 

13 By the rule of the Fourth Lateran Council, can. 37, no one can be cited by apostolic 
letters to appear at a place more than two days journey from his diocese, unless such 
letters shall have been procured with the assent of the parties, or unless they expressly 
mention this rule. Corpus Juris Canonici, Decretal. Gregor. IX. lib. I., tit. III., c. 28 
(pt. II., p. 31, in Friedberg s edition). 

14 Jacopo Sadoleto, the Italian humanist, and Pietro Bembo were the secretaries of 
Leo X., whose chancery was famous for the brilliancy of its letters. 



116 Doc. 12. The Bull Praecelsae Det otionis 

dear son in Christ, Emmanuel, the illustrious king of Portugal and of the 
Algarves, has made himself, in manifold ways, pleasing, serviceable, and 
agreeable to us and to the said see, especially since in the light of experience 
we consider, and from manifest proofs every day clearly perceive, with what 
unremitting vigilance his Sublimity and Serenity, following the example 
of his predecessors, the kings of Portugal, has striven, and ever more zeal 
ously strives, for the most part in person and not without the greatest effort 
and expense, in order that the barbarous hostility of the Moors and of other 
infidels to our Savior and to the Christian name may not only be warded off 
from the territories of the faithful, but, perishing in its own iniquity, may be 
entirely restrained and blotted out, and that the Christian religion may by 
peaceful means be advanced and promoted in all longed-for ways : persuaded 
by these considerations and by many other legitimate reasons, we deem it 
fitting and expedient constantly to guard and protect those concessions which 
we have learned were granted by our predecessors, the Roman pontiffs, to 
the aforesaid predecessors of the said King Emmanuel, and also to grant 
other and new privileges, in order that then his Highness, fortified by the 
further munificence of the aforesaid Apostolic See, may not only be roused 
to greater zeal in fulfilling his promises, but having received a liberal and 
generous reward may induce and cause others more readily to undertake 
similar work, and that his devotion to us and to the aforesaid see may be 
increased, and that in return for the labors which he sustains in serving the 
Church Universal by exalting the Catholic and apostolic faith, he may obtain 
suitable honors and rewards. 

A short while ago, divers letters of the following tenor were issued by our 
predecessors, Popes Nicholas V. and Sixtus IV., of happy memory. 

[Here follow the bulls of June 18, 1452 (a part of which is printed above, 
Doc. 1, note 37) ; of January 8, 1455 (Doc. 1) ; and of June 21, 1481 
(Doc. 4), which includes the bulls of January 8, 1455, and of March 13, 
1456 (Doc. 2), and the part of the treaty of Alcagovas relating to Guinea 
(Doc. 3).] 

We, therefore, who passionately strive for the advantage and profit of the 
said King Emmanuel, since he is continually aiming at the growth and ex 
tension of the faith, of our own accord, and not at the instance of the said 
King Emmanuel or on account of any request offered by any other person 
in his behalf, but from our mere deliberation and out of our certain knowl 
edge and from the plenitude of apostolic power, approve and renew and 
confirm by the apostolic authority and by the tenor of these presents, the 
aforesaid letters, all and singular, regarding their contents, all and singular, 
and whatever has followed thereupon as established and acceptable, and 
supplying all and singular defects, both of law and of fact, if any should 
happen to occur in them ; and we decree that they ought to be permanently 
valid. 

And for greater security and by virtue of the authority and in the terms 
mentioned above, we newly grant everything, all and singular, contained in 
the aforesaid letters, and all other empires, kingdoms, principalities, duchies, 
provinces, lands, cities, towns, forts, lordships, islands, harbors, seas, coasts, 
and all property, real and personal, wherever existing, also all unfrequented 
places, recovered, discovered, found and acquired from the aforesaid infidels, 
by the said King Emmanuel and his predecessors, or in future to be re- 



November 3, 1514 117 

covered, acquired, discovered, and found by the said King Emmanuel and 
his successors, both from Capes Bojador and Nao to the Indies, and in any 
place or region whatsoever, even although perchance unknown to us at 
present ; and we also extend and amplify the aforesaid letters, and their con 
tents, all and singular, to the aforesaid concessions, and in virtue of holy 
obedience and under penalty of our wrath, by the authority and in the terms 
aforesaid, we inhibit all faithful Christians, even though adorned with im 
perial, royal, or any other rank, from presuming to hinder in any way the 
said King Emmanuel and his successors in respect to the aforesaid conces 
sions, and from furnishing aid, counsel, or favor to the said infidels. 

Wherefore by apostolic writings, and of the same accord, we charge our 
venerable brothers, the archbishop of Lisbon and the bishops of Idanha- 
Velha (Guarda) and Funchal, that they, or two or one of them, by himself, 
or through another, or others, solemnly publishing the present letters and all 
and singular therein contained, where and when it shall be expedient, and 
as often as they shall be required on behalf of King Emmanuel and his suc 
cessors and, aiding the aforesaid King Emmanuel and his successors with 
effectual protection in the aforesaid, do by our authority cause the present 
and other letters and the matters contained therein to be inviolably observed 
after this manner, not permitting them [i. e., the kings] to be troubled in any 
way whatever and by anyone in respect to these matters, restraining the 
disobedient by ecclesiastical censure, without permitting appeal, and likewise 
if necessary invoking for this purpose the aid of the secular arm. And none 
the less, observing the legal process to be followed in these matters, let them 
be careful, as often as it shall be expedient, to harass again and again those 
who it shall appear have incurred the censures and penalties imposed by them 
in accordance with circumstances. 

Nor shall the [edict] of Pope Boniface VIII. , of celebrated memory, 
similarly our predecessor, interfere with these injunctions, in which, among 
other things, he forbade that anyone be summoned to trial outside his city 
or diocese, except in certain excepted cases, and in those cases not more 
than one day s journey from the bounds of his diocese, or that judges, deputed 
by the Apostolic See, presume to proceed against anyone outside the city or 
diocese in which they shall have been deputed, or that they presume to intrust 
their duties to any other person or persons ; nor the regulation in regard to 
the two days journey, ordained in the General Council ; and other apostolic 
constitutions; nor all those constitutions whatsoever to the contrary which 
the said Nicholas and others of our predecssors, who made similar conces 
sions to the said King of Portugal, declared to be of no effect in their letters, 
even if the said see has granted an indult to any, jointly or singly, that they 
may not be interdicted, suspended, or excommunicated by apostolic letters not 
making full and express mention, word for word, of such indult. 

Let no man whomsoever therefore infringe or with rash boldness contra 
vene this our approval, renewal, confirmation, completion, decree, grant, 
extension, amplification, inhibition, and mandate. Should anyone presume to 
attempt this, be it known to him that he will incur the wrath of Almighty 
God and of the blessed apostles Peter and Paul. 

Given at Rome, at St. Peter s, on the third day of November, in the year 
of the incarnation of our Lord, 1514, in the second year of our pontificate. 

JACOPO SADOLETO. B. DE COMITIBUS. 



13. 

Treaty betiveen Spain and Portugal, concluded at Vitoria, Feb 
ruary 19, 1524. Ratification by the Emperor, February 27, 

1524- 

INTRODUCTION. 

The attainment of India by the Portuguese incited the Spaniards to dis 
cover a strait leading westward to the Spice Islands. This was the purpose 
of Columbus s fourth voyage (1502-1504), and of several other Spanish 
expeditions, planned or undertaken in the following decade. The King of 
Portugal kept jealous watch of these enterprises and his protests caused at 
least one projected expedition of this kind to be postponed. 1 

In 1518 the Portuguese captain Magellan, who had served in the Far East, 
deeming himself ungratefully treated by King Emmanuel, transferred his 
allegiance to King Charles of Spain. 2 On the ground that the Spice Islands 
(Moluccas) lay on the Spanish side of the line of demarcation, he per 
suaded Charles to employ him to lead an expedition thither by the western 
route. 3 Despite the King of Spain s assurances that his commanders were 
charged to respect existing international agreements touching the line of 
demarcation, 4 Portugal strove to frustrate Magellan s negotiations, and, 
failing in this, to obstruct the execution of his project. 6 

These attempts failed and in November, 1521, the Spanish expedition, 
having discovered on the voyage the Ladrones and the Philippine Islands, 
reached the Moluccas, where the native rulers concluded treaties with the 

"His effectual protest against Pinzon s expedition planned in 1506 is noticed in 
H. Harrisse, Discovery of North America (1892), p. 730. For an account of early 
attempts to find a western passage to the Spice Islands see J. T. Medina, Sebastian 
Caboto (1908), torn. I., c. 8. 

* Charles was elected emperor in the following year. 

1 Magellan s instructions, his memorial on the latitude and longitude of the Moluccas, 
and other related documents are printed in the fourth volume of Navarrete, Viages, 
and summarized in the first volume of Blair and Robertson, Philippine Islands. See also 
Algs. Docs., pp. 423-430. and Medina, Documentos para la Historia de Chile, I., II. 
The belief that the Moluccas lay within the Spanish area was entertained by the Spanish 
government as early as 1512. Cf. Doc. 12, introduction and note 5. 

* See the letter from Charles to King Emmanuel, Feb. 28, 1519, Algs. Docs., pp. 422- 
423, and Blair and Robertson, Philippine Islands, I. 277-279. 

Guillemard, Magellan, pp. 111-139. Letters to King Emmanuel from the Portuguese 
ambassador, Sept. 28, 1518, and from the Portuguese factor at Seville, July 18, 1519, are 
published in the original and in translation in Lord Stanley, First Voyage (Hakluyt Soc., 
no. LII., 1874), PP- xxxv-xlvi, and appendixes i and 2. A translation of the former 
letter is in Guillemard, op. cit., pp. 114-116, and a partial translation of the second letter 
in the same work, pp. 130-134. The text of the second letter is in Algs. Docs., pp. 431-435. 

118 



Vitoria, 1534 119 



leaders of the expedition and declared themselves vassals of Spain. In 
the Moluccas the Spaniards found themselves face to face with the Portu 
guese, who had discovered the islands ten years before, and manifested 
their resentment against the intruders by destroying a trading post that 
the Spaniards were attempting to establish, and by seizing a ship. Portu 
guese hostility was also displayed in another quarter, when the Victoria, 
the only vessel of the Spanish fleet that completed the voyage round the 
globe, was obliged, near the end of her course, to put in at the Cape Verde 
Islands. 7 Here the Portuguese detained several of her crew as prisoners, 
and the King of Portugal, learning what had occurred, despatched four 
caravels in vain pursuit of the ship." 

Shortly after the return of the Victoria to Spain the two courts began 
negotiations relative to the Moluccas. 

Three closely related questions were distinguished : ( I ) the determina 
tion of the line of demarcation in accordance with the treaty of Tordesillas ; 
(2) the possession of the Moluccas; and (3) their ownership. Early in 
the negotiations the Emperor suggested that in addition to the caravels de 
spatched by each power to make a demarcation, Pope Adrian VI. should send 
a caravel, and act as umpire. As to possession, both parties claimed it. The 
Emperor argued that even if the Moluccas had been first seen or discovered 
by Portuguese ships, yet they had not been taken or possessed, and there 
fore not effectually found by them ; while he, on the other hand, was ac 
knowledged by the native rulers as lord of those regions. 10 He admitted, 
however, that the Portuguese were in possession of Malacca, although many 
believed that this also lay within the Spanish demarcation. The Portuguese, 
on the other hand, asserted that they had found the Moluccas, and that there 
fore, even if they were on the Spanish side of the line of demarcation, Spain 
should, in accordance with the treaty of Tordesillas, petition the Portuguese 
for them. The Spanish argued that, on the contrary, such petition should 
come from the Portuguese." 

Among the demands made by Portugal, one was especially displeasing 
to the Emperor and the Castilian Cortes that while the questions of posses 
sion and ownership remained in dispute, neither party should despatch a 
trading fleet to the Moluccas. The Victoria s cargo had proved of enormous 
value, and before the end of the year 1522 a second fleet was being hastily 

Extracts from these treaties are in Navarrete, op. cit., IV. 295-298. 
7 Guillemard, op. cit., pp. 293 ff. 

Andrada, Chronica del Rey Dom Joao o III., pt. I., c. 17. Santarem, Quadra 
Elementar, II. 32 ff. 
* Algs. Docs., p. 462. 

10 Blair and Robertson, op. cit., I. 150-153; Herrera, Historia General, dec. III., lib. 
VI., c. 5., and cf. Peter Martyr D Anghera, De Orbe Novo, II. 239 (trans, by F. A. 
MacNutt, 1912). 

11 Blair and Robertson, op. cit., I. 142-158; Navarrete, op. cit., torn. IV., no. 31, pp. 
312-320; Herrera, loc. cit. 



120 Doc. 13. Spain Portugal 

equipped to sail to the Spice Islands from Coruna. In consequence of 
Portugal s opposition, the Emperor postponed its departure, but in 1523 
he promised the Cortes of Castile that it should be despatched as soon as 
possible and that he would not surrender the " Spicery " or come to any 
other agreement respecting it that was prejudicial to Castile. 12 

The negotiations ended in the signing of a provisional treaty in the city 
of Vitoria on February 19, 1524. The principal stipulations were that each 
party should appoint three astrologers and three pilots to assemble not later 
than the end of March at the frontier of the two countries to determine the 
demarcation ; and three lawyers to meet at the same time and place to deter 
mine the question of possession. If possible the questions were to be decided 
by the end of May, 1524. Before that time neither party was to despatch a 
trading expedition to the Moluccas. 

The treaty was ratified by the Emperor on February 27, 1524. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Text: MS. The original ratification signed by the emperor at Vitoria, 
February 27, 1524, is in the National Archives at Lisbon, gav. 18, mac.o 6, 
no. 5. The protocol is in the same archives, gav. 15, mago 10, no. 20, 
and also in the Archives of the Indies at Seville, Papeles de Maluco de 
1519 a 1547, est. i, caj. 2, leg. 1/15, no. 9. 

Text: Printed. The protocol is printed in M. F. de Navarrete, Colecclon de 
Viages (1825-1837), torn. IV., no. 32, pp. 320-326, and in J. T. Medina, 
Coleccion de Documentos para la Historic de Chile (1888-1902), I. 
330-337. 

Translation. The articles are translated in E. H. Blair and J. A. Robertson, 
Philippine Islands (1903-1909), I. 160-163. 

References : Contemporary and early writings. Diplomatic documents : 
Navarrete, op. cit., IV. 301-305, 312-320, translated in Blair and Robert 
son, op. cit., I. 139-158; J. Ramos-Coelho, Alguns Documentos (1892), 
pp. 462-463; Viscount de Santarem, Quadro Elementar (1842-1876), 
II. 35 ff. See also A. Rodriguez Villa, El Emperador Carlos V . y su 
Corte segun las Cartas de Don Martin de Salinas (1903), passim; 
Fr. d Andrada, Chronica do Rey Dom Jodo o III. (1796), torn. I., 
cc. 16-18; A. de Herrera, Historia General de los Hechos de los Cas- 
tellanos, dec. III., lib. VI., cc. 3-6 (ed. 1728-1730, II. 178-184) ; 
B. Leonardo de Argensola, Conquista de las Islas Malucas ( 1609) , lib. I. ; 
id., in Biblioteca de Escritores Aragoneses, Seccion Literaria, torn. VI. 
(1891), translated in J. Stevens, New Collection of Voyages and 
Travels (1708-1710), vol. I., pt. i ; Medina, op. cit., toms. I. and II. 

References: Later writings. F. H. H. Guillemard, Life of Ferdinand 
Magellan (1890) ; O. Koelliker, Die Erste Umseglung der Erde (1908), 
gives an extended list of the sources ; F. Colin, Labor Evangelica (ed. 
P. Pastells, 1904), II. 600-613, " Discusiones entre Espafia y Portugal 
acerca del Derecho de Posesion de las Malucas ". 

" Cortes de los Antiguos Reinos de Leon y de Castillo, IV. 388 (Real Academia de la 
Historia, Madrid, 1861, etc.). 



Vitoria, 1524 121 

TEXT." 

Don Carlos, por la gracia de Dios rrei de Romanes e emperador semper 
augusto, Dona Johana, su madre, e el mesmo Don Carlos, por la mesma gracia 
rreyes de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, de las Dos Segilias, de Jherusalem, de 
Navarra, de Granada, de Toledo, de Valencia, de Galizia, de Mallorcas, de 
Sevilla, de C,erdena, de Cordova, de Corgega, de Murgia, de Jahen, de los 
Algarves, de Algezira, de Gibraltar, de las Yslas de Canaria, de las Indias, 
yslas e tierra firme del mar ogeano, condes de Barcelona, senores de Vizcaya 
e, de Molina, duques de Athenas e de Neopatria, condes de Ruysellon e de 
C,erdania, marqueses de Oristan e de Gogiano, archiduques de Austria, duques 
de Borgoiia e de Bravante, condes de Flandes e de Tirol, etc., vimos una 
escriptura de capitulation e asiento hecha en nuestro nombre por Mercurinus 
de Gratinara," nuestro grand changiller, e Don Herrnando de Vega," com- 
mendador mayor de Castilla, e Don Gargia de Padilla," comendador mayor 
de Calatrava, y el Doctor Lorengo Galindez de Carvajal," todos del nuestro 
consejo, e Pero Correa, de Atovia, senor de la villa de Velas, y el Doctor 
Johan de Faria, 1 embaxadores e del consejo del Serenisimo e Mui Excelente 
Rei de Portugal," nuestro mui caro e mui amado sobrino e prime, e sus 
procuradores, su thenor del qual es este que se sigue : 

En el nombre de Dios Todo poderoso, Padre y Hijo y Spiritu Sancto. 
Manifiesto e notorio sea a todos quantos este publico ynstrumento vieren, 
como en la gibdad de Vitoria a diez e nueve dias del mes de Hebrero, ano del 
nasgimiento de nuestro Salvador Jhesu Christo de mill e cminientos e veinte e 
quatro aiios, en presengia de mi, Frangisco de los Covos, secrectario de sus 

13 The text is taken from the original manuscript of the ratification by the Emperor, 
dated Feb. 27, 1524, preserved in the National Archives at Lisbon, gav. 18, mac.o 6, no. 5. 

"In 1519 Mercurino Arborio de Gattinara, a Piedmontese, formerly employed by the 
Emperor Maximilian in important negotiations, became grand chancellor of Charles V. 
and ex oflicio president of the councils. He befriended Las Casas in his controversies 
with the Council of the Indies and presided over the Cortes of 1523 which petitioned 
Charles not to surrender the Spice Islands. In 1529, the year before his death, he was 
created cardinal. 

18 Senor de Grajal, knight-commander in Castile and Leon of the Order of Santiago 
and president of the Council of the Orders (". e., of the three oldest orders of knight 
hood in Spain Alcantara, Calatrava, and Santiago). He was a member of the Council 
of the Indies both before and after its reorganization in 1524, and at one time owned 
land and Indians in the West Indies. In 1515 he was a president of the Cortes. A 
brief biographical notice of him is in M. Danvila, Historia de las Comunidades de 
Castilla, in the Memorial Historic o Espaiiol (Real Academia de la Historia, Madrid, 
1800), XL. 135. 

A member of the early Council of the Indies and of the Cortes of 1518, 1520, and 
1523. In 1523 president of the Council of the Orders. 

A learned lawyer and historian, member of the Council of the Indies as reorganized 
in 1524, and of the Cortes of 1520 and 1523; president of the Royal Council of Castile, 
and appointed by Queen Isabella to prepare a digest of the Castilian law. His Anales 
del Rey Don Fernando el Catolico is one of the best authorities for the latter part of that 
king s reign. 

"During his embassy at Rome, Joao de Faria had obtained many favors for Portugal 
from Leo X. Cf. above, Doc. 12, introduction. 

"John III., 1521-1537. 

*In 1517 Cobos, a Spaniard, became secretary to Charles V. and a member of the 
Council of the Indies. He rose rapidly in favor, and after the death of Gattinara he 
and Granvelle were Charles s most influential ministers. " All the affairs of Italy, the 
Indies, and Spain passed under his hand for many years." Gomara, Annals of the 
Emperor Charles V. (ed. R. B. Merriman, 1912), p. 136. 



122 Doc. 13. Spain Portugal 

Magestades e su noctario publico, e de los testigos de yuso escripctos, estando 
presentes los senores Mercurinus de Gratinara, grand changiller de sus 
Magestades, y Don Hernando de Vega, comendador mayor de Castilla de la 
Horden de Sanctiago, e Don Garcia de Padilla, comendador mayor de Cala- 
trava, y el Doctor Lorengo Galindez de Carvajal, todos del consejo de los mui 
altos e mui poderosos pringipes, Don Carlos, por la divina clemengia emperador 
semper augusto, rrey de Romanes, y Dona Johana, su madre, e el mesmo 
Don Carlos, su hijo, por la gragia de Dios rreyes de Castilla, de Leon, de 
Aragon, de las Dos Secilias, de Jherusalen, etc., sus procuradores bastantes, 
de la una parte, e los senores, Pero Correa de Atovia, senor de la villa de Velas, 
e el Doctor Johan de Faria, ambos del consejo del muy alto e muy exgelente 
senor, el senor, Don Johan, por la gragia de Dios rrey de Portugal, de los 
Algarves de aquende y allende el mar en Africa, senor de Guinea y de la 
conquista, navegagion, e comergio de Ytiopia e Aravia e Persia y de la India, 
etc., sus embaxadores e procuradores bastantes, segund ambas las dichas 
partes lo mostraron por las cartas, poderes, e procuragiones delos dichos 
senores sus constituyentes, su thenor de las quales de verbo ad verbum es 
este que se sigue : 

[Here follow the full powers granted by the Emperor Charles V. and 
Queen Joanna of Castile to Mercurino de Gattinara, Fernando de Vega, 
Garcia de Padilla, and Dr. Lorenzo Galindez de Carvajal, on January 25, 
1524; and the full powers granted by John III. of Portugal to Pedro 
Correa and Dr. Joao de Faria on January 13, 1524.] 

E luego los dichos procuradores de los dichos senores rreyes de Castilla, 
de Leon, de Aragon, de las Dos Segilias, de Jherusalem, etc., e del dicho Senor 
Rey de Portugal, de los Algarves, etc., dixeron : Que por quanto entre los 
dichos senores sus constituyentes ay dubda sobre la posesion de Maluco y la 
propiedad del, pretendiendo cada uno dellos que cae en los limites de su 
demarcagion, la qual se ha de hazer con forme al asiento y capitulagion ll 
que fue f echa entre los Catolicos rreyes, Don Hernando e Reina Dona Ysabel, 
rreyes de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, etc., e el muy alto y muy exgelente 
senor el Senor Rey Don Johan, rrey de Portugal, de los Algarves, senor de 
Guinea, etc., que ayan gloria, por ende ellos e cada uno dellos en los dichos 
nombres e por virtud delos dichos poderes de suso encorporados, por bien de 
paz e concordia e por conservagion del debdo e amor que entre los senores 
sus constituyentes [ay,] otorgaron, consintieron, e asentaron lo siguiente: 

[i.] Primeramente, que para la demarcagion que se ha de hazer conforme 
a la dicha capitulagion, se nombre[n] por cada una de las partes tres as- 
trologos e tres pilotos e marineros, los quales se ayan de juntar e junten por 
todo el mes de Margo primero que viene, o antes si ser pudiere, en la rraya 
de Castilla y Portugal entre la cibdad de Badajoz e la cibdad de Yelves, para 
que por todo el mes de Mayo primero siguiente, deste presente ano, haziendo 
ante todas cosas, luego commo se juntaren, juramento solene em forma 
devida de derecho en poder de dos notaries, uno puesto por la una parte y 
el otro por la otra, con abto e testimonio publico, en que juren a Dios e a 
Santa Maria e a las palabras de los santtos quatro Evangelios, en que pornan 
las manos, que pospuesto todo amor y temor, odio e pasion, ni interese alguno, 
y sin tener rrespecto a otra cosa alguna mas de hazer justigia, miraran el 

11 The treaty of Tordesillas, Doc. 9. " This word is not in the text. 



Vitoria, 1524 1 23 

derecho de las partes, determiner! conforme a la dicha capitulation la dicha 
demarcation. 

[2.] Asimismo, que se nombren por cada una de las partes tres letrados, 
los quales dentro del mesmo termino y lugar, premise el dicho juramento 
con las solemnidades e de la manera que de suso se contiene, entiendan en lo 
de la posesion de Maluco, e lo determinen, rresgibiendo las probangas, escrip- 
turas, capitulagiones, testigos e derechos que antes ellos fueren presentadas, 
e hagan todo lo que les paresgiere nesgesario para hazer la dicha declaration, 
commo hallaren por justigia ; e que de los dichos tress letrados, el primero 
nombrado en la comision tenga cargo de juntar a todos los otros diputados 
de su parte para que con mas cuydado se entienda en la negociagion. 

[3.] Otrosy, que durante el dicho termino fasta en fin del dicho mes de 
Mayo, primero siguiente, ninguna de las partes no pueda embiar a Maluco, 
ni contratar ni rescatar, pero si antes del dicho tiempo se determinare en 
posesion o propiedad, que la parte en cuyo favor se declarare el derecho en 
cada una de las dichas cosas, pueda embiar y rrescatar; e en caso que se 
determine lo de la propiedad e demarcagion, se entienda degisa e absorvida 
la quistion de la posesion; y si solamente se determinare lo de la posesion 
por los dichos dos letrados, sin que lo de la propiedad se pudiese determinar, 
commo es dicho, que lo que quedare por determinar de la dicha propiedad, e 
tambien de la posesion del dicho Maluco, quede conforme a la dicha capitu- 
lagion en el estado en que estava antes que se hiziese este asiento; lo qual 
todo se ha de entender e entienda sin perjuizio del derecho de cada una de 
las partes en propiedad e posesion conforme a la dicha capitulagion. 

[4.] Pero si a los dichos letrados primero nombrados en las comisiones, 
antes que se acabe el dicho termino, paresgiere que con alguna prorrogagion del 
dicho termino oviese aparengia de se poder acabar e determinar lo asentado, e 
se les ofresgiere otro camino o modo bueno para que este negogio se podiese 
mejor determinar en un cabo o otro, conviene a saber, en posesion o propie 
dad ; en qualquier destos casos los dichos dos letrados puedan prorrogar 
el tiempo que les paresgiere convenir a la brebe determinagion dello, e que 
durante el termino de la dicha prorrogagion puedan ellos e todos los otros 
diputados e cada uno dellos en su calidad, entender e conosger, entiendan e 
conozcan, commo si fuese dentro del termino pringipal de su comision ; pero 
quel dicho tiempo se entiende prorrogado con las mismas condigiones e 
calidades de suso contenidas. 

[5.] Y que todos los abtos que en este caso se ovieren de hazer scan 
firmados por los dichos dos notaries nombrados por cada una de las partes 
el suyo, e cada uno escriva los abtos de su parte ; y el otro, despues de averlos 
comprobado e colagionado, los firme. 

[6.] Yten, que cada una de las partes ay a de traer rratificagion e con- 
firmagion destos capitulos de los dichos senores sus constituyentes, dentro 
de veinte dias primeros siguientes. 

Lo qual todo que dicho es, e cada cosa e parte dello, los dichos Mercurinus 
de Gratinara, grand changiller de sus Magestades, e los dichos Don Fernando 
de Vega, comendador mayor de Castilla, e Don Gargia de Padilla, comendador 
mayor de Calatrava, e el Dottor Lorengo Galindez de Carvajal, todos del 
su consejo, procuradores de los dichos mui altos e muy poderosos Reyna 
e Rey de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, e de Granada, e de las Dos Secilias, 
de Jherusalem, etc., y por virtud del dicho su poder, que de suso va encor- 
porado, los dichos Pero Correa de Atovia e el Dottor Juan de Faria, procu- 
9 



124 Doc. 13. Spain Portugal 

radores e embaxadores del dicho muy alto e muy exgelente pringipe, el Senor 
Rey Don Johan de Portugal, e de los Algarves de aquende e allende el mar 
en Africa, senor de Guinea, etc., e por virtud del dicho su poder que de suso 
va encorporado, prometieron e seguraron en nombre de los dichos sus con- 
stituyentes, que ellos e sus subgesores e rreinos e senorios, para siempre 
jamas, ternan e guardaran e cumpliran rrealmente e con efecto, a buena 
fee e sin mal engano, cessante todo f raude, cautela, engafio, figion, e simula- 
gion alguna, todo lo que de suso se contiene, e es asentado e concertado, e lo 
que por los dichos diputados fuere sentengiado e determinado, e cada cosa 
e parte dello, enteramente, segund e commo por ellos fuere hecho e ordenado 
e sentengiado e determinado, bien asi e a tan cumplidamente commo si por 
los dichos sus constituyentes con formes fuese hecho y determinado e con- 
gertado e commo juizio dado por juezes competentes ; e para que asy se 
guardara e cumplira, por virtud de los dichos poderes que de suso van 
encorporados, obligaron a los dichos sus partes, sus constituyentes, e a sus 
bienes muebles e rrayzes e de sus patrimonies e coronas rreales e de sus 
subgesores, para siempre jamas, que ellos ni alguno dellos, por si ni por 
interposita persona, directe ni indirecte, no yran ni vernan contra ello, ni 
contra cosa alguna ni parte dello, en tiempo alguno, ni por alguna manera, 
pensada o no pensada, que sea o ser pueda, so las penas en la dicha capitula- 
gion que de suso se haze mingion contenidas, e, la pena pagada o non pagada 
o gragiosamente rremitida, que toda via esta escriptura e asiento e todo lo 
que por virtud della fuere hecho e determinado quede y finque firme, estable, 
e valedero, para siempre jamas ; e rrenungiaron qualesquier leyes e derechos 
de que se puedan aprovechar las dichas partes e cada una deltas para yr o 
venir contra lo suso dicho, o contra alguna cosa o parte dello, e por mayor 
seguridad e firmeza de lo suso dicho juraron a Dios e a Santa Maria e a la 
serial de la Cruz, en que pusieron sus manos derechas, e a las palabras de 
los Santtos quatro Evangelios, donde quier que mas largamente son escripctos, 
en anima de los dichos sus partes, que ellos e cada uno dellos ternan, 
guardaran, e cumpliran todo lo suso dicho e cada una cosa e parte dello, 
rrealmente e con efecto, gesante todo engano, cautela, e simulagion, e no lo 
contradiran en tiempo alguno ni por alguna manera, e so el dicho juramento 
juraron de no pedir absolugion de nuestro muy Santo Padre ni de otro 
legado ni perlado que se la pueda dar, y aun que de su proprio mottuo se la 
de no usaran della, e asi mesmo los dichos procuradores en el dicho nonbre 
se obligaron, so la dicha pena e juramento, que dentro de veinte dias primeros 
siguientes, contados desde el dia de la hecha desta capitulagion, daran la 
una parte a la otra e la otra a la otra, aprovagion e rratificagion desta dicha 
capitulagion, escriptas en pergamino e firmadas de los nombres de los dichos 
senores, sus constituyentes, e selladas con sus sellos de plomo pendientes, de 
lo qual todo que dicho es otorgaron dos escripturas de un tenor, la una commo 
la otra, las quales firmaron de sus nombres e las otorgaron ante mi, el dicho 
secrettario e notario publico de suso escripto, e de los testigos de yuso 
escriptos, para cada una de las partes la suya, e qualquier que paresgiere 
valga commo si ambas a dos paresgiesen, que fueron fechas e otorgadas en la 
dicha gibdad de Vittoria, el dicho dia e mes e ano suso dicho. Testigos que 
fueron presentes al otorgamiento desta escriptura, e vieron firmar en ella 
a todos los dichos senores procuradores, e los vieron jurar corporalmente en 
manos de mi, el dicho secretario, Frangisco de Valenguela, cavallero de la 
horden de Santiago, e Pedro de Salazar, capitan de sus magestades, e 



Vitoria, 1524 125 



Pedro de Ysasaga, contino a de sus magestades, e Go. Casco e Albaro Mexia 
e Bastian Fernandez, criados del dicho embaxador Pero Correa de Atuvia. 
Mercurinus, cancelarius, Hernando de Vega, comendador mayor, El comen- 
dador mayor," Dottor Carvajal, Pero Correa, Juan de Faria. Por testigo, 
Francesco de Valenquela. Por testigo, Go. Quasquo. Testigo, Bastian Fer- 
nandes, testigo, Alvaro Mexia, por testigo, Pedro de Ysasaga, por el dicho 
Salazar, Johan de Samafio ; e yo, el dicho Francisco de los Covos, secretario 
de sus Cesarea y Catholicas Magestades, y su escrivano e notario publico 
en la su corte e en todos los sus rreynos e senorios de Castilla, presente fuy, en 
uno con los dichos testigos, al otorgamiento desta dicha escriptura e capitula- 
cjon e juramento della, e de rruego e otorgamiento e pedimiento de los dichos 
procuradores de ambas las dichas partes, que en mi rregistro ellos e los dichos 
testigos firmaron sus nombres, esta dicha escriptura fiz escrivir segund que 
ante mi paso, la qual va escripta en tres hojas de papel con esta en que va 
my signo, e di a cada una de las dichas personas la suya, por ende en testimonio 
de verdad fiz aqui este mio signo a tal. 

Por ende nos, vista e entendida la dicha escriptura e asiento que de suso 
va encorporada e cada cosa e parte della, e siendo cjertos e certificados de todo 
lo en ella contenido, e queriendo guardallo e cumplilla, commo en ella se 
contiene, loamos, confirmamos, e aprovamos, rratificamos y, en tanto que es 
nesqesario, de nuevo otorgamos e prometemos " guardar la dicha 

escriptura e asiento que asi por los dichos nuestros procuradores e procu 
radores [del dicho seiior e] muy exc.elente rrey nuestro sobrino e primo fue 
asentado e conqertado en nuestros nombres, e cada cosa e parte dello, 
rrealmente e con efecto, a buena fee, sin mal engano, cesante todo fraude 
e simulation, e queremos e somos contentes que se guarde e cumpla segund 
e commo en ella se contiene, bien asi e a tan cumplidamente commo si por 
nos fuera fecho, asentado, e capitulado. Dada en Vitoria, a xxvii. dias del 
mes de Hebrero, ano del nagimiento de nuestro Salvador Jhesu Christo de 
mill y quinientos e veynte y quatro anos. 

Yo, EL REY. 

Yo, FRANCISCO DE LOS Covos, secretario de sus Cesarea y Catholicas 
Magestades la fize escrevir por su mandado [notarial sign] . M [ERCURINU]S, 
Canc.[iller]. HERNANDO DE VEGA, comendador mayor. Lic,entiatus Don 
GARQIA. El Doctor CARVAJAL. ANDREUS . . . , chancjller. 



TRANSLATION. 

Don Charles, by the grace of God king of the Romans and emperor ever 
august. Dona Joanna, his mother, and the said Don Charles, by the said grace, 
King and Queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, the Two Sicilies, Jerusalem, 
Navarre, Granada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, the Majorcas, Seville, Sardinia, 
Cordova, Corsica, Murcia, Jaen, the Algarves, Algeciras, Gibraltar, the 
Canary Islands, the Indies, the islands and mainland of the ocean sea, count 
and countess of Barcelona, lord and lady of Biscay and Molina, duke and 

" See Doc. 9, note 19. 

14 Don Garcia de Padilla, knight-commander of the Order of Calatrava. 

" A blot on the manuscript makes two words illegible. 



126 Doc. /j. Spain Portugal 

duchess of Athens and Neopatras, count and countess of Roussillon and 
Cerdagne, marquis and marchioness of Oristano and Gociano, archduke and 
archduchess of Austria, duke and duchess of Burgundy and Brabant, count 
and countess of Flanders and Tirol, etc. : We have seen an instrument of 
agreement and treaty made in our name by Mercurino de Gattinara, our 
grand chancellor, and Don Hernando de Vega, chief knight-commander of 
Castile, and Don Garcia de Padilla, chief knight-commander of Calatrava, 
and Doctor Lorenzo Galindez de Carvajal, all members of our council, and 
Pero Correa d Atouguia, lord of the town of Bellas, and Doctor Joao de 
Faria, ambassadors and members of the council of the most serene and very 
excellent King of Portugal, our very dear and well-beloved nephew and 
cousin, and their representatives, the tenor of which is as follows : 

In the name of God Almighty, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Be it mani 
fest and known to all who shall see this public instrument, that in the city 
of Vitoria on the nineteenth day of the month of February, in the year of the 
nativity of our Saviour Jesus Christ, 1524, in the presence of me, Francisco 
de los Cobos, their majesties secretary and notary public, and of the under 
signed witnesses, there being present the lords Mercurino de Gattinara, 
grand chancellor of their Majesties, Don Hernando de Vega, chief knight- 
commander in Castile of the Order of Santiago, Don Garcia de Padilla, chief 
knight-commander of the Order of Calatrava, and Doctor Lorenzo Galindez 
de Carvajal, all members of the council of the very exalted and very power 
ful princes, Don Charles, by the divine clemency, emperor ever august, 
king of the Romans, and Dona Joanna, his mother, and the said Don Charles, 
her son, by the grace of God king and queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, the 
Two Sicilies, Jerusalem, etc., their qualified representatives, on the one part, 
and the lords Pero Correa d Atouguia, lord of the town of Bellas, and Doctor 
Joao de Faria, both members of the council of the very exalted and very 
excellent lord, Dom John, by the grace of God king of Portugal, of the 
Algarves on this side of and beyond the sea in Africa, lord of Guinea and of 
the conquest, navigation, and commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, India, 
etc., their ambassadors and qualified representatives as both the said parties 
proved by the letters, authorizations, and procurations, from the said lords, 
their constituents, the tenor of which, word for word, is as follows : 

[Here follow the full powers granted by the Emperor Charles V. and 
Queen Joanna of Castile to Mercurino de Gattinara, Fernando de Vega, 
Garcia de Padilla, and Dr. Lorenzo Galindez de Carvajal, on January 25, 
1524; and the full powers granted by John III. of Portugal to Pedro 
Correa and Dr. Joao de Faria on January 13, 1524.] 

And thereupon the said representatives of the said King and Queen of 
Castile, Leon, Aragon, the Two Sicilies, Jerusalem, etc., and of the said lord 
King of Portugal, of the Algarves, etc., said: That whereas there is a 
difference of opinion between the said lords, their constituents, as to the 
possession and ownership of the Moluccas, each of them claiming that those 
islands fall within the limits of his demarcation, which must be determined 
in accordance with the treaty and agreement concluded between the Catholic 
sovereigns, Don Ferdinand and Queen Dona Isabella, king and queen of 
Castile, Leon, Aragon, etc., and the very exalted and excellent lord, the 
lord king Dom John, king of Portugal, of the Algarves, lord of Guinea, etc. 



Vitoria, 1524 127 

(may they rest in glory) therefore they, jointly and severally, in the said 
names, and by virtue of the said powers incorporated above, for the sake 
of peace and concord, and for the preservation of the relationship and 
affection which exists between the lords their constituents, authorized, con 
sented to, and agreed to the following : 

1. First," there shall be appointed by each one of the parties to this treaty 
three astrologers and three pilots and sailors for the determination of the 
demarcation, which must be made according to the terms of the said treaty. 
These men must assemble, and they shall assemble, by the end of the month 
of March first following, or before that time if possible, at the boundary line 
of Castile and Portugal, between the cities of Badajoz and Elvas, in order that 
by the end of the month of May next following, of this present year, they 
may determine, in accordance with the terms of the said treaty, the said 
demarcation taking a solemn oath as soon as they have assembled, and 
before attending to anything else, in the form prescribed by law and before 
two notaries (one for each side) with public declaration and testimony, 
swearing in the presence of God and the blessed Mary, and upon the words 
of the four Holy Gospels, upon which they shall place their hands, that, 
laying aside all love and fear, hate, passion, or any interest, and with regard 
only to securing justice, they will examine the rights of the two parties 
involved. 

2. Likewise three lawyers shall be appointed by each side, who, within 
the same period and at the same place, and after having taken the said 
.oath with all the solemn forms and in the manner abovesaid, shall inquire 
into the possession of Molucca, and receiving the proofs, documents, treaties, 
witnesses, and rights that shall have been presented before them, shall de 
termine the possession, doing everything that seems necessary for making 
the said declaration, just as they would do in court. Of the three above- 
mentioned lawyers, he who is named first in the commission shall take charge 
of assembling all the other deputies of his side, in order that greater care may 
be exercised in the negotiations. 

3. Further, during the said period and up to the end of the said month 
of May, next following, neither of the parties to this treaty shall despatch 
expeditions to Molucca for purposes of trade or barter. But if before the 
end of the said period the question of possession or ownership shall be de 
termined, then the side in whose favor the right of each of the said questions 
is declared may despatch expeditions and may barter. And in case the 
question of ownership and demarcation is determined, then that of posses 
sion shall be understood to be decided and absorbed. If only the question 
of possession is determined by the [two] said lawyers, without their being 
able to determine that of ownership, as aforesaid, then what still remains 
to be determined of the said ownership, and likewise of the possession of the 
said Molucca, shall, in accordance with the terms of the treaty, remain in 
the same condition as before this present compact. All of the above must 
and shall be investigated without any prejudice to the rights of ownership 
and possession of either side, in accordance with the said treaty. 

4. But if before the conclusion of the said period it shall appear to the 
lawyers first named in the commissions, as aforesaid, that the settlement 

"The translation of the six following articles is taken from Blair and Robertson, 
Philippine Islands, I. 160-163. 



128 Doc. 75. Spain Portugal 

can, in all probability, be concluded and determined with some further con 
tinuation of the time set, as abovesaid, or if another good way or manner of 
procedure, by which this matter could be determined better under one head 
or another, to wit, that of possession or that of ownership, should offer 
itself to them, the two lawyers, as aforesaid, may in either of these cases 
prolong, for so long a time as seems convenient to them, the brief determina 
tion of the matter. During the period of the said continuation, these lawyers 
and all the other deputies, each one in his own capacity, may investigate 
and ascertain, and they shall investigate and ascertain, just as if this exten 
sion of time were within the principal period named in their commission. 
But the said time shall be understood to be continued under the same condi 
tions and obligations as hereinbefore stated. 

5. And all the actions taken in this case shall be signed by the two 
notaries appointed in his name by each of the parties to this treaty, as afore 
said. Each notary shall write the actions taken by his side ; and the other, 
after having confirmed and collated them, shall sign them. 

6. Item, each one of the sides must obtain the ratification and confirma 
tion of these articles from their said constituents, within the twenty days 
first ensuing. 

All the foregoing, and every part and parcel of it, the said Mercurino de 
Gattinara, grand chancellor of their Majesties, the said Don Hernando de 
Vega, chief knight-conmmander of Castile, Don Garcia de Padilla, chief 
knight-commander of Calatrava, and Doctor Lorenzo Galindez de Carvajal, 
all members of their council, and representatives of the said very exalted 
and very mighty Queen and King of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Granada, the 
Two Sicilies, Jerusalem, etc., and by virtue of their said powers, incorporated 
above, [and] the said Pedro Correa d Atouguia and Doctor Joao de Faria, 
representatives and ambassadors of the said very exalted and very excellent 
prince, the lord King Dom John of Portugal and of the Algarves on this 
side of and beyond the sea in Africa, lord of Guinea, etc., by virtue of their 
said powers, incorporated above, promised and affirmed in the name of 
their said constituents. [They promised and affirmed] that they and their 
successors, and their kingdoms and lordships, forever and ever, shall keep, 
observe, fulfill, really and effectively, in good faith and without deception, 
renouncing all fraud, mental reservation, deception, fiction, and dissimula 
tion whatsoever, all that is set forth above, and that is agreed to and con 
cluded, and that which shall be decided and determined by the said represen 
tatives, and every part and parcel of .it, entirely, according as it shall be 
enacted, ordained, adjudged, and determined by them, just as, and as com 
pletely as, if it had been enacted, determined, and concluded, by their said 
concurring constituents, and rendered as a judgment by competent judges. 
In order that the above shall be thus observed and fulfilled, by virtue of the 
said powers incorporated above, they pledged the said parties, their constitu 
ents, and their goods, movable and real, their patrimonies and royal crowns, 
and those of their successors, forever and ever, that neither they nor any of 
them, of themselves or through agents, directly or indirectly, shall violate it, 
or any part or parcel of it, at any time or in any manner, premeditated or un 
premeditated, that may or can be, under the penalties set forth in the said 
agreement mentioned above, and that whether the penalty be paid or not paid 
or graciously remitted, this instrument and treaty and whatsoever shall be 
enacted and determined by virtue thereof, shall nevertheless be and remain 



Vitoria, 1524 129 

firm, stable, and valid, forever and ever. They renounced all laws and 
rights of which the said parties or either of them may avail themselves to 
violate the foregoing, or any part or parcel thereof, and for the greater 
security and stability of the aforesaid they swore before God and Holy 
Mary, and upon the sign of the Cross, on which they placed their right 
hands, and upon the words of the four Holy Gospels, wheresoever they are 
most largely written, on the consciences of their said constituents, that they, 
jointly and severally, will keep, observe, and fulfill all the aforesaid, and each 
part and parcel of it, really and in fact, renouncing all deception, mental 
reservation, and subterfuge, and they will not gainsay it at any time or in 
any manner. Under the same oath, they swore not to seek absolution from 
our most Holy Father, or from any other legate or prelate, who can give 
it to them, and even though he shall, proprio motu, give it them, they will 
not make use of it. Likewise the said representatives, acting in the said 
names, bound themselves under the said penalty and oath, that within the 
twenty days first following, reckoned from the date of this agreement, the 
parties will mutually exchange the confirmation and ratification of this said 
agreement, written on parchment, signed with the names of the said lords, 
their constituents, and sealed with their hanging leaden seals. Of all the 
foregoing they authorized two copies of the same tenor, both alike, which 
they signed with their names and executed before me, the said secretary 
and notary public, whose name is written above, and before the undersigned 
witnesses one copy for each party. And whichever copy is produced it 
shall be as valid as if both should be produced, which were made and executed 
in the said city of Vitoria, on the day, month, and year aforesaid. Witnesses 
who were present at the execution of this instrument, and saw all the said 
representatives sign it, and saw them swear corporally by the hands of me, 
the said secretary : Francisco de Valenzuela, knight of the Order of Santiago, 
Pedro de Salazar, captain of their Majesties, Pedro de Ysasaga, contino of 
their Majesties, G[regori]o Casgas, Alvaro Mejia, and Sebastian Fernandez, 
servants of the said ambassador Pedro Correa d Atouguia. Mercurino, 
chancellor; Hernando de Vega, chief knight-commander; the chief knight- 
commander ; Doctor Carvajal ; Pedro Correa ; Joao de Faria. As witness, 
Francisco de Valenzuela. As witness, G[regori]o Casgas. Witness, Sebas 
tian Fernandez ; witness, Alvaro Mejia ; as witness, Pedro de Ysasaga ; for 
the said Salazar, Juan de Samano. And I, the said Francisco de los Cobos, 
secretary of his Imperial Majesty and of their Catholic Majesties, and their 
scrivener and notary public in their court and in all their kingdoms and lord 
ships of Castile, was present, together with the said witnesses, at the executing 
of this said instrument and agreement and the oath respecting it, and at the 
request and petition, and with the authorization, of the said representatives 
of both the said parties, who with the said witnesses signed their names in 
my register, I caused this said instrument to be written just as it was executed 
before me. It is written on three leaves of paper, with this on which is my 
[notarial] sign, and I gave a copy to each of the said persons. Therefore, 
in testimony of truth, I made this my sign here, which is thus. 

Therefore, having seen and understood the said instrument and treaty, 
incorporated above, and every part and parcel of it, and being certain and 
assured of everything set forth therein, and desiring to observe and fulfill 
it, just as it stands, we commend, confirm, approve, ratify, and, so far as 



130 Doc. 13. Spain Portugal 

necessary, authorize anew and promise to observe, the said instrument and 
treaty which thus by our said representatives and the representatives [of 
the said lord and] very excellent king, our nephew and cousin, was agreed to 
and concluded in our names, and every part and parcel of it, really and in 
fact, in good faith, without deception, and renouncing all fraud and subter 
fuge. And we desire and are content that it shall be observed and fulfilled, 
just as it stands, in the same manner and as completely as if it had been made, 
agreed to, and concluded by us. Given in Vitoria on the twenty-seventh day 
of the month of February, in the year of the nativity of Our Savior Jesus 
Christ, 1524. 

I, THE KING. 

I, FRANCISCO DE LOS COBOS, secretary of his Imperial Majesty and of their 
Catholic Majesties, have caused it to be written by his command. [Notarial 
sign.] 

MERCURINO, chancellor. HERNANDO DE VEGA, chief knight-commander. 
Licentiate Don GARCIA. Doctor CARVAJAL. ANDRES . . . , chancellor. 



14.* 

* Draft of an unconcluded treaty between Spain and Portugal, 

1526. 

INTRODUCTION. 

In fulfillment of the terms of the treaty of Vitoria, 1 the " junta of Badajoz " 
was held on the Spanish-Portuguese frontier between Badajoz and Elvas 
from April n to the end of May, 1524, when the Spanish commissioners 
voted against its further continuance. The conference was without result. 
In the case on possession neither side would act as plaintiff. In the case on 
ownership its failure was, indeed, inevitable ; for in the then existing state 
of knowledge it was impossible to prove the fundamental question of the 
length of an equatorial degree, and hence to locate the line of demarcation 
or determine the longitude of the Moluccas. The Portuguese commis 
sioners insisted that the 370 leagues should be measured from the eastern 
islands of the Cape Verde group, while the Spaniards were determined that 
the measurement should begin at the most westerly of these islands. As 
measured on the Portuguese and Spanish maps respectively, the distance 
from the eastern Cape Verde Islands to the Moluccas differed by 46. The 
Portuguese located the Moluccas 21 eaelr of the demarcation line; the 
Spaniards, a greater distance v*t of that meridian. 

The conference having ended, diplomatic negotiations were resumed; and 
it was not till the lapse of nearly five years that the dispute was terminated,* 
in a manner altogether different from that which was at first proposed. 
The most important stages in this negotiation, up to 1526, are indicated in 
the following draft of a treaty, which was probably drawn up at Seville, 4 
and was not concluded. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Text: MS. The draft is in the Archives of the Indies, Patronato, 1-2-2/16, 
no. 3, ramo 12. It has not, it is believed, been printed or translated 
hitherto. 

References : See references to Doc. 13. 

1 Doc. 13. 

"Documents relating to this conference are in Navarrete, Viages (1825-1838), IV.; 
Blair and Robertson, Philippine Islands, I. 165-221 ; Medina, Documentos para la His- 
toria de Chile, II. ; id., El Portugues Estcban Gomez al Seruicio de Espana, 1518-1535 
(1908), pp. 133 ff. For accounts of the conference, see A. de Herrera, Historia General, 
dec. III., lib. VI., cc. 6-8; and Pastells s edition of Colin, Labor Evangelica, II. 606-612. 

"By the treaty of Saragossa, Docs. IB and 16. 

* Herrera, op. cit., dec. IV., lib. V., c. 10; ed. 1728-1730, II. 93. 



132 Doc. 14. Spain Portugal 

TEXT. 

En el nonbre de Dios Todo Poderoso, Padre e Hijo e Espiritu Sancto. 
Magnifiesto e notorio sea a todos quantos este publico imstrumencto vieren, 
como en [blank], a [blank] dias del mes de [blank], ano del nasgimiento 
de nuestro Senor Jhesu Christo de mill e quinientos e veynte e seis anos, en 
presengia de my, Frangisco de los Covos," secretario de sus Magestades e 
su notario publico, e de los testigos de yuso escritos, estando presentes los 
senores Mercurinus de Gatinara, 1 grand changiller de sus Magestades, e 
Don Fray Gargia de Loaisa," o Bispo de Osma, presidente del Consejo de las 
Yndias y confesor de su Magestad, e Don Gargia de Padilla," comendador 
mayor de Calatrava, y el Doctor Lorengo Galindes de Carvajal," todos del 
Consejo de los muy altos e muy poderosos pringypes, Don Carlos, por la 
divina clemengia Enperador semper augusto, rrey de Romanes, e Dona 
Johana su madre, y el mismo Don Carlos su hijo, por la gragia de Dios rreyes 
de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, de las Dos Segilias, de Jherusalem, de 
Navarra, de Granada, etc., sus procuradores bastantes de la una parte, y el 
senor Ligengiado Asevedo, 11 del Consejo del muy alto e muy exgelente senor, 
el Senor Don Johan, por la gragia de Dios rrey de Portogal, de los Algarves 
de aquende y allende el mar en Africa, senor de Guinea, e de la conquista, 
navegagion, e comergio de Ytiopia y Aravia e Persia e de la Yndia, etc., su 
enbaxador e procurador bastante, segund anbas las dichas partes lo mostraron 
por las cartas e poderes e procuragiones de los dichos senores, sus consti- 
tuyentes, su thenor de las quales, de bervo ad verbo, es este que se sigue : 

Los dichos procuradores de los dichos senores Reyes de Castilla, de Leon, 
de Aragon, de las Dos Segilias, de Jherusalem, etc., e del dicho senor Rey 
de Portogal, de los Algarves, etc., dixeron que, por quanto sobre la duda que 
entre los dichos senores sus constituyentes ay sobre la propiedad e posesion 
de los Malucos, pretendiendo cada una de las partes que cae en los 
limites de su demarcagion, haziendose la demarcagion, como sea de haser, 
conforme al asiento y capitulagion " que fue hecha entre los Catolicos Reyes 
Don Fernando e Reyna Dona Ysabel, etc., y el senor Rey, Don Johan de 
Portogal, etc., que ayan gloria, por parte del senor Rey de Portogal, estando 
el Enperador en la gibdad de Segovia " el ano pasado de mill e quinientos e 

The text is taken from a manuscript in the Archives of the Indies, Patronato, 
1-2-2/16, no. 3, ramo 12. 

* See Doc. 13, note 20. T See Doc. 13, note 14. 

This distinguished prelate, former general of the Dominican Order, and since 1523 
the confessor and confidant of Charles V., had great influence at court. Upon the reor 
ganization of the Council of the Indies in 1524, he became its president. Later he was 
made cardinal, archbishop of Seville, and commissary-general of the Inquisition. 
A. Touron, Histoire des Hommes Illustres de I Ordre de Saint Dominique, IV. (1747), 
93-107. 

See Doc. 13, note 16. " See Doc. 13, note 17. 

11 One of the Portuguese commissioners at the conference of Badajoz. His powers 
to conclude a treaty with the Emperor, dated Oct. 18, 1525, are preserved in the Archives 
of the Indies, Patronato, 1-2-2/16, no. i. A brief notice of his instructions, Mar. 24, 
1525, is in Algs. Docs., pp. 485-486. Many of his letters and papers relative to the 
Molucca negotiations are in the National Archives at Lisbon. Cf. Santarem, Quadra 
Elementar, II. 46 ff. 

u The treaty of Tordesillas, Doc. 9. 

"The Emperor was in Segovia from Sept. 7 to 14, 1525. M. de Foronda y Aguilera, 
" Estancias y Viages de Carlos V.", Boletin de la Sociedad Geografica de Madrid, 
torn. XXX VI L, no. 7, July, 1895. 



1526 133 

veynte e ginco afios, fueron movidos y apuntados giertos medios que son los 
siguientes : 

Los " medios que por parte del Rey de Portogal se proponen sobre lo de 
Maluco, es lo siguiente : 

[i.] Que se haga asiento entre su Magestad y el, que por justigia e por 
letrados, de una parte e de otra, se vea el derecho de la posesion e propiedad 
de Maluco, segund forma de las capitulagiones hechas y de lo que fue asentado 
que se viese en la rraya, no limitando tienpo, mas prosiguiendo hasta que 
entre los dichos letrados se tomen conclusion de la manera que les paregiere 
derecho, y no siendo con formes se tomen tergeros que lo determinen. 

[2.] Yten, que en quanto por los letrados o tcrgero no se diere sentengia 
finalmente en la posesion o en la propiedad, que ninguna de las partes enbie 
a Maluco, ni vengan de Maluco para aca, hasta dar se sentengia final en la 
propriedad, y, determinandose primero la posesion que la propriedad, aquel 
por quien la posesion se juzgare pueda enbiar hasta que se determine la 
dicha propriedad. 

[3.] Yten, que bolviendo las naos que agora scan enbiado por parte de 
su Magestad " primero que se determine la dicha posesion o propiedad, que 
se mande ver la despensa que hizieron, y, si lo que traxeren valiere mas, 
aquella parte que mas valiere se ponga en deposito y secresto para se entregar 
a aquel por quien fuere juzgada la posession e propriedad. 

[4.] Yten, que este asiento sea jurado por anbas partes y aprovado con 
todas aquellas solenidades y clausulas que para seguridad de tal caso se 
rrequierefn]. 

A los quales medios, su Magestad, teniendo la voluntad que sienpre tuvo 
e tiene a la conservagion del gran devdo y amor que ay entre el y el dicho 
senor Rey de Portogal, mando rresponder en esta guisa : 

Lo " que se rresponde por parte del Enperador y Rey nuestro senor a lo 
que de parte del senor Rey de Portogal, su hermano, nuevamente sea 
rreplicado sobre lo de Maluco es lo siguiente : 

Primeramente, que del amor que el dicho senor Rey tiene, y buena voluntad 
que muestra, a la conservagion de la amistad y verdadera unyon de entre su 
Magestad y el dicho Serenisimo Rey, nunca su Magestad a puesto duda en 
ello, antes lo ha sienpre tenido por firme, y que rregiprocamente no deve el 
dudar que su Magestad no tenga el mysmo amor y voluntad con deseo de 
sastifazer [sic] a las cosas del dicho Serenisimo Rey, su hermano, quanto la 
rrason y los negogios lo sufren y que buenamente se podra haser. 

Quantto a lo que el dicho Serenisimo Rey apunta, mostrando descontenta- 
miento de lo que su Magestad dixo, que por olvido, a causa de otras grandes 
ocupagiones, no se avia rrespondido al Ligengiado Antonio de Azevedo sobre 

" Another copy of the following articles, preserved in the Archives of the Indies, 
Patronato, 1-2-2/16, no. 2, is headed : " Enbio lo su Magestad de Segovia a Toledo ", 
*. e., probably to the Portuguese ambassador, who had been in Toledo while the Cortes 
was in session there in August. When the Cortes ended the Emperor went to Segovia. 
P. de Sandoval, Historia de la Vida del Emperador Carlos V ., I. (1618), 660, 665. 

11 The Spanish fleet under command of Garcia Jof re Loaysa sailed from Coruna on 
July 24, 1525. Cf. Doc. 15, note 30. 

"Another copy of the following reply, preserved in the Archives of the Indies, 
Patronato, 1-2-2/16, no. 2, is headed as follows: "La respuesta que Su Magestad dio 
en Segovia al enbaxador sobre los medios." 



134 Doc. 14. Spain Portugal 

el dicho negogio de Maluco antes que la dicha armada partiese, paresgiendo 
al dicho senor Rey ser cosa grave y que sus cosas no deven ser olvidadas, 
gierto su Magestad no piensa que el dicho sefior Rey tenga por esto justa 
causa de descontentamiento, pues sabe la calidad y peso de los negogios tan 
grandes que entre tanto scan ofregido a su Magestad, los quales son de tal 
ynportangia que fuerc.au a honbre a olvidar aun sus cosas propias, quanto 
mas las agenas, y con ellas devria escusarse no solamente aver olvidado lo de 
Maluco, mas aun se escusaria lo olvidado de otras cosas, muy mas inportantes 
de sus rreynos hereditarios ; y ansy mismo se deve escusar este olvido, segund 
en la otra rrespuesta esta dicho, pues consta que por el parti r del armada no 
se hazia mudanga en lo que ya estava rrespondido, y no por esto deve pensar 
el dicho serenisimo rey, que su Magestad no tenga y quiera tener el mismo 
cuidado de sus cosas que de las propias de su Magestad. 

Quanto a los medios que ofrege A su Magestad plaze que por letrados 
y otras personas expertas en la negoc.iac.ion, tornados por la una parte y la 
otra, en ygual numero, se vea el derecho de la propiedad e posesion, segund 
e al thenor e forma de las capitulagiones 17 hechas y otorgadas entre los 
rreyes Catolicos y los Serenisimos Reyes de Portogal, no limitando tienpo 
para ello, mas prosiguiendolo hasta que por las dichas personas se tome con- 
clusyon de la manera que les paregiere derecho, y que no siendo conformes, 
se tomen tergeros, que lo determinen, y que se junten en lugar que les 
paregiere mas conviniente. 

Quanto a lo que el dicho Serenisimo Rey de Portogal pide, que hasta que 
sea aya dado sentencia final en propiedad o posesion, ninguna de las partes 
enbie a Maluco, parege que es contra justigia e derecho y no ygual. Pero terna 
su Magestad por bien que los diputados den sobresto la horden que les 
paregiere. 

Quanto a lo que pide del secresto de lo que truxeren las naos de su Magestad 
que agora son ydas, y por que contiene el mismo agravio que el pregedente 
se rresponde lo mismo que a el esta rrespondido. 

Quanto al postrero, que plase a su Magestad que el asiento que sobresto 
se fiziere sea jurado por anbas partes y aprovado con todas las clausulas e 
solenidades que para la seguridad del se rrequiere. 

A lo demas de la instrucgion del dicho Ligengiado Asevedo rrespondera 
M [o]ns. de la Chaulx." 

A los quales por parte del dicho senor Rey de Portogal fue dado otro 
memorial del thenor siguiente : 

Estos " son los capitulos conforme a la rrespuesta de su Magestad para que 
sea de hazer el asiento para determinagion de la causa de Maluco en posesyon 
o propiedad. 

[l.J Yten, que por tres letrados, nonbrados de parte de su Magestad y 
tres por parte del Rey de Portogal, mi senor, y tres astrologos e tres pilotos 
o marineros expertos, nonbrados por cada una de las partes, se determine la 

" The treaty of Tordesillas, Doc. 9. 

11 Charles Poupet de la Chaulx (in Spanish, Laxao) had been previously sent as 
imperial ambassador to Portugal to negotiate the marriage between the Infanta Isabella 
of Portugal and the Emperor Charles V. Santarem, Quadra Elementar (1842, etc.), 
II. 50, 51. 

19 According to another copy of this document in the Archives of the Indies, Patronato, 
1-2-2/16, the Portuguese ambassador gave these articles to his Majesty in Toledo in 
January 1526. 



1526 135 

causa en posesion o propriedad, saber, por los letrados juristas de cada parte 
la causa de la posesyon solamente, segund el tenor e forma de las capitula- 
giones hechas entre los Catolicos Reyes, Don Fernando e la Reyna Dona Ysabel 
y el Rey Don Johan de Portogal, los quales letrados pro9ederan en la dicha 
causa, syn determination o prefinigion de tienpo, hasta que finalmente sen- 
tengiaren e determinaren la dicha causa posesoria, segund hallaren por 
derecho, y por que entre los letrados e procuradores de anbas partes se 
podrian ofresger dudas y diferengias sobre qual de las partes seria auttor 
o rreo, que por hebitar de luengas y diferengias entre los dichos letrados e 
procuradores, y por mas brevemente se poder dar fin a la causa, se progeda 
sin libello y sin toda manera de petigion mas que los procuradores de cada 
una de las partes presenten, y ofrescan ante los letrados que la causa han de 
determinar sus capitulos e posigiones por las quales scan examinados los 
testigos de cada una de las partes por las suyas, e se rresgiban todas las mas 
provangas de escrituras e instruments de que cada una de las partes se 
esperare ayudar, y que los testigos juren en presengia de los procuradores 
de las partes, e scan examinados e ynterrogados por dos de los letrados, uno 
de cada una de las partes que la causa ovieren de determinar, y dadas e 
ofregidas las dichas provangas y testigos sobre las dichas pusygiones e capi 
tulos, los letrados determinen la dicha causa posesoria por las dichas pusigiones 
y capitulos, y por las provangas escrituras e testigos sobre ellas ofresgidos, 
segund les paregiere justigia y derecho, e que, siendo determinada y jusgada 
la causa posesoria, aquella parte que oviere sentengia por sy y vitoria de la 
causa posesoria pueda de la dada de la sentengia mandar sus armadas e 
gentes al dicho Maluco y hazer en el sus tratos e mercaderias, y la otra parte, 
contra quien fuere dada la sentengia, no podra alia mas enbiar armadas ni 
gentes hasta que finalmente se determine sobre la propriedad a qual de las 
partes el derecho della pertenesge. 

[2.] Yten, que, sobre la propriedad e derecho della, los astrologos, pilotos, 
o marineros, declarados e nonbrados por cada una de las partes, en el lugar 
de la rraya donde fuere acordado se ovieren de juntar, consultaran, acordaran, 
e tomaran asiento, sobre la propiedad, conforme a las capitulagiones hechas 
entre el Rey Don Johan de Portogal y el Rey Don Fernando e la Reyna Dona 
Ysabel, en la qual causa los dichos astrologos, pilotos, y marineros, otrosy 
progederan hasta lo que negesario les paregiere, syn limitagion de tienpo, mas 
prosiguiendo en la dicha causa, segund esta dicho en la causa de la posesion. 

[3.] Ytem, que quanto a cada una de las partes enbiar o no sus navios y 
gentes al dicho Maluco durante la contienda e juisio de la posesion, quede 
a los juezes de la causa, que daran agerca dello la horden y asiento que les 
paregiere de derecho, y que lo que los dichos letrados juezes en ello deter 
minaren y ordenaren se guarde enteramente por cada una de las partes syn 
duda ni ynpedimiento que a ello pueda poner, y el mismo modo e manera se 
tenga agerca de aver se de secrestar, o no, todo aquello que truxeren los 
navios de su Magestad que para el dicho Maluco fueren partidos. 

[4.] Ytem, por que, en anbas estas causas de posesion y propriedad, los 
diputados y declarados por cada una de las partes con mas acatamiento de 
Dios y mas libremente procedan en las dichas causas, que el senor Enperador 
y el senor Rey de Portogal fagan juramento solene sobre los Santtos Evange- 
lios, en presengia de los letrados, astrologos, pilotos, o marineros, por ellos 
nonbrados para este negogio, cada uno destos senores delante los suyos, en 
presengia de notario e testigo, en que declaren que su yntingion e verdadera 



136 Doc. 14. Spain Portugal 

voluntad es, que ellos, sus letrados, astrologos, pilotos, o marineros hagan 
en la determination destas causas, para que son nonbrados por jueses, aquello 
que verdaderamente les paresgiere just[icia] e verdad, con toda brevedad, 
segund esta declarado, no haviendo rrespeto a ser sus vasallos, ni a otra cosa 
alguna que ellos diputados puedan presumir ni rregelar para dexar de hazer 
just[icia] a qual de los que los diputaron les paregiere que la tiene. 

[5.] Yten, que, hecho el dicho juramento por los dichos senores en el modo 
suso dicho, los letrados, astrologos, pilotos, o marineros, nonbrados por cada 
una de las partes para entender en estas causas, en el lugar de la rraya donde 
se ovieren de juntar los unos e los otros se confiesen, y todos juntamente 
rregiban el sacramento, e juraran solenemente sobre el santto Sacramento, 
que el sacerdote que los hoviere de comulgar terna en sus manos, en presengia 
de publico notario, que dello pueda dar fee, que sin themor ni amor ni otra 
cosa alguna que los pueda o deva ynpedir, conosgeran de las dichas causas 
e dudas contenidas, ansy de la posesion e propriedad y de todo lo demas en 
esta capitulagion contenido, y todas e cada una de las dichas causas y dubdas 
que les seran cometidas por los dichos senores, y las determinaran, degidiran, 
y sentengyaran definitiva y finalmente, conforme a derecho y justigia, 
guardando las capitulagiones, provangas, e testigos, por las partes ofresgidas, 
y guardando en la determination de las dichas causas todo lo que les pare- 
sgiere derecho y justigia, de qualquiera de las partes que la toviere, prometi- 
endo ansy mismo, so el cargo del dicho juramento, de progesar las dichas 
causas de posesion y propiedad con toda diligengia que posible les fuere, 
para con toda brevedad despachar y determinar las dichas causas. 

[6.] Yten, que el lugar de la rraya donde los diputados de la una y otra 
parte se ay an de ayuntar sea entre las gibdades de Elves y Badajos, donde 
ya fueron juntos los diputados que en esta causa los dias pasados entendieron 
por ser lugares mas convinientes para ello. 

[7.] Yten, que los letrados, astrologos, pilotos, o marineros que en esta 
causa han de entender, scan nonbrados hasta tanto, etc. 

[8.] Yten, que siendo caso que en qualquiera de las dichas causas de la 
posesion o propiedad los letrados en la posesoria fueren diferentes e dis- 
cordes, o ansy mismo los astrologos, pilotos, o marineros fueren discordes 
entre sy, que en tal caso los dichos senores scan obligados a elegir tergero, 
o tergeros, tales que scan expertos e sgientes de la causa en que fuere la 
discordia entre los diputados, saber, que sy la discordia fuere entre los 
letrados juristas, que de la causa posesoria han de conosger, los tergeros que los 
dichos senores tomaren, o tergero, sea otrosy jurista, y, por la misma manera, 
sy la discordia o diferengia fuere entre los astrologos, pilotos, o marineros, 
que ansy mismo los dichos senores elijan arbitros, o tergeros, astrologos, 
pilotos, o marineros, y que aquel tergero, o tergeros, en que se ansy los dichos 
senores [blank], vean las dichas causas, e, oydos los procuradores de las 
partes, fagan enteramente justigia ansy como por este asiento y capitulagion 
esta asentado que lo hiziesen los diputados y primero nonbrados, y los dichos 
tergeros o tergero en que los dichos senores asentaren y eligieren, tomaran 
otrosy el juramento con aquella solenidad que ya esta declarada, confesandose 
y comulgundose, y que lo que por los dichos diputados e declarados por cada 
uno de los dichos senores, o por la mayor parte dellos, fuere determinado, 
asy en la causa posesoria por los letrados juristas como en la propriedad por 
los astrologos, pilotos, o marineros, fuere determinado finalmente, y asentado 
syendo estos discordes, los quales dichos tergero o tergeros hordenaren e 



1526 137 

determinaren y asentaren, juzgando finalmente, los dichos senores, por sy y 
sus herederos e sugesores, prometen en sus fees rreales, de todo lo tener y 
guardar e mandar guardar, syn arte e syn cautela alguna, para sienpre jamas, 
y juraran sobre la serial de la Cruz y por las palabras de los Santtos Evange- 
lios, de todo lo tener, mantener, e guardar y hazer guardar, so obligation de 
todos sus bienes patrimoniales y de la corona de sus reynos, que para ello 
obligavan, etc. 

[9.] Yten, que el primero nonbrado por cada uno de los dichos senores 
presyda por su parte ansy como en la capitulation pasada, que entre estos 
senores f ue hecha hera contenido. 

Sobre todo su Magestad mando postreramente dar la rrespuesta siguiente : 
Lo que se rresponde por parte del enperador y rey nuestro senor a los 
capitulos que por parte del senor Rey de Portogal se enbian sobre lo de 
Maluco es lo siguiente : 

Que a su Magestad plase mucho de que al senor Rey de Portogal aya 
paregido bien la rrespuesta que dio su Magestad, estando en Segovia," al 
enbaxador del dicho senor Rey de Portogal sobre los medios que por su 
parte se movieren a su Magestad en lo de Maluco, y asy para la execution 
dellos mandara luego nonbrar letrados y otras personas expertas en la nego- 
giagion, e dalles todas las provisiones nesgesarias, ynserta en ellas la dicha 
rrespuesta, para que, conforme a ella y a la capitulation hecha entre los 
Catolicos Reyes Don Fernando, e Dona Ysabel, rreyes de Castilla, etc., y 
el senor Rey Don Johan, rrey de Portogal, etc., entiendan en la determinagion 
del dicho negogio, y tiene por bien por mas conplaser al dicho senor Rey 
de Portogal de hazer su Magestad a mandar que las dichas personas, 
nonbradas por su parte, hagan el juramento e solenidad que agora se pide de 
parte del dicho senor Rey de Portogal, para que en la determinagion del 
dicho negogio progedan conforme a la dicha rrespuesta, e que, sy entre las 
dichas personas e diputados de anbas partes no se congertaren, que sy la 
diferengia fuere entre los letrados, que el tergero, o tergeros, que se ovieren de 
nonbrar, scan letrados, y sy la dicha diferengia fuere entre los astrologos e 
pilotos, que el tergero que se oviere de nonbrar sea de aquella facultad, y que 
estos entiendan en el dicho negogio conforme a la rrespuesta que su Magestad 
dio en Segovia, que de suso va encorporada. 

Por ende anbas las dichas partes, por virtud de los dichos poderes que tienen 
de los dichos senores sus constituyentes, que de suso van encorporados, con- 
formandose con la dicha rrespuesta, dixeron, que seran contentos que, ansy 
en la digisyon de la propiedad y posesion como en la horden e forma que en 
ello se ha de thener, se guarde e cunpla e haga, segund e como se contiene 
en la dicha rrespuesta, que de suso va encorporada, y en la capitulagion 
hecha por el Rey e Reyna Catholicos y el Rey Don Johan de Portogal, y que 
los diputados rresgiban conjuntamente las petigiones tales quales se dieren 
por las partes, y sobrellas progedan en la causa, sinplemente y de piano, syn 
estrepitu ni figura de juisio, solamente, la verdad sabida, determinen lo 
que sea justigia. 

Para lo qual todo que dicho es y cada cosa y parte dello, los dichos Mercu- 
rinus de Gatinara, gran changiller de sus Magestades, y Obispo Don Fray 
Gargia de Loaysa, y Don Gargia de Padilla, comendador mayor de Calatrava, 

" See above, note 16. 



138 Doc. 14. Spain Portugal 

y el Doctor Lorengo Galindes de Carvajal, todos del su consejo, procuradores 
de los dichos muy altos e muy poderosos Reyna e Rey de Castilla, de Leon, 
de Aragon, de Granada, e de las Dos Segilias, de Jherusalem, etc., e por 
virtud del dicho su poder que de suso va encorporado, el dicho Lic.enc.iado 
Asevedo, procurador y enbaxador del dicho muy alto e muy exgelente pringipe, 
el senor Rey Don Johan de Portogal e de los Algarves de aquende y allende 
el mar en Africa, senor de Guinea, etc., e por virtud del dicho su poder, que 
de suso va encorporado, prometieron y seguraron en nonbre de los dichos 
sus constituyentes, que ellos y sus subgesores e rreynos e senorios, para 
syenpre jamas, ternan, guardaran, conpliran, rrealmente e con efetto, a buena 
fee, syn mal engafio, gesante todo fraude, cautela, engano, figion e disymula- 
gion alguna, lo que de suso se contiene y es asentado e congertado, y lo que 
por los dichos diputados f uere sentengiado e determinado, e cada cosa e parte 
dello, enteramente, segund e como por ellos fuere hecho e ordenado y sen 
tengiado e determinado, y cada cosa e parte dello enteramente, segund e 
como por ellos fuere hecho y ordenado e sentengiado e determinado y con- 
gertado, e como juisio dado como juezes conpetentes, e para que ansy se 
guardara e cunplira, por virtud de los dichos poderes que de suso van 
encorporados, obligaron a las dichas sus partes, sus constituyentes, e a sus 
bienes muebles e rraises e de sus patrimonias e coronas rreales e de sus 
subgesores, para syenpre jamas, que ellos, ni alguno dellos, por sy ni por 
ynterposyta persona, directe ni yndirecte, no yran ni vernan contra ello, ni 
contra cosa alguna ni parte dello, en tienpo alguno, ni por alguna manera, 
pensada o no pensada, que sea o ser pueda, so las penas en la dicha capitula- 
gion, que de suso se haze mingion, contenidas, y rrenungiaron qualesquier 
leyes y derechos de que se puedan aprovechar las dichas partes, e cada una 
dellas, para yr o venir contra lo suso dicho, e contra alguna cosa e parte 
dello, e por mayor seguridad e firmesa de lo suso dicho juraron a Dios y a 
Sancta Maria y a la serial de la Crus en que pusyeron sus manos derechas 
y a las palabras de los Sanctos quatro Evangelios do quiera que mas 
largamente son escritos, en anyma de los dichos sus partes, que ellos, y cada 
uno dellos, ternan, guardaran, e cunpliran, todo lo suso dicho, e cada una 
cosa e parte dello, rrealmente e con efetto, gesante todo engano, cautela, e 
symulagion, e no lo contradiran en tienpo alguno, ni por alguna manera, e 
so el dicho juramento juraron de no pedir asolugion de nuestro muy Santto 
Padre, ni de otro legado ni perlado que gela pueda dar, y aunque de su propio 
motuo gela de, no usaran della, e ansy mismo los dichos procuradores en el 
dicho nonbre se obligaron, so la dicha pena e juramento, que dentro de 
[blank] dias primeros siguientes, contados desde el dia de la fecha desta 
capitulagion, daran la una parte a la otra, y la otra a la otra, aprovagion e 
rratificagion desta dicha capitulagion, escritas en pargamino e firmadas de 
los nonbres de los dichos senores, sus constituyentes, e selladas con sus sellos 
de plomo pendientes, de lo qual todo que dicho es otorgaron dos escrituras 
de un tenor, tal la una como la otra, las quales firmaron de sus nonbres e las 
otorgaron ante my, el dicho secretario y notario publico de suso escrito, e de 
los testigos de yuso escritos, para cada una de las partes la suya, y qualequiera 
que paresca, valga como sy anbas e dos paregiesen, que fueron hechas e 
otorgadas in la dicha [blank] , el dicho dia et mes e ano suso dichos. 



1526 139 

TRANSLATION. 

In the name of God Almighty, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Be it mani 
fest and known to all who shall see this public instrument, that in on 
the day of the month of in the year of the nativity of Our 
Lord Jesus Christ, 1526, in the presence of me, Francisco de los Cobos, their 
Majesties secretary and notary public, and in the presence of the undersigned 
witnesses, there being present the lords Mercurino de Gattinara, grand chan 
cellor of their Majesties, Don Fray Garcia de Loaysa, bishop of Osma, 
president of the Council of the Indies and his Majesty s confessor, Don 
Garcia de Padilla, knight-commander of Calatrava, and Doctor Lorenzo 
Galindez de Carvajal, all members of the council of the very exalted and 
mighty princes, Don Charles, by divine clemency emperor ever august, king 
of the Romans, and Dona Joanna, his mother, and likewise Don Charles, her 
son, by the grace of God king and queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, the Two 
Sicilies, Jerusalem, Navarre, Granada, etc., their qualified representatives, 
on the one part, and Licentiate Azevedo, member of the council of the very 
exalted and very excellent lord, the lord Dom John, by the grace of God king 
of Portugal, and of the Algarves on this side and beyond the sea in Africa, 
lord of Guinea and of the conquest, navigation, and commerce of Ethiopia, 
Arabia, Persia, India, etc., his ambassador and qualified representative, as 
both the said parties proved by the letters, powers, and procurations of the 
said lords, their constituents, the tenor of which, word for word, is as follows : 

The said representatives of the said lords, king and queen of Castile, Leon, 
Aragon, the Two Sicilies, Jerusalem, etc., and of the said lord King of 
Portugal, the Algarves, etc., declared that whereas, in the past year 1525, 
when the Emperor was in the city of Segovia, certain expedients, which are 
as follows, were proposed and written down, on the part of the King of 
Portugal, concerning the question existing between the said lords, their 
constituents, in regard to the ownership and possession of the Moluccas, 
each party claiming that they will fall within the limits of his demarcation 
when the demarcation is made, as it is to be made, in accordance with the 
treaty and agreement concluded between the Catholic king and queen, "Don 
Ferdinand and Dona Isabella, etc., and the lord King Dom John of Portugal, 
etc. may they rest in glory ! 

The expedients proposed on the part of the King of Portugal in respect to 
the affair of the Moluccas, are as follows : 

1. That a treaty be made between his Majesty [the emperor] and him to 
the effect that the right to the possession and ownership of the Moluccas shall 
be investigated by a tribunal and by lawyers of both sides, in accordance 
with the treaties already concluded and with the agreement that was reached 
when an investigation was made on the frontier, without the imposition of 
a time-limit, but continuing the inquiry until a conclusion is reached between 
the said lawyers in the manner that shall seem to them right; and if they 
shall not agree, umpires shall be chosen, who shall determine the question. 

2. Item, that so long as no final sentence in regard to possession or owner 
ship shall be pronounced by the lawyers or umpire, neither side shall despatch 
expeditions to the Moluccas or from the Moluccas hither, until the final 
sentence in regard to ownership be given. If the question of possession be 
determined before that of ownership, he to whom possession shall be adjudged 



10 



140 Doc. 14. Spain Portugal 

may despatch expeditions to the Moluccas until the said ownership be 
determined. 

3. Item, that if the ships now despatched on the part of his Majesty 
return before the said right of possession or ownership be decided, orders 
shall be given to investigate the expense which they caused. If their cargo 
be worth more, the surplus shall be placed in deposit and sequestration so 
that it may be delivered to him to whom possession and ownership shall be 
adjudged. 

4. Item, that this agreement be sworn to by both sides, and approved 
with all those solemn forms and clauses required in such cases for security. 

To these expedients his Majesty, desiring, as he always had and has desired, 
the preservation of the close relationship and love that exist between him and 
the said lord King of Portugal, commanded answer to be made in the follow 
ing manner : 

The answer returned on the part of the emperor and king, our lord, to the 
reply recently made on the part of the lord King of Portugal, his brother, 
in respect to the affair of the Moluccas is as follows : 

First, that his Majesty has never questioned, but rather has always regarded 
as secure, the love that the said lord king feels and the good-will that he 
shows for the preservation of the friendship and true union between his 
Majesty and the said Most Serene King, and reciprocally he [i. e., the King 
of Portugal] ought not to doubt that his Majesty feels the same love and 
good-will, together with the desire to adjust satisfactorily the affairs of the 
said Most Serene King, his brother, so far as reason and negotiations permit, 
and it can easily be done. 

As to what the said Most Serene King writes, showing displeasure at what 
his Majesty said, namely, that he had not replied to the licentiate, Antonio 
de Azevedo, about the said negotiation of the Moluccas before the said 
armada departed, because he had forgotten it on account of other important 
matters, while it appears to the said lord king that the matter is serious, and 
that his affairs ought not to be forgotten, certainly his Majesty does not 
think that this gives the said lord king just cause for displeasure, since he 
knows the character and gravity of the very important affairs that mean 
while came before his Majesty. These are of such importance that they force 
a man to forget even his own business, much more another s, and because of 
them he ought to be excused not only for having forgotten the question of the 
Moluccas, but even for having forgotten other things much more important 
to his hereditary kingdoms. Likewise this forgetfulness ought to be excused, 
as is stated in the other reply, since it appears that the departure of the 
armada did not affect the reply already made; and the Most Serene King 
ought not to think on account of this forgetfulness that his Majesty has not 
and does not desire to have the same solicitude for the former s affairs as 
for his own. 

As to the expedients that he offers, his Majesty is satisfied to have an 
equal number of lawyers and other persons expert in the negotiation chosen 
by each side, to investigate the right of ownership and possession according 
to and in the tenor and form of the treaties made and executed between the 
Catholic sovereigns and the most serene kings of Portugal. The inquiry shall 
have no time-limit, but shall be prosecuted until the said persons shall reach 



1526 141 

a conclusion, in the manner that shall seem to them right. If they do not 
agree, umpires shall be chosen to decide the question, and these shall meet 
in the place they deem most convenient. 

As to the said Most Serene King of Portugal s request that, until the final 
sentence regarding ownership or possession shall have been given, neither 
side shall send expeditions to the Moluccas, this appears contrary to justice 
and right, and is unfair. But his Majesty will be content to have the deputies 
regulate this as they shall think best. As to the King of Portugal s request 
for the sequestration of the cargo which shall be brought by his Majesty s 
ships that have already sailed, since this contains the same injury as the 
preceding expedient, the answer is the same as is given to that. 

As to the last expedient, his Majesty is satisfied to have the agreement that 
shall be made in regard to this matter sworn to by both sides, and approved 
with all the clauses and formalities required for its security. 

M. de la Chaulx will answer the rest of the said Licentiate Azevedo s 
instructions. 

Another memorial of the following tenor was given on the part of the 
said lord King of Portugal to the above. 

These are the articles drawn up in accordance with the reply of his Majesty 
in order that the agreement for determining the cause on possession and 
ownership of the Moluccas may be made. 

i. Item, that the cause in respect to possession and ownership shall be 
determined by three lawyers, named on the part of his Majesty, and by three 
named on the part of the King of Portugal, my lord, and by three astrologers 
and three pilots or experienced mariners, named by each side. That is, the 
cause of possession alone shall be determined by the learned lawyers of each 
side, in accordance with the tenor and form of the treaties concluded between 
the Catholic sovereigns, Don Ferdinand and Queen Dona Isabella, and the 
King Dom John of Portugal. The lawyers shall carry on the said cause 
without a predetermined time-limit until they shall finally decide and conclude 
the said possessory cause, in accordance with their just findings. And 
because doubts and differences might arise between the lawyers and repre 
sentatives of both sides as to which side should be plaintiff or defendant, in 
order that delays and controversies between the said lawyers and repre 
sentatives may be avoided and that the cause may be finished more quickly, 
the process shall be carried on without written charge and without any 
kind of petition, except that the representatives of each side shall present 
and exhibit before the lawyers who have to determine the cause their articles 
and interrogatories by which the witnesses of each side shall be mutually 
examined, and all additional written and documentary evidence whereby 
either side shall hope to be aided shall be admitted. The witnesses shall take 
the oath in the presence of the representatives of the parties, and they shall 
be examined and questioned by two of the lawyers, who shall have to deter 
mine the cause one lawyer from each side. After the said evidences and 
witnesses for the said interrogatories and articles shall have been presented 
and given, the lawyers shall determine the said possessory cause by means of 
the said interrogatories and articles, and by means of the written evidence 
and witnesses presented in respect to them, as shall seem just and right to 
them. After the possessory cause is determined and adjudged, the side 
receiving judgment in its favor and victory in the possessory cause, may, 



142 Doc. 14. Spain Portugal 

from the time of the giving" of the sentence, order its fleets and people to the 
said Moluccas, and carry on its trade and traffic in them, and the other side, 
against whom sentence shall have been given, shall not be able to despatch 
any mere fleets or people thither, until the question to which side the right 
of ownership pertains shall be finally determined. 

2. Item, that, in regard to ownership and the right thereto, in the place 
on the frontier where it shall be agreed that the astrologers, pilots, or mariners 
chosen and nominated by each side are to assemble, they shall deliberate and 
come to an agreement and understanding in respect to ownership, in accord 
ance with the treaties concluded between King Dom John of Portugal and 
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. Moreover, the said astrologers, pilots, 
and mariners shall carry on this cause as long as they shall deem it necessary, 
without time-limit, but shall prosecute the said cause as is said in respect to the 
cause of possession. 

3. Item, the question whether during the dispute and trial concerning 
possession either side shall or shall not send his ships and people to the said 
Moluccas, shall be left to the judges of the cause, who shall make in regard 
to it what arrangement and agreement shall seem to them right. What the 
said learned judges shall decide and ordain in the matter shall be wholly 
observed by each side without question or hindrance being opposed thereto, 
and the same procedure shall be followed in deciding whether or not the cargo 
of his Majesty s ships that shall have departed for the said Moluccas is to 
be sequestrated. 

4. Item, in order that in both these causes of possession and ownership, 
the deputies and witnesses for each party may conduct the said causes with 
the more reverence to God and more freely, the lord Emperor and the lord 
King of Portugal shall take solemn oath on the Holy Gospels in the presence 
of the lawyers, astrologers, pilots, or mariners named by them for this cause 
each lord before his men in the presence of a notary and witness. In this 
oath they shall declare that their intention and true purpose is, that their 
lawyers, astrologers, pilots, or mariners, in deciding these causes for which 
they are named as judges, shall do what shall veritably seem to them just 
and true with all despatch, as is declared, regardless of their vassalage or 
of any other fact that the said deputies may suspect or fear should deter them 
from doing justice to whichever of the parties that deputed them shall seem to 
be in the right. 

5. Item, that after the said oath has been taken by the said lords in the 
manner aforesaid, the lawyers, astrologers, pilots, or mariners named by each 
side to judge these causes, should at the place on the boundary line, where 
both deputations are to assemble, confess themselves, and all receive the 
sacrament at the same time. They shall solemnly swear on the holy sacra 
ment which the priest who shall have to administer it to them will hold in his 
hands in the presence of the notary public, who may certify thereto that 
without fear or favor or any other thing that may or ought to hinder them, 
they will try the said causes and the unsettled points comprised therein, both 
of possession and ownership and of everything else contained in this treaty, 
and all and each of the said causes and unsettled points which shall be in 
trusted to them by the said lords. They shall determine, decide, and pronounce 
judgment upon them, definitively and finally, according to right and justice, 
paying regard to the treaties, evidence, and testimony, presented by the 
parties, and observing in the decision of the said causes all that appears to 



1526 143 

them right and just to whichever side these shall pertain. They shall promise 
likewise under obligation of the said oath to institute the said causes of 
possession and ownership with all possible diligence, in order to despatch 
and determine them as quickly as possible. 

6. Item, that the place at the boundary line where the deputies of both 
sides are to assemble shall be between the cities of Elvas and Badajoz, where 
the deputies who were employed in this cause in past days assembled, be 
cause these places are the most convenient for the business. 

7. Item, that the lawyers, astrologers, pilots, or mariners who are to be 
employed in this cause shall be named up to the required number. 

8. Item, that in either of the said causes of possession or ownership 
if, in the possessory cause, the lawyers shall differ and disagree, or if, in like 
manner, [in the cause of ownership] the astrologers, pilots, or mariners shall 
disagree among themselves, in such case the said lords shall be obliged to 
choose as umpire or umpires, such men as are experienced and learned in 
the cause in which the dispute between the deputies shall arise that is, that 
if the dispute shall be between the learned jurists who are to try the posses 
sory cause, the umpire or umpires whom the said lords shall select shall like 
wise be jurists, and, similarly, if the dispute or difference shall be between 
the astrologers, pilots, or mariners, the said lords shall likewise choose 
astrologers, pilots, or mariners as arbitrators or umpires. The umpire or 
umpires whom the said lords thus [agree on] shall investigate the said causes, 
and having heard the representatives of both sides they shall do entire justice, 
just as by this agreement and treaty it is arranged that the first named deputies 
should do. The said umpire or umpires whom the said lords shall agree on 
and choose will likewise take the oath with the formalities already described, 
confessing themselves and receiving the sacrament. The decision reached by 
each of the said persons, or by a majority of the said persons, deputed and 
named by each of the said lords, both in the possessory cause by the learned 
jurists and in the cause of ownership by the astrologers, pilots, or mariners, 
shall be a final decision. After these disagreements are adjusted, which the 
said umpire or umpires shall regulate, decide, and adjust, giving the final 
judgment, the said lords shall promise on their royal faith, for themselves 
and for their heirs and successors, wholly to keep and observe the judgment, 
and order it to be observed, without any deception or evasion whatsoever, 
forever and ever ; and on* the sign of the Cross and by the words of the Holy 
Gospels, under pledge of all their patrimonial wealth and that of the crown 
of their realms, which they pledged therefor, etc., they shall swear wholly 
to keep, maintain, and observe it, and cause it to be observed. 

9. Item, that the deputy first named by each of the said lords shall 
preside over his deputation just as was stipulated in the former treaty made 
between these lords. 

Lastly, his Majesty commanded that the following response be given in 
regard to the whole matter : 

The answer made on behalf of the emperor and king, our lord, to the articles 
sent on behalf of the lord King of Portugal in respect to the negotiations of 
the Moluccas is as follows : 

His Majesty is greatly pleased that the lord King of Portugal has ap 
proved the reply given by his Majesty, while in Segovia, to the ambassador 
of the said lord King of Portugal, in regard to the expedients which would 



144 Doc. 14. Spain Portugal 

be offered in behalf of the latter to his Majesty in the negotiations relating 
to the Moluccas. Therefore in order to execute them, he will immediately 
command that lawyers and other persons expert in the negotiation be named, 
and he will give them all the necessary documents, including the said reply, 
so that, in accordance with the reply and with the treaty made between the 
Catholic king and queen, Don Ferdinand and Dona Isabella, sovereigns of 
Castile, etc., and the lord King Dom John, king of Portugal, etc., they may 
employ themselves in determining the said matter. Moreover in order to 
please the said lord King of Portugal better, his Majesty deems it good to 
cause the said persons, named on his behalf, to be commanded to perform the 
oath and ceremony, now asked for on behalf of the said lord King of Portugal, 
so that in determining the said matter they may proceed in accordance with 
the said reply. And if no agreement shall be reached between the said persons 
and deputies of both parties, if the difference shall be between the lawyers, 
the umpire or umpires who are to be named shall be lawyers, and if the 
said difference shall be between the astrologers and pilots, the umpire to be 
named shall be of that profession, and they shall be employed in the said 
matter in accordance with the reply that his Majesty gave in Segovia, which 
is incorporated above. 

Therefore, both the said parties by virtue of the said powers, delegated 
from the said lords, their constituents, and incorporated above, declared, 
in conformity with the said reply, that they will be satisfied, both in the 
judgment upon ownership and possession and in the method and order to 
be followed in it, to have the contents of the said reply, which is incorporated 
above, and of the treaty made by the Catholic king and queen, and King Dom 
John of Portugal, observed, fulfilled, and performed ; and to have the deputies 
receive conjointly such petitions as shall be given by the parties and to carry 
on the cause upon them, simply and openly, without clamor or distortion 
of judgment, only, the truth being known, they shall determine what may 
be just. 

For all the aforesaid and every part and parcel of it, the said Mercurino 
de Gattinara, grand chancellor of their Majesties, Bishop Don Fray Garcia 
de Loaysa, Don Garcia de Padilla, chief knight-commander of Calatrava, 
and Doctor Lorenzo Galindez de Carvajal, all members of the council of the 
said very exalted and very mighty Queen and King of Castile, Leon, Aragon, 
Granada, and the Two Sicilies, Jerusalem, etc., and their representatives, and 
by virtue of their said power, incorporated above, and the said Licentiate 
Asevedo, representative and ambassador of the said very exalted and very 
excellent prince, lord King Dom John of Portugal and the Algarves on this 
side and beyond the sea in Africa, lord of Guinea, etc., and by virtue of his 
said power, incorporated above, promised and asserted in the name of their 
said constituents, that actually and in fact, in good faith, without deception, 
and renouncing all fraud, craft, evasion, deception, pretense, and dissimula 
tion whatsoever, they and their successors, and their kingdoms and lordships, 
forever and ever, will keep, observe, and perform, what is contained, adjusted, 
and agreed to above, and what shall be decided and determined by the said 
deputies, and every part and parcel of it, wholly, just as it shall be done, 
arranged, decided, determined, and concerted by them, and given as a judg 
ment by them as competent judges. In order that it shall be thus observed and 
performed, by virtue of the said powers incorporated above, they pledged 



1526 145 

their said parties, their constituents, and their movable and landed property 
and that of their patrimonial and royal crowns and that of their successors, 
forever and ever, that neither they nor any of them, by himself or by an 
agent, directly or indirectly, shall contravene or prevent it, or any part or 
parcel of it, at any time or in any manner, premeditated or unpremeditated, 
that may or can be, under the penalties contained in the said above-mentioned 
treaty, and they renounced all the laws and privileges of which the said 
parties and each of them may avail themselves in order to contravene or 
hinder the aforesaid or any part and parcel of it, and for the greater 
security and stability of the aforesaid, they swore before God and Holy 
Mary and upon the sign of the Cross, on which they placed their right hands, 
and upon the words of the four Holy Gospels, wherever they are most largely 
written, on the consciences of their said constituents, that they and each of 
them will keep, observe, and perform all the aforesaid, and each part and 
parcel of it, actually and in fact, renouncing all evasion, deception, and 
subterfuge, and they will not gainsay it at any time or in any manner, and 
under the said oath they swore not to seek absolution of our very Holy Father, 
or of any other legate or prelate, who may be able to give it to them, and 
even though he shall give it to them of his own motion, they will not use it. 
Likewise the said representatives bound themselves in the said name, under 
the said penalty and oath, that within days next ensuing, reckoned 

from the date of this treaty, the parties will exchange an approval and ratifi 
cation of this said treaty, written on parchment, and signed with the names of 
the said lords, their constituents, and sealed with their hanging leaden seals. 
Of all the aforesaid they executed two copies of one tenor, both alike. These 
they signed with their names, and executed them before me the said secretary 
and notary public above-written and the undersigned witnesses one for each 
party. And whichever copy shall be produced, it shall be as valid as if both 
should be produced, which were made and executed in the said the 

said day and month and year aforesaid. 



15. 

Treaty between Spain and Portugal concluded at Saragassa, 
April if, 1529. Not ratified. 

INTRODUCTION. 

Near the beginning of the year 1527, the Emperor Charles V., urgently 
needing money, entertained the project of selling, or pawning, to the Portu 
guese crown, his claim to the Moluccas. 1 At about the same time, through the 
English ambassador in Spain, he attempted to interest Henry VIII. in pur 
chasing the islands. 2 As a condition of entering into the contract, the King 
of Portugal, John III., required it to be approved and authorized by the 
Cortes of Castile," to whom the Emperor had given his word that he would 
not alienate the Moluccas." The Emperor, on the other hand, adduced various 
reasons to prove that such authorization was unnecessary. It was finally 
agreed to refer the question of the legal necessity for such approval and 
authorization to the ten leading lawyers of the Emperor s Royal Council. 
If the lawyers agreed that the necessity did not exist, the King of Portugal 
promised to abide by their decision. 5 

Near the beginning of 1528, when the Emperor was on the eve of war 
with France and England, he despatched Lope Hurtado as ambassador to 
Portugal, to procure the assistance of that crown against Spain s enemies." 

w"- Wwi * 

1 Santarem, Quadro Elementar, torn. II., p. 55, no. 244. 

See Edward Lee s letter of Jan. 20, 1527, calendared in Letters and Papers of the 
Reign of Henry VIII. (ed. Brewer, 1872), vol. IV., pt. II., no. 2813, and Thome s letter 
to Lee in R. Hakluyt, Principal Navigations (1903), II. 164-181. 

* Oct.-Dec., 1527. Archives of the Indies, Patronato, 1-2-2/16, no. 9. 

* Besides his promise to the Cortes of 1523, mentioned above, Doc. 13, note 12, the 
Emperor appears to have made a similar promise to the Cortes of 1525. Cf. below, 
art. II, and Doc. 16, art. n. 

National Archives at Lisbon, gav. 15, mac.o 10, no. 21. 

* A draft of a treaty of defensive alliance between Spain and Portugal, preserved in 
the Archives of the Indies, Patronato, 1-2-2/16, no. 3, ramo 3, dates from about this 
time. The articles that refer to the new discoveries follow. In explanation of the third 
article it may be said that the Mare Parvum was situated off the Barbary Coast. See 
the article by M. Jimenez de la Espada, " Espafia en Berberia ", in the Boletin de la 
Sociedad Geogrdfica de Madrid, torn. IX. (1880). 

"3. Item, conventum, concordatum, et conclusum est, pro majori stabilitate, et 
firmitate, dicte presentis confederationis et ut omnis rupture ipsius atque dissidii tollatur 
occasio, quod via amicabili arbitrorum juris per eos et eorum quemlibet elligendorum 
facient decidi et determinari, controversiam sive diferenciam, quam inter se habent de 
et super Malach, et Mari paryp, cabo de Ager, juxta et secundum quod in capitulationibus 
et confederationibus alias initis et conclusis inter prefatos felicis memoriae Ferdinandum 
et Elisabeth, Catholicos et serenissimum Portugalie reges, cautum et conventum fuit. 
Et ex nunc compromisserunt ac de alto et basso compromissum f ecerunt et convenerunt. 
ac eorum quilibet in spectabiles [blank for names] tamque arbitros, juris dantes ipsis 

146 



Saragassa, 1529 147 

Hurtado was also instructed to persuade King John to dismiss the French 
ambassador, Honore de Caix, who, objectionable on other grounds, apparently 
desired some concessions from Portugal in the matter of the spice trade." 
Hurtado was instructed not to negotiate concerning the Spice Islands that 
negotiation was being conducted chiefly through the Portuguese ambassador 
at the Spanish court but his correspondence shows that both sovereigns 
were anxious to settle the long controversy. The Emperor s habitual need 
of money was intensified by his war with France and by his projected journey 
to Italy for his coronation, and, in Hurtado s opinion, the King of Portugal s 
unwillingness to endanger his commerce by engaging in the Spanish war 
would make him the more ready to satisfy the Emperor in regard to the 
Spice Islands. Moreover, another Spanish fleet was being fitted out at 
Coruna.* 

plenam liberam et omnim odam potestatem laudandi et terminandi predictam contro- 
versiam, infra spatium [blank] mensium, a die dat presentium computandorum, pro- 
mittentes, et eorum quilibet gratum, firmum, et ratum, perpetuo habituros totum id et 
quicquid per dictos arbitros juris laudatum sentenciatum et diffinitum fuerit. . . . 

" 10. Item, conventum, concordatum, et conclusum est, quod prelibate suppetie non 
prestabuntur ex necessitate hujus conventionis, pads, atque federis, nisi pro tuitone ac 
defensione regnorum, provinciarum, statuum, terrarum, civitatuum, villarum, opidorum, 
et locorum, Castelle, Legipnis, Aragonie, Valentie, Navarre, Catalonie, Biscaye, Portu- 
galie, et partium Africe sive Indie. 

"n. Item, conventum, concordatum, et conclusum est, quod per Sanctam Sedem 
Apostolicam, quondam Regibus Castelle et Legionis, predecessoribus dictorum Catholi- 
corum Regum necnon suis heredibus et successoribus, donate, concesse, et assignate 
fuerunt insule omnes et terre firme detecte et detegende, reperte et reperiende, versus 
occidentem et meridiem, et postea, ut discordiarum evitaretur causa et materia, inter 
prefatos q. Castelle et dictum Portugalie Reges conventum et capitulatum fuit, quod 
eorum quilibet respective contentus foret insulis et terris detectis et detegendis intra 
terminos et limites in tractatu et capitulatione super hoc inito et laudato expresses, 
quod nemo ipsorum regum aggredietur, deteget, aut occupabit, per se, subditos, aut 
alios aliquid intra limites seu terminos alterius, et, si aliquid occupat vel occupabit per se 
vel suos intra terminos alterius, hoc sine difficultate et absque processu restituet et 
restitui faciet quam primum per regem intra cujus terminos seu limites continetur si 
fuerit ad hoc requisitus, qui vero yasallorum et subditorum predictorum Regum cujus- 
cumque gradus, status, aut conditionis fuerint et quacumque auctoritate poleant secus 
fecerint vel attentaverint tamquam pacis et federum effractores et violatores eos co- 
hercere et plecti faciet Rex confederatus sub cujus ditione et dominio erunt." 

T His instructions are in M. Navarrete, Col. de Docs, para la Hist, de Espana (1842- 
1895), I- 128 ff. Transcripts of several of Hurtado s letters written from Lisbon to the 
emperor, are among the Bergenroth manuscripts in the British Museum. They are 
mostly noticed in Cal. of St. Pap., Spain, vol. III., pt. II. See also P. de Gayangos, 
Catalogue of Spanish Manuscripts, II. (1877), pp. 569 ff. 

"During a great part of the period between 1518 and 1559, Honore de Caix repre 
sented France at the court of Lisbon. Commission des Archives Diplomatiques, Recueil 
des Instructions donnees aux Ambassadcurs et Ministres de France: III. Portugal, by 
Vicomte de Caix de Saint-Aymour (1886), p. xv. Hurtado was to point out that the 
Hapsburg dominions were a better distributing centre for spices than France and Eng 
land. Navarrete, op. cit., I. 137, 138. By a treaty of offensive alliance concluded on 
Apr. 30, 1527, between France and England against the Emperor, it had been provided 
that spices carried in Portuguese ships into the Channel during the war might not be 
sold in the Low Countries, i. e., at the spice-market at Antwerp, but only in France and 
England ; and that in case the King of Portugal declared in favor of the Emperor his 
goods and subjects should be adjudged good prize. Lord Herbert of Cherbury, The 
Life and Reign of King Henry VIII., in A Complete History of England (1706). IT. 81. 

*A. Rodriguez Villa, El Emperador Carlos V. y su Corte segun las Cartas de Don 
Martin de Salinas (1003), p. 417. Cf. Doc. 13, introduction, and Doc. 14, note 15. 



148 Doc. 75. Spain Portugal 

The protest of the Cortes assembled at Madrid in the spring of 1528, was 
of no avail. 10 At Saragossa, on April 17, 1529, the plenipotentiaries of Spain 
and Portugal concluded a treaty whose principal provisions were, briefly, as 
follows : 

The Emperor pledged his right in the Moluccas to the King of Portugal 
for 350,000 ducats, but might redeem his right by returning the money ; 
there should be a line of demarcation from pole to pole, 17 east of the 
Moluccas, and its position was to be shown on a standard map ; Castilians 
who traded beyond the line might be punished by the Portuguese. Imported 
spices should be sequestrated, pending investigation, and afterwards assigned 
to that king from whose lands they were found to have come. Castilians 
should be punished if they crossed the aforesaid line (except through neces 
sity or ignorance), or if, in the seas navigated by Portugal s India fleet, 
they sailed further than the direct course to the Strait of Magellan required. 
If this agreement were proved to have been violated by command of either 
king, his right should be transferred to the other; the provisions for the 
punishment of Castilians should not be in force until the Castilians already 
despatched to the Moluccas should have been notified ; astrologers and pilots 
should be named by both sides to examine the claims of the Emperor and 
King of Portugal to the Moluccas. If the decision favored Castile it should 
not be executed until the Emperor returned the 350,000 ducats to Portugal ; 
if it favored Portugal, Castile must return the 350,000 ducats within four 
years; the King of Portugal was not to build any new fortress in the 
Moluccas or repair his fortress now there; the King of Portugal and his 
people should not harm the fleets already despatched by the Emperor to the 
Moluccas, or hinder their trade; the Emperor should immediately send in 
structions to his people in the Moluccas to return at once and trade there no 
more ; both kings should swear to fulfill this treaty, and should ask the Pope 
to confirm it; the Emperor should declare that this treaty was as binding 
as though approved by the Cortes, and that he cancelled all laws conflicting 
with it. He was to order his royal council to find out whether it could be made 
without the approval of the pueblos ; the treaty of Tordesillas should remain 
in force save in matters otherwise determined by this treaty; the King of 
Portugal was to do justice to persons whose goods had been seized in Portugal 
because they served the Emperor ; the Emperor gave the King of Portugal 
the difference between 350,000 ducats and the actual value of the Moluccas ; 
the party violating this treaty should forfeit to the party that observed it any 
right derived from it, and a fine of 100,000 ducats. If the Emperor violated 
it, the sale became unconditional. 

Most of these provisions appear, in somewhat altered form, in the defini 
tive treaty concluded five days later." 

" Cortes de los Antiguos Reinos de Leon y de Castillo (Real Academia de la Historia, 
Madrid, 1861, etc.), IV. 461, 462. 
"Doc. 16. 



149 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Text: MS. The original manuscript, signed by the plenipotentiaries of both 
crowns, is in the Archives of the Indies at Seville, Patronato, 1-2-2/16, 
no. 9, ramo I. This text has not, it is believed, been printed or trans 
lated hitherto. 

References: Contemporary and early writings. Viscount de Santarem, 
Quadro Elementar (1842-1876), II. 55 ff. ; J. Ramos-Coelho, Alguns 
Documentos (Acad. Real das Sciencias of Lisbon, 1892), pp. 487, 492- 
495; Calendar of State Papers, Spain, vol. III. (1877), pt. II., pp. 616- 
617, 628, 817, 914-915, 996; F. Lopez de Gomara, Historia General 
de las Indias, in B. C. Aribau, Biblioteca de Autores Espailoles: His- 
toriadores Primitives de Indias, XXII. (1852) 222; A. de Herrera, 
Historia General de los Hechos de los Castellanos (1728-1730), dec. IV., 
lib. V., c. 10. On Spanish-Portuguese relations in the Moluccas from 
1521 to 1532, see Navarrete, Colecdon de Viages (1825-1837), V., parts 
of which are translated or abstracted in C. R. Markham, Early Spanish 
Voyages to the Strait of Magellan (Hakluyt Soc., 2d ser., no. XXVIII., 
1911), and in Blair and Robertson, Philippine Islands (1903-1909), II. ; 
B. Leonardo de Argensola, Conquista de las Islas Malucas ( 1609) , lib. I., 
translation in J. Stevens, A New Collection of Voyages and Travels 
(1708, etc.), I. 

TEXT." 

En el nonbre de Dios Todopoderoso, Padre y Hijo y Spiritu Santo, tres 
personas y un solo Dios verdadero. Notorio y manifiesto sea a todos quantos 
este publico ynstrumento vieren, commo en la gibdad de Qaragoga," a diez 
e syete dias del mes de Abril, ano del nasgimiento de nuestro Salvador Jhesu 
Christo de mill e quinientos y veinte y nueve anos, en presengia de my, 
Francisco de los Covos," secretario y del consejo del Enperador e Reyna e 
Rey de Castilla y su escrivano y notario publico en la su corte y en todos los 
sus rreynos e senorios, estando presentes y juntos los senores, el grand 
changiller, Mercurino de Gatinara, 15 conde de Gatinara, y el muy reverendo 
Don Fray Garcia de Loaysa," obispo de Osma, confesor, y anbos del consejo 
de los muy altos y muy poderosos pringipes, Don Carlos, por la divina 
clemengia emperador semper augusto, rrey de Alemania, y Dona Juana, su 
madre, y el mismo Don Carlos, su hijo, por la gracia de Dios rreyes de 
Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, de las Dos Segilias, de Jherusalem, de Navarra, 
de Granada, etc., sus procuradores bastantes de la una parte, y el senor 
Antonio de Azevedo," cutino, del consejo y enbaxador del muy alto e muy 
poderoso senor Don Juan, por la gracia de Dios rrey de Portugal, de los 

11 The text is from the original manuscript in the Archives of the Indies, Patronato, 
1-2-2/16, no. Q, ramo i. 

"The Emperor stopped at Saragossa on his way from Toledo to Barcelona, whence 
he sailed to Italy for his coronation. He left Saragossa on Apr. 17 (M. de Foronda y 
Aguilera, " Estancias y Viages de Carlos V." in Boletin de la Sociedad Geogrdfica de 
Madrid, torn. XXXVII., no. 7, July, 1895), or on Apr. 19 (Villa, op. cit., p. 431). 

"See Doc. 13, note 20. 

"The Count of Gattinara was also one of the negotiators of the treaty of Vitoria. 
See Doc. 13, note 14. 

" See Doc. 14, note 8. " See Doc. 14, note u. 



150 Doc. 15. Spain Portugal 

Algarves de aquende y allende el mar en Africa, senor de Guinea y de la 
conquista, navegacjon, y comercjo de Etiopia y Aravia y Persia y de la India, 
etc., su procurador bastante de la otra parte, dixeron que por quanto entre 
los dichos muy altos y muy poderosos Catolicos senores, Enperador y Reyes 
de Castilla, de Leon, dAragon, de las Dos Segilias, de Jherusalem, etc., y 
el dicho muy alto y muy poderoso senor Don Juan, rrey de Portugal y de los 
Algarves, etc., viendo ser asy cunplidero a servicjo de Dios, nuestro Senor, 
y al bien de sus rreinos y por conservation de la hermandad, debdo, y amor 
que entrellos ay, se ha hablado y tratado de tomar, cjerto asiento y congierto 
y enpeno y rretro vendendo sobre las yslas de Maluco y otras tierras y mares 
de las Indias, que cada uno dellos pretende tener derecho, y para tomar, tratar, 
y capitular, hazer y asentar el dicho asiento y concjerto y enpeno de rretro 
vendendo entre los dichos sus constituyentes, han dado a ellos sus poderes 
cunplidos, firmados de sus nonbres y sellados con sus sellos, segund mas 
largamente en los dichos poderes, que anbas las dichas partes mostraron, 
firmados de los dichos senores Enperador y Rey de Castilla, y del dicho 
senor Rey de Portugal, sellados con sus sellos, commo dicho es, se contiene, 
el thenor de los quales, de verbo ad verbum, uno en pos de otro, es este que 
se sigue : 

[Here follow the full powers granted by the Emperor Charles V. and 
Queen Joanna of Castile to the Count of Gattinara and the Bishop of Osma 
on April 14, 1529; and the full powers granted by John III. of Portugal 
to Antonio d Azevedo, on October 18, 1528.] 

Porende los dichos senores, grand chancjller y obispo de Osma, del consejo 
de los dichos muy alto y muy poderoso senor Enperador e Reyes de Castilla, 
de Leon, de Aragon, de las Dos Secjlias, de Jherusalem, etc., y sus procura- 
dores, y el dicho senor Antonio Dazevedo, cutino, del consejo del dicho muy 
alto y muy poderoso senor Rey de Portugal y de los Algarves, etc., y su 
procurador, por virtud de los dichos poderes, que de suso van incorporados, 
y usando dellos, asentaron, concordaron, capitularon, y otogaron, en nonbre 
de los dichos senores, sus constituyentes, los capitulos que de yuso seran 
contenidos, en esta manera : 

i. Primeramente, 18 es concordado y asentado quel dicho senor Enperador 
y Rey de Castilla da en enpeno y venta de rretro vendendo al dicho senor 
Rey de Portugal el derecho que tiene a las yslas de Maluco y a la contratagion 
y comerc.io en las otras yslas y tierras a ellas comarcanas, y questan y se 
incluyem dentro de la linea que se ha de hechar por la forma y manera que 
se yuso sera declarado, por precjo y quantia de trezientos y cjnquenta mill 
ducados de oro y de peso, dea trezientos y setenta e cjnco maravedis " da 
moneda Castellana, cada ducado, quel dicho senor Rey de Portugal ha de dar 
al dicho senor Enperador y Rey de Castilla. pagados en esta manera, los 

"This article corresponds to Doc. 16, art. i. 

"The weight of the excelente of Granada, the equivalent of the ducat, was fixed by 
law in 1497 at 3.52 grammes of gold ft fine. Since the gold dollar of the United 
States contains about 1.5 grammes of pure gold, the gold in a ducat of 1529 would be 
worth about $2.32 in terms of our currency. The maravedi was the unit of reckoning 
for the whole coinage system. M. J. Bonn. Spairiens Niedcrgang wahrend der Preis- 
revolution des 16. Jahrhunderts, pp. 36, 43, in Miinchener Volkswirtschaftliche Studien 
(ed. L. Brentano and W. Lotz, no. 12, 1806) ; and L. Saez, Demostracion Historica del 
Verdadero Valor de las Monedas (Real Academia de la Historia, Madrid, 1805), 
pp. 236 ff. See also W. G. Sumner, " The Spanish Dollar and the Colonial Shilling ", 
American Historical Reiriew, III. 607 ff. 



Saragossa, 1529 151 

dozientos e ginquenta mill ducados dentro de treynta dias primeros siguientes 
desdel dia queste asiento se otogare, pagados en Castilla o en Lisboa, dondel 
dicho senor Rey de Portugal mejor los pudiere dar en monedas de oro y de 
peso, o su justo valor en monedas de plata, y los gientos mill ducados restantes 
en la feria de Mayo de Medina del Campo M deste presente afio, al tienpo de 
los pagamentos della, en la forma e manera suso dicho, que ha de pagar los 
dichos dozientos y ginquenta mill ducados primeros, los quales todos se daran 
y pagaran a los dichos tienpos, en contado e fuera de canbio, y los que se 
ovieren de pagar en Portugal seran en moneda que valga en Castilla los dichos 
trezientos y setenta y ginco maravedis, cada ducado, a la persona o personas 
quel dicho senor Enperador y Rey de Castilla para ello nombrare ; el qual 
dicho enpeno y venta de rretrovendendo el dicho senor Enperador y Rey de 
Castilla haze al dicho senor Rey de Portugal, commo dicho es, con tal pacto 
y condition que cada y quando y en qualquier tienpo quel dicho senor 
Enperador y Rey de Castilla, o sus herederos o subcesores en los rreynos de 
Castilla, quisieren quitar, luyr, e rredemi el dicho derecho que asi le enpena 
y vende, commo dicho es, bolviendo el pregio que asy rregibe, lo puedan hazer, 
y el dicho senor Rey de Portugal sea obligado a lo rregebir, quedando asy al 
dicho senor Enperador e Rey de Castilla commo al dicho senor Rey de 
Portugal y a sus subgesores, su derecho a salvo en el mismo estado y segund 
y por la manera que primero le tenian, y sin que se les aya hecho ni causado, 
haga ni cause, perjuizio ni novedad alguna en el, por virtud deste asiento y 
capitulagion. 

2. Yten,* es asentado y concordado que se heche, y desde agora se aya 
por hechada, una linea simigirculo de polo a polo, diez y siete grados de los 
Malucos a oriente, que son dozientas y noventa y siete leguas y media," 
questa misma linea dizen que pasara por las yslas de Santo Tome de las 
Velas,* 3 questa en este merediano, y a nordeste y subdueste y quarta del este 
con los Malucos, que asy mismo dizen que dista dellos diez e nueve grados 
por este rrunbo de nordeste y subdueste, y siendo caso que las dichas yslas 
de Santo Tome de las Velas esten e disten de Maluco mas o menos, todavia 

" By 1529 the fair of Medina del Campo, long the chief centre in Spain for the ex 
change of merchandise, had become even more important for the settlement of accounts 
and the transaction of other financial business. Descriptions of the fair and of the 
activities of the money changers or bankers are given in M. Colmeiro, Historia de 
la Economia Politico en Espana (1863), torn. II., c. 74, and C. Espejo and J. Paz, Las 
Antiguas Ferias de Medina del Campo (1912), c. 3. 

"This article corresponds to Doc. 16, art. 2. 

" Cf. Doc. 7, note 19. Magellan and most of the experts at the junta of Badajoz 
reckoned that a degree of longitude at the equator equalled 17^2 Castilian leagues. 
Actually it equalled about i&K Castilian leagues. The methods employed at this period 
to determine latitude and longitude are described in A. Pigafetta, Treatise on the Art 
of Navigation, printed by A. do Mosto in the Raccolta Colombiana, vol. III., pt. V., and, 
in a translation of an abridged version, in Lord Stanley, First Voyage round the World 
(Hakluyt Soc., no. LII., 1874), pp. 164 ff. See also the works written or edited by 
J. Bensaude, mentioned in Doc. 9, note 6. 

13 " Santo Tome de las Velas " appears here as the name of a single group of islands, 
whereas in the corresponding article of the treaty of Apr. 22 (Doc. 16), the expression 
" las islas de las Velas y de Santo Thome " might be taken to indicate two distinct 
groups. The Islas de las Velas Latinas, said to have been thus named by Magellan 
because the canoes of the natives carried lateen sails (A. de Herrera, Descripcion de las 
Indias, 1730, p. 56), and commonly known as the Ladrones or Mariannas, are situ 
ated in about 12 to 21 N. and 144 to 145 E. If the name Santo Thome really belongs 
to them, it may be because Magellan discovered them on the day preceding the festival 
of St. Thomas Aquinas, Mar. 6, 1521. 



152 Doc. 75. Spain Portugal 

quede la dicha linea hechada a las dichas dozientas y noventa e siete leguas 
y media mas al oriente, que hazen los dichos diez e nueve grades al nordeste 
de las sobre dichas yslas de Maluco, y que para saber se por donde la dicha 
linea es lanc,ada, se haga luego un padron," en que se hechara la dicha linea 
por el modo sobre dicho, y que dara asi asentada para declaration del punto 
y lugar por donde ella pasa, y este sera firmado del dicho senor Enperador 
y Rey de Castilla, y del dicho senor Rey de Portugal, y sellado con sus sellos, 
y por el mismo modo, y con forme al dicho padron, se hechara la dicha linea 
en todas las cartas de navegagion por las quales navegaran los subdittos y 
naturales de los rreynos del dicho senor Enperador y Rey de Castilla y del 
dicho senor Rey de Portugal, y que, para hazer el dicho padron, se nonbren 
por los dichos sefiores rreyes por cada uno dellos tres personas, para que 
sobre juramento hagan el dicho padron, y hechen la dicha linea con forme a 
lo suso dicho, y asi hecho, los dichos senores Enperador e Rey de Castilla 
y el dicho senor Rey de Portugal lo firmen de sus nonbres, y manden sellar 
con los sellos de sus armas, y por el se hagan las dichas cartas de marear, 
segund dicho es, para que los subdittos y naturales de los dichos senores 
rreyes naveguen por ellas, durante el tiempo quel dicho senor Rey de Castilla 
no luyere y redimiere el dicho derecho ; pero que rredimiendo lo e quitandolo, 
y acabado este asiento y contrato, y el tal patron y cartas de navegar que asy 
se hizieren conforme a lo suso dicho, no pare perjuizio a ninguna de las partes 
en su derecho, mas syn enbargo dello quede todo en el mismo estado que 
agora esta, y entranto quel dicho patron no se hiziere por qualquier causa 
que sea, la dicha linea quede hechada des del otorgamiento deste contrato, 
y los que la pasaren incurran en las penas que abaxo seran contenidas, segund 
y en la forma y manera que adelante sera declarado. 

3. Yten,** es asentado y concordado que en todas las yslas y tierras que 
entraren dentro de la dicha linea, no puedan las armadas y navios del dicho 
senor Enperador y Rey de Castilla, ni de sus subditos, ni de otros por su man- 
dado y consentimiento, o f abor, o ayuda, tratar, ni comercjar, ni cargar, y que 
si algunos subditos del dicho senor Enperador e Rey de Castilla, o otros 
algunos, despues deste asiento, fueren tornados dentre de los dichos limites, 
rescatando, contratando, comergiando, o cargando, que puedan ser presos por 
los capitanes e gentes del dicho senor rrey, e oydos y castigados, conforme a 
justigia, y que lo mismo puedan hazer contra los que les f uere provado que con- 
trataron, rescataron, comergiaron, y cargaron dentro de los dichos limites, 
despues deste asiento, aunque no scan hallados ni tornados en ellos, y que sy 

"In 1508 the King of Spain ordered the officials of the Casa de Contratacion of 
Seville to cause a standard map to be constructed showing the lands and islands of the 
Indies discovered hitherto. The revision of the map was entrusted to the aforesaid 
officials and to the chief pilot, Navarrete, Viages, III. 300. In 1515 and in 1526 pilots 
were appointed to revise the map. No copy of the model map is known to exist, but 
several extant Spanish charts, dating from 1525-1530, are doubtless derived from it. 
H. Harrisse, Diplomatic History (1897), pp. 142-151 ; id., Discovery of North America 
(1892), pp. 258-268, 631-633, et passim: M. de la Puente y Olea, Los Trabajos Geogrdficos 
de la Casa de Contratacion (1900). The Weimar chart of 1529, executed by the cosmog- 
rapher royal, Diego Ribero, was believed by J. G. Kohl to have been compiled in accord 
ance with the terms of the treaty of Saragossa, Die Beiden Aeltesten General-Karten 
von Amerika (1860), pp. 37, 38. Harrisse, however, dissents from this conclusion, Dis 
covery of North America, p. 569. On Ribero s maps, see also E. L. Stevenson, " Early 
Spanish Cartography of the New World ", in Proceedings of the American Antiquarian 
Society, new ser., vol. XIX., pt. III. (1909). 

"This article corresponds to Doc. 16, arts. 4, 5, and 6. 



Saragossa, 1529 153 

algunos subditos del dicho senor Enperador y Key de Castilla, o otras personas, 
traxieren espegeria o drogueria, de qualquier suerte que fuere, que en quales- 
quier puertos y partes donde llegaren y vinieren de anbos los dichos senores 
rreyes, o de qualquier dellos, o de otros que no scan de enemigos, se depositen 
y esten enbargados por anbos los dichos senores rreyes, hasta que se sepa 
de cuya demarcation fueron tirades y traidas, y sabido y determinado, se 
entreguen sin ningund detenimiento aquien pertenegieren, o su justo valor, y 
que para se saber si el lugar y tierra, donde las dichas espegerias e droguerias 
fueren traydas, cae dentro de la demarcation y limites que, con forme a 
este contrato, ha de quedar con el dicho senor Enperador y Rey de Castilla, 
ynbiaran los dichos senores rreyes dos o quatro navios, tantos uno commo 
otro, en los quales yran personas que entiendan y sepan de aquella arte, tantos 
de una parte commo de otra, a los dichos lugares y tierras donde dixieren 
que tiraron y truxieron las dichas espegerias e droguerias para ver y 
determinar en cuya demarcation caen las dichas tierras donde asy las dichas 
espegerias e droguerias se dixere que fueren tiradas, y hallando que las 
dichas tierras y lugares caen dentro de la demarcagion del dicho senor Rey 
de Castilla, y que en ellas ay las dichas espegerias e droguerias en tanta 
cantidad que razonablemente las pudiese traer dellos, el dicho senor Rey de 
Portugal sea obligado a gelas bolver, o su justo valor, estando secrestadas 
en sus rreynos. E sy fuere hallado y determinado que las hallaron e traxie- 
ron de tierras de la demarcagion del dicho Serenissimo Rey de Portugal, no 
sea obligado a gelas bolver, y que si estovieren secrestadas en los rreinos del 
dicho senor Enperador y Rey de Castilla, el sea obligado a las bolver y 
restituyr luego al dicho senor Rey de Portugal, y que por la misma manera 
se haga, siendo secrestadas en otros qualesquier rreynos e tierras que no scan 
de los dichos senores rreyes, y que dentro de medio ano despues que las 
dichas espegerias e droguerias fueren secrestados, commo dicho es, los dichos 
senores rreyes scan obligados a inbiar los dichos navios y personas para 
hazer la dicha averiguagion commo dicho es, y en quanto las dichas espegerias 
y droguerias estovieren enbargadas y secrestadas, commo dicho es, el dicho 
senor Enperador y Rey de Castilla, ni otro por el, ni con su fabor ni consenti- 
miento, no yran, ni inbiaran, a la dicha tierra, o tierras, donde las dichas 
espegerias e droguerias vinieren, y sea obiigado a mandar castigar, conforme 
a justigia, los que contra lo suso dicho fueren, o pasaren, commo malhechores 
y quebrantadores de fee y de paz. Pero entienda se qiie la navegagion por 
la mar del Sur ha de quedar y queda libre al dicho senor Enperador y Rey de 
Castilla y a sus subditos, para poder por alii navegar e contratar, conforme 
a la capitulagion hecha entre los reyes Catholicos y el Rey Don Juan de 
Portugal,** que aya gloria, con tanto que no puedan entrar, ni entren, ni 
pasar, ni pasen, de las mares de la dicha linea a dentro, salvo entrando en ellas 
con negesidad de tienpos o de bastimentos, o por ynorangia," no sabiendo la 
dicha linea, y que en tal caso los navios que asy entraren del dicho senor 
Enperador y Rey de Castilla, y de sus subditos, dentro de la dicha linea, no 
caygan en las dichas penas, pero que, hallando dentro de la dicha linea algunas 
tierras o yslas, no contraten en ellas, sino que las dexen luego y se salgan 
dellas y de la dicha linea, para que queden libres al dicho senor Rey de 
Portugal, durante este contrato, segund dicho es, commo sy por sus capitanes 

* The treaty of Tordesillas, Doc. 9. 

"In a letter to Azevedo, dated Jan. 13, 1529, the King of Portugal objected to ex 
cepting from punishment those who passed the line in ignorance. Lord Stanley s edition 
of De Morga, Philippine Islands (Hakluyt Soc., no. XXXIX., 1868), app., p. 394. 



154 Doc. 15. Spain Portugal 

y gente fuesen descubiertas y halladas, y que siendo caso que asy por hierro 
o negesidad o tienpos contraries, los tales navios del dicho senor Enperador 
e Rey de Castilla o de sus subditos, llegasen a alguna tierra de las que asi 
entraren en la dicha linea, y por virtud deste asiento pertenegieren al dicho 
senor Rey de Portugal, que scan tratados por los moradores della commo 
vasallos de su hermano, y asi commo el dicho senor Enperador y Rey de 
Castilla mandaria tratar a los suyos que en esta manera aportasen a sus 
tierras de la Nueva Espana, o de otras de aquellas partes, lo qual se entienda, 
en quanto no constare claramente que los dichos navios y los que en ellos 
anduvieren, entraron en los mares y tierras que entran en la dicha linea, con 
la dicha ynorangia o negesidad o tienpo contrario, y que no saliendo fuera, 
gesada la dicha negesidad, caygan en las dichas penas ; pero que las naos e 
navios del dicho senor Rey de Castilla e de sus subditos, vasallos, y naturales, 
puedan navegar y naveguen por los mares del dicho senor Rey de Portugal, 
por donde sus armadas van para la Yndia, 18 tan solanmente quanto les fuere 
negesario para tener su derrota derecha por el Estrecho de Magallanes, y 
haziendo lo contrario, navegando mas por las dichas mares, yncurriran en 
las dichas penas, reservando tanbien en esto la ynorangia, o negesidad, o 
tienpos contraries, commo esta dicho, y averiguandose y provandose primera- 
mente que por mandado del dicho senor Enperador e Rey de Castilla, o con 
su fabor, ayuda, o consentimiento, se contravino a lo suso dicho, en tal caso 
de cayga luego del derecho que toviere a ello, y aquel quede aplicado a la 
parte que por este contrato estoviere y lo guardare, y este enpeno y retro- 
vendendo quede resoluto, y la venta pura y linpia, commo sy al pringipio 
fuera fecha syn ninguna condigio. En la qual dicha pena ansymismo ha 
de incurrir e incurra el dicho senor Rey de Portugal, averiguandose que por 
qualquier manera ha contra venido a lo que por su parte es obligado a guardar 
y cunplir. 

4. Yten, es asentado y concordado que lo que toca a que, sy algunos 
subditos del dicho senor Enperador y Rey de Castilla, o otros algunos, f ueren 
tornados rescatando, contratando, comergiando, o cargando, dentro de los 
dichos limites, despues deste asiento, sean presos por los capitanes y gentes 
del dicho senor Rey de Portugal, y oydos y castigados conforme a justigia, 
y que lo mismo puedan hazer contra los que le fuere provado que contrataron, 
rescataron, y comergiaron, y cargaron, dentro de los dichos limites, despues 
este asiento, aunque no se han hallados ni tornados en ellos, y lo demas que 
se asienta por este contrato, en quanto toca a no pasar la dicha linea ningunos 
subditos del dicho senor Enperador e Rey de Castilla, ni otros algunos por 
su mandado, consentimiento, fabor, o ayuda, y las penas que cerca desto se 
ponen, aunque esta dicho ariba, despues este asiento, se entienda desdel dia 
que fuere notificado a los subditos del dicho senor Enperador y gentes que por 
aquellas mares y partes navegan y andan en adelante, y que antes de la 
notificagion no incurran en las dichas penas ; pero esto se entienda quanto a 
las gentes de las armadas de su Magestad que hasta agora a aquellas partes 
son ydas, 88 y que desdel dia de lo otorgamiento deste contrato en adelante, 

11 The Atlantic, east of the demarcation line of 1494. 

"This article corresponds to Doc. 16, art. 7. 

"Three Spanish fleets despatched to the Moluccas before 1529 reached the islands 
Magellan s, Loaysa s (cf. Doc. 14, note 15), and Saavedra s. Cortes sent the last from 
Mexico, by order of the Emperor, to relieve the Spaniards of Loaysa s fleet, who had 
established themselves at Tidore and Gilolo. For accounts of these expeditions, see 
Navarrete, Viages, V. ; Blair and Robertson, Philippine Islands, II.; and Markham, 
Early Spanish Voyages (Hakluyt Soc., 2d sen, no. XXVIII., 1911). 



Saragossa, 1529 155 

durante el tienpo del dicho enpeno y rretrovendendo, no pueda inbiar otras 
algunas de nuevo syn incurrir en las dichas penas. 

5. Yten,* 1 porque los dichos senores Enperador y Rey de Castilla y Rey 
de Portugal desean que el derecho de las dichas yslas se determine, es asentado 
y concertado que para la declaration del derecho que cada una dellas pretende 
tener a las dichas yslas de Maluco y otras, que cada uno dellos pretende estar 
en sus limites y demarcation, se nonbren astrologos, pilotos, o marineros, por 
cada una de las partes en ygual numero, dentro de un ano, o dos, o tres, o mas, 
coninio el dicho senor Rey de Portugal lo quisiere, que vean el derecho dentre 
anbas partes en propiedad, conforme a la capitulagion hecha entre los dichos 
Reyes Catolicos y el dicho Rey Don Juan de Portugal, y a la respuesta que el 
dicho senor Enperador y Rey de Castilla dio en Segovia," que es conforme 
a derecho y a la dicha capitulation ; y que no algen la mano dello despues que lo 
comengaren hasta dar sentengia en fabor de aquel que les paregiere que tiene 
el derecho, 33 y en caso que se determine en fabor del dicho senor Enperador 
y Rey de Castilla, o de sus subgesores, que la sentengia que se diere no se 
execute, sin que primero buelva rrealmente y con efetto, los dichos trezientos 
y ginquenta mill ducados, que rregibe por el dicho enpeno y venta de rretro 
vendendo, y en caso que la sentengia sea en fabor del dicho senor Rey de 
Portugal, o de sus subgesores, que el dicho senor Enperador y Rey de Castilla 
sea obligado a le bolver e rrestituyr los dichos trezientos y ginquenta mill 
ducados, que asy da el dicho senor Rey de Portugal por el dicho enpeno y 
venta, dentro de quatro anos primeros siguientes despues que se declarare. 

6. Otrosy," es concordado y asentado que el dicho seiior Rey de Portugal, 
en las dichas yslas de Maluco, ni en las otras tierras questan dentro de la 
dicha linea, ni en parte alguna de los terminos que en ella se incluyen, no 
pueda hazer, ni haga de nuevo fortaleza alguna, ni otro hedefigio que sea 
fuerte, y quanto a la fortaleza que esta hecha al presente en una de las dichas 
yslas ** de Maluco por el dicho senor Rey de Portugal, que aquella se quede 
y este, durante el dicho tienpo del enpeno, en el punto y estado que stara dendel 
dia queste asiento se otorgare y firmare, en un ano y medio, sin que se labre, 
ni edifique, de nuevo en ella, mas de sostenella en el estado en que al dicho 
tienpo estoviere, dentro del qual dicho tienpo el dicho senor rrey podra mandar 
notificar a sus capitanes y gente, que tiene en aquellas partes, lo que por este 
asiento es obligado a tener y guardar gerca desto, y quel dicho senor Rey de 
Portugal jure y prometa de guardar lo asy. 

7. Yten, 3 " es asentado que las armadas, que el dicho senor Enperador e 
Rey de Castilla hasta agora tiene ynbiadas a las dichas partes, scan miradas 
y bien tratadas y f aboregidas del dicho senor Rey de Portugal y de sus gentes, 
y no les sea puesto enbarago ni ynpedimiento en su navegagion e contratagion. 
y que si dano alguno, lo que no se cree, ellas ovieren rregebido, o regibieren, 
de sus capitanes o gentes, o les ovieren tornado alguna cosa, quel dicho senor 
rrey sea obligado de hemendar y satisfazer y rrestituyr y pagar luego todo 
aquello en quel dicho senor Enperador y Rey de Castilla e su armada e 
subditos ovieren sido dagnificados, y de mandar pugnir y castigar a los que 
lo hizieren, y de proveer que las armadas y gentes del dicho Senor Enperador 

" This article corresponds to Doc. 16, art. 3. 3 " Sec Doc. 14, p. 133, and note 16. 
" This was one of Portugal s demands. The Spaniards had taken advantage of the 
time-limit of Badajoz. 

"This article corresponds to Doc. 16, art. 8. ** In Ternate. 
" This article corresponds to Doc. 16, art. 9. 



156 Doc. 15. Spain Portugal 

y Rey de Castilla se puedan venir quando quisieren, libremente sin inpedi- 
miento alguno. 

8. Iten, 37 es asentado quel dicho senor Emperador y Rey de Castilla 
mande dar luego sus cartas y provisiones para sus capitanes y gentes que 
estovieren en las dichas yslas que luego se vengan y no contraten mas en ellas, 
con que les dexen traer libremente lo que ovieron rrescatado, contratado. 
y cargado. 

9. Yten, 38 es asentado que anbos los dichos senores Enperador e Rey 
de Castilla e Rey de Portugal, y cada uno dellos. jure solpnemente de guardar 
y cunplir este asiento y contrato, e todo lo en el contenido, y prometen por 
el dicho juramento, por sy y por sus subgesores, de nunca en ningund tienpo, 
venir contra el, en todo ni en parte, por sy ni por otro. en juizio ni fuera del, 
por ninguna via, forma, modo, ni manera que sea y pensar se pueda. y que, 
por sy ni por otro, no pediran, en ningund tienpo, rrelaxacion del dicho 
juramento, y que puesto que nuestro muy Santo Padre, syn ser pedida [sic] 
por ellos, ni alguno dellos, gelo rrelaxe, que no lo agebtaran, ni usaran, de 
la tal rrelaxacjon, en ningund tienpo, ni se ayudaran, ni aprovecharan della, 
por ninguna manera ni via que sea, en juizio ni fuera del. 

10. Iten, 8 " que, para mayor firmeza e validation deste asiento y contrato 
y de lo en el contenido, anbos los dichos senores Enperador y Rey de Castilla 
y Rey de Portugal den petigion y suplicagion a su Santidad para que lo 
aprueve e confirme, e mande despachar las bullas de la dicha confirmation 
e aprovagion, selladas con su sello, inserto en ellas este contrato y asiento 
de verbo ad verbum, y que se ponga en ellas sentengia de excomunion, 
asy a las partes pringipales commo a qualesquier otras personas queste dicho 
asiento y contrato no guardaren y cunplieren, y contra el fueren, en parte 
o en todo, por qualquier via, modo, o manera que sea, en la qual sentengia 
de excomunion declare y mande que yncurran ypso fatto los que contra el 
dicho contrato fueren, en todo o en parte del, por la manera suso dicha, 
syn para ello ser rrequiridos ni ser negesaria otra sentengia de excomunion 
ni declaration della, y que, en caso que por alguna causa o respetto su Santidad 
no quiera a provar e. confirmar este dicho contrato y asiento, o se dexe de 
confirmar por otra qualquier cabsa, pensada o no pensada, que toda via quede 
firme y valedero, commo sy no f uese asentado que sea aprovado e confirmado 
por su Santidad. commo dicho es. 

11. Iten, 40 es asentado y congertado que en las provisiones y cartas que 
gerca deste asiento y contrato ha de dar y despachar el dicho senor Enperador 
y Rey de Castilla, se ponga y diga que lo que, segund dicho es, se asienta y 
generales con consentimiento espreso de los procuradores dellas, y que, 
para validation dello, de su poderio rreal absolute, de que commo rey e senor 
natural, no reconogiente superior en lo tenporal, quiere usar e usa, abroga e 
deroga, casa y anula la suplicagion que los procuradores de las gibdades y 
villas destos rreynos en las cortes que se gelebraron en la gibdad de Toledo 
el ano pasado de quinientos y veinte y ginco le hizieron, gerca de lo tocante 
a la contratagion de las dichas yslas y tierras, e la respuesta que a ella dio, 
capitula y contrata, valga bien, asi commo sy fuese hecho y pasado en cortes 

37 This article corresponds to Doc. 16, art. 10. 
:| * This article corresponds to Doc. 16, art. 16. 
* This article corresponds to Doc. 16, art. 17. 
"This article corresponds to Doc. 16, art. n. 



Saragossa, 1529 157 

y qualquier ley que en las dichas cortes sobre ello se hizo, y todas las otras 
que a esto puedan ostar. 41 

12. Yten, 41 quel dicho Senor Enperador e Rey de Castilla, por mas 
seguridad de lo contenido en este asiento y contentamiento del dicho Senor 
Rey de Portugal, y porque por su parte le ha sydo pedido, mandara que los 
del su consejo rreal vean sy este asiento y concjerto puede haser sin aprovacjon 
y otorgamiento de los pueblos del rreyno, y que sy hallaren que se puede hazer 
sin la dicha aprovagion e otorgamiento, lo den firmado de sus nonbres ocho 
o diez dellos. 

13. Yten, 43 es asentado y concordado que las capitulacjones hechas entre 
los dichos Reyes Catolicos y el dicho Rey Don Juan de Portugal sobre la 
demarcation del mar oc.eano se guarden y queden en su fuerga e vigor, salvo 
en aquellas cosas y cases que por este asiento van de otra manera asentados 
y declarados, para que aquellas se guarden durante el tienpo deste enpeno 
e rretrovendendo, commo dicho es, y despues las dichas capitulacjones en- 
teramente commo en ellas se contiene. 

14. Iten, 44 que el dicho Senor Rey de Portugal, porque se escusen las 
particulars querellas que el dicho Senor Enperador y Rey de Castilla con- 
tinuamente tiene de sus subditos y de otros de fuera de sus rreinos, que le 
vinieron a servir, que se quexan que en su Casa de la India 4 " y en su rreyno 
les tienen enbaragadas sus haziendas, promete de mandar hazer clara y 
abierta y breve justicja, syn tener respetto a enojo que dellos se pueda tener, 
por aver servido e venido a servir al dicho senor enperador. 

15. Iten, 4 * es concordado y asentado que puesto quel derecho quel dicho 
Senor Enperador e Rey de Castilla pretenda tener a lo que por este asiento 
y contrato da en el dicho enpeno y contrato de rretro vendendo, commo 
arriba esta dicho, sepa gierto y de gierta sabiduria por cjerta ynformac.ion 
de personas que lo saben y entienden, que es de mucho mayor valor y estima- 
cjon y allende de la mitad del justo pregio de los dichos trezientos e c.inquenta 
mill ducados quel dicho Senor Rey de Portugal le da por el dicho enpeno 
e rretrovendendo que al dicho Senor Enperador e Rey de Castilla le plaze 
de hazer donation al dicho Senor Rey de Portugal y a sus herederos y 
subqesores y a la corona de sus rreynos, commo de hecho la haze, desde agora 
para todo sienpre entre vivos de la dicha mas estimation e valor de lo que 
el dicho derecho que asi le enpena y vende con la dicha condition vale allende 
de la mitad del justo precjo por mucha mayor cantidad y valor que sea, la 
qual dicha mayor valor y estimation allende de la mitad del justo precjo el 
dicho Senor Enperador e Rey de Castilla renuncja e quita e aparta de sy e 
de sus subgesores y desmienbra de la corona de sus rreynos para sienpre 
durante el dicho enpeno y venta de rretrovendendo y lo traspasa todo por 
virtud desta donation y contrato al dicho Senor Rey de Portugal y a sus 

41 The cuadernos of the Cortes held at Toledo in 1525 do not include the petition here 
mentioned. Cortes de Leon y de Castilla, IV. 404 ff. 

The provisions of this article are omitted from the ratified treaty. See Doc. 16, 
introduction. 

"This article corresponds to Doc. 16, art. 13. 

44 This article corresponds to Doc. 16, art. 12. 

41 The Portuguese House of India (Casa da India) and House of Guinea dealt with 
the cargoes destined for and received from India. Ch. de Lannoy and H. Vander 
Linden, L Expansion Coloniale: Portugal et Espagne (1907), p. 83. 

**This article corresponds to Doc. 16, art. 14. 



158 Doc. 75. Spain Portugal 

herederos y subgesores y en la corona de sus reinos para sienpre jamas rreal- 
mente y con ef etto, durante el dicho tienpo. 

1 6. Yten, 4< es asentado y concordado que qualquiera de las dichas 
partes que contra lo contenido en este asiento y contrato o alguna cosa dello 
f uere o pasare por qualquier manera, pensada o no pensada, por el mismo caso 
pierda todo el derecho que toviere a lo suso dicho por qualquiera via, modo, 
o manera que sea, y asi mismo qualquier otro derecho que toviere por virtud 
deste contrato durante el dicho enpeno y rretrovendendo, y que todo luego 
quede aplicado, junto, e adquerido a la parte que por este contrato estoviere, 
y lo guardare y no contra viniere, a el y a la corona de sus rreynos averi- 
guandose y provandose primeramente el mandado de la parte que contravi- 
niere, y que provandose y averiguandose primeramente commo dicho es quel 
dicho Serior Enperador y Rey de Castilla ha contravenido por su parte a lo 
suso dicho que en tal caso quede luego rresoluto este contrato de enpeno y 
rretrovendendo e la venta pura y linpia commo si al pringipio fuera fecha, sin 
condigion alguna, e que porque lo contenido en esta capitulagion y asiento 
sea mas firme e valedero e se guarde para sienpre, los dichos senores rreyes 
se obliguen por sy e por sus subgesores, que qualquier dellos que contra ello 
fuere, en qualquier manera que sea, pagara a la parte que lo guardare cient 
mill ducados de pena y en nonbre de pena, e interese en la qual yncurra, tantas 
vezes quantas contra lo contenido en este asiento y contrato fuere en parte 
o en todo, averiguando y provandose primeramente, commo dicho es el 
mandado de la parte que contravinierc, y que la pena llevada o no llevada, 
todavia el dicho contrato quede firme y valedero para sienpre durante el 
dicho enpeno y venta de rretrovendendo, para lo qual obliguen todos sus bienes 
patrimoniales y fiscales. 

Los quales dichos capitulos de suso escripttos, y todas las cosas en ellos y 
en cada uno dellos contenidos, los dichos senores Grand Changiller y Obispo 
de Osma, del consejo y procuradores de los dichos muy altos y muy poderosos 
senores Enperador e Reyes de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, de las Dos 
Segilias, de Jherusalem, etc., y el dicho senor Antonio Dazevedo, contino, del 
consejo y procurador del dicho muy alto e muy poderoso senor Rey de 
Portugal y de los Alg arves, etc., en nonbre de los dichos senores sus con- 
stituyentes, por virtud de los dichos poderes a ellos dados e otorgados, que 
de suso van encorporados, dixieron que se obligaban y obligaron, e prometian 
y prometieron, y aseguraron, en el dicho nonbre, que los dichos senores, sus 
constituyentes, y cada uno dellos haran, cttnpliran, e guardaran e pagaran, 
rrealmente y con ef etto, gesante todo f raude, dolo, y cautela, todo lo contenido 
en esta capitulagion y asiento y congierto, conviene a saber, cada uno dellos 
lo que le pertenege e incumbe e toca de hazer, cunplir, e guardar y pagar, 
segund y en la forma e manera que en ella se contiene, y que no yran ni 
vernan contra ello, ni contra cosa alguna ni parte dello, en tienpo alguno ni 
por alguna manera, por sy ni por otro, direte ni indirete, ni por ninguna 
via, pensada o no pensada, so las penas en esta capitulagion contenidas. 
Dixeron que obligaban e obligaron los bienes de los dichos senores, sus con 
stituyentes, patrimoniales y de las coronas de sus rreynos, y, por mayor 
firmeza e validagion de todo lo suso dicho, juraron a Dios y a Santa Maria 
y a la serial de la Cruz >fr en que corporalmente tocaron sus manos derechas, 
en nonbre y en las animas de los dichos senores, sus constituyentes, por virtud 

47 This article corresponds to Doc. 16, art. 15. 



Saragassa, 1529 159 

de los dichos poderes, que ellos y cada uno dellos ternan, manternan, y 
guardaran ynbiolablemente esta dicha capitulation y todo lo en ella contenido 
y cada cosa y parte dello a buena fee, syn mal engano, e sin arte ni cabtela 
alguna, y prometian e prometieron y se obligaron en el dicho nonbre que los 
dichos senores, sus constituyentes, aprovaran e rratificaran, firmaran y 
otorgaran de nuevo, esta capitulation y todo lo en ella contenido, y cada 
cosa y parte dello, y prometeran y [se] obligaran e juraran de la guardar y 
cunplir, cada una de las partes por lo que a el incunbe y atane de hazer, y que 
daran y entregaran y haran dar y entregar, cada una dellas a la otra, 
aprovacjon y rratificacjon desta dicha capitulation y de lo en ella contenido, 
jurada y firmada de su nonbre, y sellada con su sello, desdel dia de la fecha 
desta capitulation en veynte dias luego siguientes, en firmeza de lo qual los 
dichos senores procuradores otorgaron dos escriptturas de un thenor, tal la 
una commo la otra, y firmaron sus nonbres en el rregistro, y las otorgaron 
ante mi, el dicho secretario, Francisco de los Covos, escrivano e notario 
publico de suso escripto, y de los testigos de yuso escriptos, para cada una 
de las dichas partes la suya, para que qualquiera que parezca, valga commo 
sy anbas a dos parecjesen, que fecha y otorgada en la dicha cjbdad de Qaragoga 
al dicho dia, mes, y ano suso dicho. Testigos que fueron presentes al otorga- 
miento desta escriptura, e vieron firmar en ella a todos los dichos senores 
procuradores, y los vieron jurar corporalmente en manos de mi, el dicho 
secretario, Hernando Rodriguez de Sevilla, prothonotario apostolico, y Alvaro 
Pexoto, y Hernando Rodriguez, criados del dicho senor enbaxador y pro- 
curador del dicho senor Rey de Portugal, y Graviel Calderon, y Alonso de 
Ydiaquez, criados de mi, el dicho secretario. 

MERCURINUS, cancellarius. 

FR. G[ARCIA], episcopus Oxomenfsis]. 

ANTONIO DAZEVEDO, continho. 



TRANSLATION. 

In the name of God Almighty, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, three Persons 
and only one true God. Be it known and manifest to all who shall see this 
public instrument, that in the city of Saragossa, on the seventeenth day of 
the month of April, in the year of the nativity of our Savior Jesus Christ, 
1529, in the presence of me, Francisco de los Cobos, secretary and member 
of the council of the Emperor and Queen and King of Castile, and their 
scrivener and notary public in their court and in all their kingdoms and 
lordships, there being present_ and assembled their worships the Grand 
Chancellor, Mercurino de Gattinara, count of Gattinara, and the very rever 
end Don Fray Garcia de Loaysa, bishop of Osma, confessor, both members 
of the council of the very exalted and very mighty princes, Don Charles, 
by divine clemency emperor ever august, king of Germany, and Dona Joanna, 
his mother, and the same Don Charles, her son, by the grace of God king 
and queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, the Two Sicilies, Jerusalem, Navarre, 
Granada, etc., their qualified representatives, on the one part, and Senor 
Antonio d Azevedo, contino, member of the council and ambassador of the 
very exalted and very mighty lord, Dom John, by the grace of God king of 
Portugal, of the Algarves on this side and beyond the sea in Africa, lord 
of Guinea and of the conquest, navigation, and commerce of Ethiopia, 



160 Doc. 75. Spain Portugal 

Arabia, Persia, and India, etc., his qualified representative, on the other part, 
they declared that, inasmuch as there has been debate and negotiation between 
the said very exalted and very mighty Catholic lords, the emperor and king 
and queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, the Two Sicilies, Jerusalem, etc., and the 
said very exalted and very mighty lord, Dom John, king of Portugal and of 
the Algarves, etc., about concluding a certain treaty, agreement, pledge, and 
retrovendendo in respect to the Molucca Islands and other lands and seas 
of the Indies, to which each of them claims to have the right, seeing that 
it might be accomplished for the service of God, our Lord, and for the well- 
being of their kingdoms and for the preservation of the friendship, rela 
tionship, and love that exist between them, and in order that they may under 
take, negotiate, conclude, make, and adjust the said treaty, agreement, and 
pledge of retrovendendo between their said constituents, these have given 
them their full powers, signed with their names and sealed with their seals, 
as is more fully stated in the said powers, which both the said parties showed, 
signed by the said lord Emperor and King of Castile, and by the said lord 
King of Portugal, sealed with their seals, as is said, the tenor of which, word 
for word, one after the other, is as follows : 

[Here follow the full powers granted by the Emperor Charles V. and 
Queen Joanna of Castile to the Count of Gattinara and the Bishop of Osma 
on April 1.4, 1529; and the full powers granted by John III. of Portugal 
to Antonio d Azevedo, on October 18, 1528.] 

Therefore the said lords, the grand chancellor and the bishop of Osma, 
members of the council of the said very exalted and very mighty lord 
Emperor and King and Queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, the Two Sicilies, 
Jerusalem, etc., and their representatives, and the said Senor Antonio 
d Azevedo, contino, member of the council of the said very exalted and very 
mighty lord King of Portugal and of the Algarves, etc., and his representative, 
by virtue of the said powers, incorporated above and making use of them, 
adjusted, agreed, concluded, and executed, in the name of the said lords, 
their constituents, the articles that will be set forth below, as follows : 

i. First, it is covenanted and agreed that the said lord Emperor and 
King of Castile gives to the said lord King of Portugal in pledge and sale 
of retrovendendo the right that the emperor has to the Molucca Islands and 
to trade and commerce in the other neighboring islands and lands, lying 
and included within the line that is to be drawn in the method and manner 
to be set forth below, for the sum and amount of 350,000 ducats of gold, 
of due weight, each ducat being of 375 maravedis of Castilian money. This 
sum the said lord King of Portugal is to give to the said lord Emperor and 
King of Castile, paid as follows : within the thirty days next following the 
day on which this treaty shall be executed, 250,000 ducats, paid in Castile 
or in Lisbon, where the said lord King of Portugal shall be better able to 
deliver them, in money of gold, of due weight, or their just value in silver 
money ; and the remaining 100,000 ducats at the May fair of Medina del 
Campo in this present year, at the time of the payments of the said fair, in 
the form and manner aforesaid. He is to pay the first said 250,000 ducats, 
which shall all be delivered and paid at the same time, in cash, and over and 
above the exchange ; and those that should be paid in Portugal will be paid 
to the person or persons whom the said lord Emperor and King of Castile 
shall name for that purpose, in money that is worth in Castile the said 375 



Saragassa, 1529 101 

maravedis per ducat. The said lord Emperor and King of Castile makes the 
said pledge and sale of retrovcndendo to the said lord King of Portugal, as 
aforesaid, with the stipulation and condition that whenever and at what 
ever time the said lord Emperor and King of Castile, or his heirs or suc 
cessors in the kingdoms of Castile, shall wish to release, to pay off the pledge, 
and to redeem the said right which thus he pledges and sells as aforesaid, this 
may be done by returning the amount which is thus received, and the said 
lord King of Portugal shall be obliged to receive it. The right of the said 
lord Emperor and King of Castile, as well as of the said lord King of 
Portugal, and their successors, shall remain in full force, in the same condition 
and under the same form as they had it at first, and this right shall not have 
suffered or undergone, nor shall it suffer or undergo, any prejudice or inno 
vation by virtue of this contract and agreement. 

2. Item, it is agreed and covenanted that there shall be drawn, and 
henceforth there shall be considered as drawn, a semicircular line from pole 
to pole, 17 degrees (which equal 297^ leagues) east of the Moluccas. It 
is said that this same line will pass through the islands of Santo Thome de las 
Velas, which are on this meridian northeast by east from the Moluccas. It 
is likewise said that they are 19 distant from the Moluccas in this northeast 
and southwest course. In case that the said islands of Santo Thome de las 
\ 7 elas lie, or be situated, a greater or a less distance from the Moluccas, 
nevertheless the said line shall be drawn the said 2971/2 leagues farther east, 
which equal the said 19 to the northeast of the aforesaid Molucca Islands. 
In order that it may be known where the said line falls, a model map shall 
at once be made on which the said line shall be drawn in the manner aforesaid, 
and it will thus be agreed to as a declaration of the point and place through 
which the line passes. This map shall be signed by the said lord Emperor and 
King of Castile, and by the said lord King of Portugal, and sealed with their 
seals. In the same manner, and in accordance with the said model map, 
the said line shall be drawn on all the navigation charts whereby the subjects 
and natives of the kingdoms of the said lord Emperor and King of Castile 
and of the said lord King of Portugal shall navigate. In order to make 
the said model map, three persons shall be named by each of the said lord 
kings to make the said map upon oath, and they shall make the said line in 
conformity to what has been said above. When the map has thus been made, 
the said lord Emperor and King of Castile and the said lord King of 
Portugal shall sign it with their names, and shall order it to be sealed with the 
seals of their arms ; and the said marine charts shall be made from it as 
aforesaid, in order that the subjects and natives of the said lord kings may 
navigate by them so long as the said lord King of Castile shall not redeem 
and buy back the said right. But if he redeem and ransom his right, after 
the completion of this treaty and contract and of such model map and 
marine charts as shall thus be made in conformity with the aforesaid, no 
prejudice to the right of either party shall result, but in spite of this every 
thing shall remain in its present state ; and so long as for any cause whatever 
the said model map shall not be made, the said line shall be drawn immediately 
after the execution of this contract; and those who pass it shall incur the 
penalties that shall be set forth below, according to and in the form and 
manner hereafter to be declared. 

3. Item, it is agreed and covenanted that the fleets and ships of the 
said lord Emperor and King of Castile, or of his subjects, or of others acting 



162 Doc. 75. Spain Portugal 

by his command, consent, favor, or aid, may not trade or traffic or take on 
cargo in any of the islands or lands that fall within the said line. If after 
this agreement any subjects of the said lord Emperor and King of Castile, 
or any other persons, shall be taken within the said limits bartering, trafficking, 
trading, or taking on cargo, they may be taken prisoners by the captains and 
people of the said lord king and tried and punished in accordance with 
justice. They may treat in the same way those who shall be proved to 
have trafficked, bartered, traded, and taken on cargo within the said limits, 
after the signing of this treaty, even though they shall not have been found 
or taken within them. If any subjects of the said lord Emperor and King 
of Castile, or any other persons, shall bring spices or drugs of any sort 
whatsoever into any ports or places to which they shall arrive or come, be 
longing to either of the said lord kings or to others, who may not be enemies, 
they shall be placed in deposit and under embargo by both the said lord kings, 
until it shall be known from whose demarcation they were taken and brought ; 
and when that is known and determined, they, or their true value, shall be 
delivered without any delay to whomsoever they may belong. To ascertain 
whether the place and land whence the said spices and drugs shall be brought 
fall within the demarcation and limits that, in accordance with this contract, 
should belong to the said lord Emperor and King of Castile, the said lord 
kings shall send two or four ships one sending as many as the other in 
which persons, skilful and intelligent in that art, as many of one party as 
of the other, shall go to the said places and lands (whence the aforesaid 
subjects or others shall say that they obtained and brought the said spices 
and drugs), in order to see and determine in whose demarcation the said 
lands fall, where it shall be said that the said spices and drugs were thus 
obtained. If they find that the said lands and places fall within the demar 
cation of the said lord King of Castile, and contain such a quantity of the 
said spices and drugs that they might credibly have been drawn thence, the 
said lord King of Portugal shall be obliged to restore them or their just 
value, if they were sequestrated in his realms. If it shall be discovered and 
determined that they were found in and brought from lands within the 
demarcation of the said Most Serene King of Portugal, he shall not be 
obliged to return them, and if they shall have been sequestrated in the 
kingdoms of the said lord Emperor and King of Castile, he shall be obliged 
to return and restore them immediately to the said lord King of Portugal. 
The same procedure shall be followed if they are sequestrated in any king 
doms or lands whatsoever that do not belong to the said lord kings. Within 
half a year after the said spices and drugs shall have been sequestrated, as 
aforesaid, the said lord kings shall be obliged to despatch the said ships and 
persons to make the said investigation, as aforesaid ; and so long as the said 
spices and drugs shall have been embargoed and sequestrated, as aforesaid, 
neither the said lord Emperor and King of Castile, nor any other person for 
him or with his favor or consent, shall go or send to the said land, or lands, 
from which the said spices and drugs shall come, and he shall be obliged to 
order those who go or pass contrary to the aforesaid to be punished, in 
accordance with justice, as malefactors and disturbers of faith and peace. 
But it shall be understood that navigation through the South Sea should 
and shall be free to the said lord Emperor and King of Castile and to his 
subjects, so that they may be able to navigate and trade that way in accord 
ance with the agreement made between the Catholic sovereigns and King 



Saragossa, 1529 

Dom John of Portugal may he rest in glory provided that they shall not 
be able to enter or pass, nor shall they enter or pass, the seas beyond the said 
line, except on account of foul weather, need of provisions, or through 
ignorance, because of not knowing the said line. In such cases the ships of 
the said lord Emperor and King of Castile, and of his subjects, thus entering 
within the said line, shall not incur the said penalties, but if they find any 
lands or islands within the said line, they shall not trade in them, but shall 
immediately leave and depart from them, and from the said line, so that 
such lands or islands may be undisturbed for the said lord King of Portugal 
during this contract, as aforesaid, as if they had been discovered and found 
by his captains and people. If for the sake of anchorage, or on account of 
necessity or foul weather, the said ships of the said lord Emperor and King of 
Castile or of his subjects should come to any land lying within the said line, 
and by virtue of this agreement pertaining to the said lord King of Portugal, 
they shall be treated by the inhabitants of the land as vassals of his [i. c., the 
Emperor s] brother, and in the same manner as the said lord Emperor and 
King of Castile would order the King of Portugal s subjects to be treated, 
who should in like manner make port in his lands of New Spain, or in other 
lands in those parts. It shall be understood, that they shall incur the said 
penalties in so far as it is not clearly evident that the said ships and their 
crews entered the seas and lands situated within the said line on account of 
the said ignorance, necessity, or foul weather, or unless they depart when the 
said necessity is over ; except that the vessels and ships of the said lord King 
of Castile, and of his subjects, vassals, and people, may and shall navigate 
through the seas of the said lord King of Portugal, through which his fleets 
sail to India, but only so far as shall be necessary in order to hold their 
direct course through the Straits of Magellan. If they act contrary to this 
by navigating farther through the said seas, they shall incur the said penalties, 
with exemption in this case likewise of what is done because of ignorance, 
necessity, or foul weather, as aforesaid. If it shall first be proved upon 
investigation, that the aforesaid [agreement] has been violated by command 
of the said lord Emperor and King of Castile, or with his favor, aid, or 
consent, he shall in such case immediately lose the right that he might have 
for such navigation, and that right shall be assigned to the other party, who 
shall hold and keep it by this contract, and this pledge and retrovendendo 
shall be dissolved, and the sale shall be pure and simple, as though it had been 
made unconditional at the start. Similarly the said lord King of Portugal 
must and shall incur the said penalty, if it be found that he has in any way 
violated what he, on his side, is bound to observe and perform. 

4. Item, it is agreed and covenanted, with respect to the agreement, 
that if, after this treaty, any subjects of the said lord Emperor and King of 
Castile, or any others, shall be caught bartering, trafficking, trading or taking 
on cargo, within the said limits, they shall be taken by the captains and people 
of the said lord King of Portugal and tried and punished in accordance with 
justice, and that the latter may treat in the same way those proved to have 
trafficked, bartered, traded, and taken on cargo after this treaty within the 
said limits, even though they have not been found or taken within them, and 
the rest agreed to by this contract touching the prohibition of crossing the 
said line by any subjects of the said lord Emperor and King of Castile, or 
any others by his command, consent, favor, or aid, and the penalties attached 
thereto: although the expression "after this treaty" is used above, this 



Doc. 75. Spain Portugal 

shall be understood to mean, from and after the day when the subjects and 
people of the said lord Emperor, now in and navigating those seas and 
regions shall be notified and that before the notification they shall not 
incur the said penalties. This, however, shall be understood as referring to 
the people of his Majesty s fleets hitherto despatched to those parts. From 
and after the day of the execution of this contract, during the period of the 
said pledge and retrovendendo, he may not despatch any other new expedi 
tions without incurring the said penalties. 

5. Item, because the said lord Emperor and King of Castile and the 
lord King of Portugal desire their right to the said islands to be determined, 
it is agreed and covenanted that in order to determine the right that each 
of them claims to have to the said Moluccas and other islands, which each 
asserts are within his limits and demarcation, an equal number of astrologers, 
pilots, or mariners, shall be named by each side within one, two, three, or 
more years, as the said lord King of Portugal shall wish, to examine the 
claim of both parties as to ownership, in accordance with the agreement 
made between the said Catholic kings and the said King Dom John of 
Portugal, and with the reply given in Segovia by the said lord Emperor and 
King of Castile, which accords with right and with the said agreement. 
After they shall begin the inquiry they shall not relinquish it before pro 
nouncing sentence in favor of him who seems to them to have the right. In 
case the decision shall be in favor of the said lord Emperor and King of 
Castile, or of his successors, the sentence pronounced shall not be executed 
until he shall first actually return the said 350,000 ducats received for the 
said pledge and sale of retrovendendo. In case the sentence shall be in favor 
of the said lord King of Portugal, or of his successors, the said lord Emperor 
and King of Castile shall be obliged, within the first four years following 
the decision, to return and restore to him the said 350,000 ducats, given by the 
said lord King of Portugal for the said pledge and sale. 

6. Moreover, it is covenanted and agreed that the said lord King of 
Portugal neither may nor shall build de novo any fortress, or other edifice 
that may be fortified, in the said Molucca Islands, or in the other lands 
within the said line, or in any part of the regions included within the line. 
As to the present fortress built in one of the said Molucca Islands by the 
said lord King of Portugal, it shall be left standing during the said period 
of the pledge in the state and condition in which it shall be in a year and a 
half from the day when this treaty shall be executed and signed, without 
any more new work or construction on it than shall keep it in the state in 
which it shall be at the said time. Within the said period, the said lord king 
will be able to order his captains and people, whom he has in those parts, 
to be notified of that which by this treaty he is obliged to keep and observe 
in this respect; and the said lord King of Portugal shall swear and promise 
to observe it thus. 

7. Item, it is agreed that the fleets, which the said lord Emperor and 
King of Castile has hitherto despatched to the said regions, shall be well 
regarded, treated, and favored by the said lord King of Portugal and his 
people. No obstruction or hindrance shall be opposed to their navigation 
and trade, and if they shall have received, or shall receive, any harm from 
the King of Portugal s captains or people, which is incredible, or if these 
latter shall have taken anything from them, the said lord King of Portugal 
shall be obliged to give satisfaction, restore, make good, and pay immediately 



Saragassa, 1529 1G5 

all such damages suffered by the said lord Emperor and King; of Castile and 
his fleet and subjects, and to order the offenders to be punished and chas 
tised and to arrange that the fleets and people of the said lord Emperor and 
King of Castile may come when they please, freely, without any impediment. 

8. Item, it is agreed that the said lord Emperor and King of Castile 
shall order his letters and instructions to be given immediately to his captains 
and people, who shall be in the said islands, commanding them to return at 
once, and trade there no more, provided that they be allowed to bring freely 
what they shall have already bartered, traded, and shipped. 

9. Item, it is agreed that both the said lord Emperor and King of Cas 
tile and the lord King of Portugal, and each of them, shall solemnly 
swear to observe and fulfill this treaty and contract, and all contained therein, 
and shall promise by the said oath, for themselves and for their successors, 
never, at any time, to violate it, in whole or in part, by themselves, or by 
another, in court or out, in any way, shape, form, or manner that may be, 
or may be thought of, and that never at any time, by themselves, or by 
another, will they seek release from the said oath ; and even though our 
Very Holy Father, without being asked by them or either of them, shall 
release them from it, they will not at any time accept or avail themselves of 
such release, or help themselves by it, or take advantage of it, in any way or 
manner whatsoever, in court or out. 

10. Item, [it is agreed] that in order further to strengthen and validate 
this treaty and contract and its contents, both the said lord Emperor and 
King of Castile and the lord King of Portugal shall petition and implore 
his Holiness to approve and confirm it and order bulls of the said confirma 
tion and approval to be despatched, sealed with his seal, and having this 
contract and treaty inserted verbatim in them ; and that sentence of excom 
munication shall be imposed in the bulls both against the principal parties and 
against all other persons who shall not observe and fulfill this said treaty 
and contract, but shall violate it in part or in whole, in any way, shape, or 
manner whatsoever. In this sentence of excommunication his Holiness shall 
declare and ordain that those who shall violate the said contract, in whole or 
in part, in the manner aforesaid, shall, ipso facto, incur excommunication, no 
other sentence of excommunication, or declaration thereof, being required 
or necessary for that purpose. If for any cause or consideration his Holiness 
shall not wish to approve and confirm this said contract and agreement, or 
if for any other cause whatsoever, premeditated or unpremeditated, it shall 
not be confirmed, it shall nevertheless be firm and valid as if there had been 
no agreement that his Holiness should approve and confirm it as aforesaid. 

11. Item, it is agreed and covenanted that in the instructions and letters 
that the said lord Emperor and King of Castile is to give and despatch in 
regard to this treaty and contract, it shall be set down and declared that what 
is adjusted and concluded and contracted, as aforesaid, shall be as binding 
as if it had been made and executed in the General Cortes with the express 
consent of the deputies of that body, and that, in order to validate it, by 
his absolute royal power, which as king and natural lord, recognizing no 
superior in temporal affairs, he wishes to exercise and does exercise, he 
abrogates, repeals, abolishes, and annuls the petition concerning the trade 
of the said islands and lands made to him by the deputies of the cities and 
towns of those realms in the Cortes held in the city of Toledo, the past year, 
1525; and [he abrogates] the reply that he gave to the petition and any law 



160 Doc, 75. Spain Portugal 

made in the said Cortes on this matter, and all other laws that may conflict 
with this. 

12. Item, [it ^s agreed] that for the greater security of the contents of 
this treaty, and the satisfaction of the said lord King of Portugal, and 
because the emperor has been asked on [the King of Portugal s] behalf, 
the said lord Emperor and King of Castile will order the members of his 
royal council to ascertain whether this agreement and contract can be made 
without the approval and license of the towns of the realm. If they shall 
find that it can be made without the said approval and license, eight or ten 
of them shall give the decision, signed with their names. 

13. Item, it is agreed and covenanted that the agreements concluded 
between the said Catholic sovereigns and the said King Dom John of Portugal 
in regard to the demarcation of the ocean sea shall be observed and shall 
remain in force and effect, save in those matters and cases which are other 
wise settled and determined by this treaty, so that those agreements shall 
be observed during the period of this pledge and sale of retrovcndendo, 
as aforesaid, and afterwards the said agreements shall be observed in their 
entirety. 

14. Item, [it is agreed] that the said lord King of Portugal promises 
to command manifest, sincere, and summary justice to be done, in order 
to put an end to the individual complaints that the said lord Emperor and 
King of Castile continually receives from his subjects and others, aliens to 
his realms, but in his service, who complain that their possessions have been 
seized by the former s India House of Trade, and in his kingdom, without 
regard to the annoyance caused them thereby, because they have served the 
said lord emperor, and have entered his service. 

15. Item, it is covenanted and agreed, that, although the said lord 
Emperor and King of Castile has certain definite knowledge through exact 
information from persons who know and understand the matter, that the 
right which the said lord Emperor and King of Castile claims to have to that 
which he gives in the said pledge and contract of retrovcndendo by this 
agreement and contract as aforesaid, is of much greater value and worth and 
more than the half of the just price the said 350,000 ducats that the 
said lord King of Portugal gives to him for the said pledge and retrovcndendo, 
the said lord Emperor and King of Castile is pleased to make a gift to the 
said lord King of Portugal and to his heirs and successors, and to the crown 
of his kingdoms as in fact he does make it, henceforth for all time, among the 
living of the said excess in value and worth that the said right, which he 
thus pledges and conditionally sells, is worth above the half of the just price, 
however much greater the amount and value may be. The said greater 
value and worth beyond the half of the just price, the said lord Emperor and 
King of Castile renounces and gives up for himself, and his successors, and 
separates it from the crown of his kingdoms, forever during the period of the 
said pledge and sale of retrovendendo, and by virtue of this gift and con 
tract he transfers it all to the said lord King of Portugal, and to his heirs 
and successors, and to the crown of his kingdoms forever, really and effect 
ually, during the said time. 

16. Item, it is agreed and covenanted that whichever of the said parties 
shall violate or refute the contents of this treaty and contract, or any part 
thereof, in any manner, premeditated or unpremeditated, he shall, thereby, 
lose all the right that, in any way, shape, or manner whatsoever, he shall have 



Saragossa, 1529 167 



to the aforesaid, and likewise any other right he shall have by virtue of this 
contract during the said pledge and sale of retrovendendo. The whole shall 
be immediately adjudged and given to, and acquired by the party who shall 
abide by this contract and observe and not violate it, to him and to the crown 
of his realms, after the mandate of the party who shall violate it has been first 
investigated and proved. When it has been proved and found as aforesaid 
that the said lord Emperor and King of Castile has, on his part, violated the 
aforesaid, in that case this contract of pledge and retrovendendo shall be 
immediately dissolved, and the sale shall be pure and simple, as if it had been 
made at the beginning without any condition. In order that the contents of 
this agreement and treaty may be more binding and valid and in order that 
it may be observed forever, the said lords kings shall bind themselves, for 
themselves and their successors, that whichever of them shall violate it, in 
any manner whatsoever, he will pay to the party who shall abide by it, 100,000 
ducats, as a penalty, and under the name of fine and interest. This fine he 
shall incur as of^ten as he shall violate the contents of this treaty and con 
tract, in part or in whole, after, as has been said, the mandate of the party 
who shall violate it has been investigated and proved. Whether the fine is 
exacted or not, the said contract shall remain secure and valid forever, during 
the said pledge and sale of retrovendendo. For this they shall pledge all 
their patrimonial and fiscal possessions. 

In regard to the above-written articles and all the matters contained in them 
and each of them, the said Grand Chancellor and Bishop of Osma, members 
of the council and representatives of the said very exalted and very mighty 
lords, the Emperor and King and Queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, the Two 
Sicilies, Jerusalem, etc., and the said Lord Antonio d Azevedo, contino, 
member of the council, and representative of the said very exalted and very 
mighty lord King of Portugal and of the Algarves, etc., in the name of the 
said lords, their constituents, by virtue of the said powers given to them 
and executed, which are incorporated above, declared that they bound them 
selves, and they did bind themselves, and promised, and they did promise 
and affirm, in the said name, that the said lords, their constituents, and each 
of them, shall do, fulfill, observe, and pay, really and in truth, renouncing 
all deception, evasion, and mental reservation, everything contained in this 
treaty, agreement, and bargain that is, each of them, what pertains to, is 
incumbent upon, and concerns him to do, fulfill, observe, and pay, according 
to and in the form and manner contained therein. They will not violate or 
refute it, or any part or parcel of it, at any time or in any manner, of them 
selves or through another, directly or indirectly, or in any way, premeditated 
or unpremeditated, under the penalties contained in this agreement. They 
said that they pledged, and they did pledge, the possessions of the said lords, 
their constituents, patrimonial and belonging to the crowns of their realms, 
and for the greater security and validity of all the aforesaid they swore 
before God and Holy Mary and upon the sign of the Cross, which they 
actually touched with their right hands, in the name and on the consciences 
of the said lords, their constituents, by virtue of the said powers, that they 
and each of them will inviolably hold, maintain, and observe this said agree 
ment, and everything contained therein, and each part and parcel of it, in 
good faith, without deception, evasion, or mental reservation whatsoever ; 
and they promised, and they did promise and bind themselves in the said 
name that the said lords, their constituents, will approve and ratify, and sign 



168 Doc. 75. Spain Portugal 

and execute anew this agreement and everything contained in it and each 
part and parcel of it, and they will promise, bind themselves, and swear to 
observe and fulfill it, each of the parties for that which is incumbent on and 
appertains to him to do ; and each of them will give and deliver, and will 
cause to be given and delivered to the other party, an approval and ratifica 
tion of this said agreement and of its contents, sworn to and signed with his 
name and sealed with his seal, within the twenty days immediately following 
the date of this agreement. To secure this, the said lord representatives 
executed two instruments of one tenor, both alike, and signed their names in 
the register, and executed them before me, the said secretary, Francisco de 
los Cobos, the scrivener and notary public whose name is above written, and 
before the undersigned witnesses, each of the said parties having his own 
instrument, so that, whichever shall be shown, it shall be as binding as though 
both were shown together. This was made and executed in the said city of 
Saragossa, on the day, month, and year abovesaid. Witnesses who were 
present at the execution of this instrument and saw all the said lord deputies 
sign it and saw them take the corporal oath before me, the said secretary, 
[were] Fernando Rodriguez de Sevilla, apostolic protonotary, and Alvaro 
Pexoto and Fernando Rodriguez, servants of the said lord ambassador and 
representative of the said lord King of Portugal, and Graniel Calderon and 
Alonso de Ydiaquez, servants of me, the said secretary. 

MERCURINO, chancellor. 

FRAY GARCIA, bishop of Osma. 

ANTONIO D AZEVEDO, contino. 



16. 

Treaty between Spain and Portugal concluded at Saragassa, April 
22, 1529. Ratification by Spain, April 23, 1529, and by 
Portugal, June 20, 1530. 

INTRODUCTION. 

The treaty concluded at Saragossa on April 17, 1529, by the plenipoten 
tiaries of Spain and Portugal, was not ratified. Five days later, in the same 
city, the same plenipotentiaries, with one additional representative of Spain, 
concluded a second treaty. This differed from the first in several particulars, 
most strikingly in the omission of the provisions of the twelfth article that 
the Emperor should order his Royal Council to find out whether the treaty 
could be legally made without the approval of the pueblos. The omission of 
this article is explained by a document preserved in the National Archives at 
Lisbon, which contains : ( I ) the decision reached by lawyers of the Royal 
Council to the effect that the Emperor and King of Castile might legally 
enter into the contract in respect to the Moluccas, and that the consent, 
authorization, and approbation of his towns were not necessary ; (2) the 
Emperor s confirmation and promise to regard the lawyers decision, and 
his abrogation of all contrary laws and regulations. The Emperor s letter is 
dated April 23, 1529.* 

Doc. 15. 

1 Garcia de Padilla, who signed the treaty of Vitoria, and was employed in the 
negotiations of 1526. See Doc. 13, note 16, and Doc. 14. 

" Don Carlos, por la divina clemencia etc. enperador semper augusto, rrey de 
Alemana, Dona Juana, su madre, y el mismo Don Carlos, su hijo, por la gracia de Dios 
rreyes de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, de las Dos Sicilias, de Jerusalem, de Navarra, de 
Granada, de Toledo, de Valencia, de Galizia, de Mallorcas, de Sevilla, de Cerdena, de 
Cordova, de Corcega, de Murcia, de Jaen, de los Algarves, de Algezira, y de Gibraltar, 
de las Islas de Canaria, de las Indias, Islas, e tierra firme del Mar Oceano, archiduques 
d Austria, duques de Borgona, y de Brabante, condes de Barcelona, Flandes, y Tirol, 
senores de Viscaya, y de Molina, duques de Atenas, y de Neopatria, condes de Ruysillon, 
y de Cerdenia, marquezes de Oristan, y de Gociano, etc. 

" Hacemos saber a los que esta nuestra carta vieren, que nos mandamos ver a los del 
nuestro Real Consejo cierta dubda, sy podriamos concordar e asentar con el Serenissimo, 
muy Alto, y muy Poderozo Rey de Portugal, nuestro muy caro, y muy amado hermano, 
sobre las Islas de Maluco, y otras islas, e mares y tierras a ellas comarcanas, y vimos 
su declaracion, y determination en las espaldas d esta nuestra carta escrita, y dada. y 
f echa por ellos, y la leimos, y entendimos : la qual aprovamos, confirmamos, e avemos 
por buena, firme, e valiosa, como en ella es contenido ; y estp sin enbargo de qualesquier 
leyes, derechos, hordenaciones, capitulos de Cortes, determinaciones, sentencias, glosas, 
hazanas, y opiniones de dottores, y de qualesquier otras cosas, que en contrario scan, o 
puedan ser, puesto que scan tales, que por derecho se deva hacer dellas espresa mencion, 
y derogation, y abrogamos, y derogamos, e avemos por casadas, e anulladas todas las 
leyes, e derecho, que en contrario scan, y las leyes, y direchos, que disponen que general 
renunciacion no vale : Y promettemos por nos, y por nuestros subcesores de nunca yr. 

169 



170 Doc. 16. Spain Portugal 

The treaty concluded on April 22, ratified by the Emperor on the following 
day and by the King of Portugal more than a year later, was disliked in 
Spain. As late as 1548, the Cortes petitioned the Emperor that the whole 
realm should redeem the Moluccas in order that Spain might have the 
benefit of their spice-trade, if only for six years. 4 

By the terms of the treaty of Saragossa, the Philippine Islands fell within 
the Portuguese demarcation; and when, in 1542-1543, Ruy Lopez de Villa- 
lobos led a colonizing expedition thither from New Spain, the Portuguese 
governor of the Moluccas protested vigorously, demanding his withdrawal 
on the ground that his occupation of the Philippines violated the aforesaid 
treaty. In 1568 a fruitless protest was made against Legazpi s colonization ; * 
in 1580 Spain s annexation of the Portuguese crown quieted the dispute. 
Upon the separation of the crowns in 1640, however, as the Portuguese 
claimed, " the conditions of the Deed of Saragossa gave rise to a new title 
by which Portugal [might] claim restitution of or equivalent for all that 
the Spaniards had occupied to the west " of the line fixed by this treaty. 1 
The controversy was not ended until 1750, when, by the first and second 
articles of a Spanish-Portuguese treaty signed at Madrid, it was stipulated 
that the demarcation lines provided for in the bull of Alexander VI. 8 and 

ny venir, ny consentir, ny premitir, que sea ydo, ny venido contra esta determinacion, ny 
parte alguna della, direte ny indirete en juizio ny fuera del, por causa algtina ny color, 
que sea, y pueda ser pensada, o no pensada ; y para certinidad, e firmeza de todo. 
mandamos pasar esta nuestra carta firmada de my, el Rey, y sellada con nuestro sello. 

" Dada en Lerida a veinte tres de Abril, ano del nascimiento de Nuestro Salvador 
Jesus Christo de mil e quinientos e veinte e nueve afios. Yo el Rey. Yo Francisco de 
los Covos, secretario de Sus Cesarea y Catholicas Magestades, la fize screvir por su 
mandado. Lugar do sello. Herbijna, chanciller. Registrada. Ydiaques. Mercurinus. 
cancelarius. Fray Garcia, episcopus Oxomensis. El Comendador Mayor. Vuestra 
Magestade confirma, e ha por bueno el parecer, que los del Consejo dieron sobre la 
contratacion de Maluco, que esta escrita, e firmada dellos en esta otra parte. 

" Parecer dos Conselheiros d Estado sobre a carta acima. Sacra Catholica Mage- 
stad : Los del Consejo Real de Vuestra Magestad dizen, que por justas causas, e 
consideraciones, que a Vuestra Magestad ban dicho, y consultado de palavra con 
Vuestra Real Persona, son de voto, y parecer que en la capitulacion, e assiento que 
entre Vuestra Magestad, y el Serenissimo Rey de Portugal se concierta, sobre el empeno 
de Maluco, que para seguridad d este empeno, que es con condicion para la poder redemir, 
y quitar, que no es necessario que entrevengan procuradores de Cortes, ny de ciddades, 
ny que scan llamados para lo otorgar. Licentiatus de SANTIAGO. Licentiatus POLANCO. 
Licentiatus AGUIRRE. Doctor GUEVARA. NUNUS ALVARES. MARTINUS Doctor. El 
Licenciado MEDINA. FORTUNIUS DERCILLA Doctor." National Archives at Lisbon, 
gav. 18, mago 3, no. 39. 

4 B. Leonardo de Argensola, Conquista de las Islas Malucas (1609), pp. 46, 47. 
F. Lopez de Gomara, Annals of the Emperor Charles V. (ed. R. B. Merriman, 1912), 
p. 138, and note 4, same page. 

* Coleccion de Documentos Ineditos relativos al Descubrimiento . . . de Ultramar 
(Real Academia de la Historia, Madrid), 2d ser., torn. II. (1886), pt. I., pp. 66-94. 
A. de Morga. Philippine Islands (Hakluyt Soc., no. XXXIX., 1868), app. V., pp. 394-396. 

*J. A. Robertson, " Legazpi and Philippine Colonization", in Annual Report of the 
American Historical Association for the year 1907 (1908), p. 154. 

7 Preamble to the treaty of Madrid, 1750, translated in the Statement submitted by 
the United States of Brazil to the President of the United States of America as Arbi 
trator . . . between Brazil and the Argentine Republic (1894), III. 5. 

Doc. 7. 



Saragossa, 1529 171 

in the treaties of Tordesillas and Saragossa should be annulled; that Spain 
should permanently retain the Philippines, " in spite of the conditions con 
tained in the Deed signed at Saragossa on the 22d of April, 1529 " ; and that 
the crown of Portugal should not be entitled to recover any part of the 
price which it paid under the sale effected by the said deed. 19 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Text: MS. An original manuscript of the ratification, signed by the King 
of Portugal at Lisbon, June 20, 1530, is in the National Archives at 
Lisbon, gav. 18, mac.o 8, no. 29. One of the original protocols is in the 
Archives of the Indies at Seville, Patronato, 1-2-2/16, no. 9. 

Text: Printed. The Portuguese ratification is printed in J. Ramos-Coelho, 

Alguns Documentos (1892), pp. 495-512, and in G. F. von Martens, 

Supplement an Recueil des Traites (1802-1842), I. 398-421. Navarrete, 

j Coleccion de Viages (1825-1837), torn. IV., no. 41, pp. 389-406, prints 

J the protocol, but from a copy instead of from the original manuscript. 

As an appendix to the treaty of 1750, the treaty of Saragossa is printed 

in J. Ferreira Borges de Castro, Collecqao dos Tratados de Portugal, 

*> desde 1640 (1856-1858), III. 64-82, and elsewhere. 

References : See Doc. 15, Bibliography. 

TEXT." 

Dom Joham, per graca de Deus rrey de Portugal e dos Algarves daquem 
e dalem mar em Africa, senhor de Guinee e da comquista, naveguacam, e 
comercio de Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, e da Imdia. A quantos esta minha 
carta de confirmacam, aprovacam, e rretificacam virem, faco saber que antre 
mym e Dom Carlos, emperador sempre augusto, rrey dAlemanha, de Castela, 
de Liam, dAraguam, das Duas Cezilias, de Jerusalem, etc., meu muito 
amado e precado irmaao, avia duvida e debate sobre a propiedade e pose, 
on quasy pose, e dereito, naveguacam, e comercio de Maluquo e outras ilhas 
e mares, por cada huum de nos dizer Ihe pertencer e estar em pose de todo 
o sobredito, e pelo muy coniuncto divido," que anbos temos, e porque amtre 
nosos vasalos e naturaes se nam podese nunca seguir descontentamento e 
fose sempre consservado o muito amor, rrezam, e obriguacam que antre nos 
ha, nos concertamos sobre o que dito he de que se fez por nosos soficientes 
e abastantes precuradores, pera ello deputados, carta de contrauto, capi- 
tolacam, e asento, da qual o teor de verbo a verbo, he o seguinte : 

Dom Carlos, por la divina clemencia electo emperador semper augusto, 
rrey de Alemania, Dona Juana, su madre, y el mismo Dom Carlos, su hiyo, 

Doc. 9. 

" For a sketch of Spanish-Portuguese disputes over the demarcation line subsequent 
to 1529, see E. G. Bourne, "The Demarcation Line of Pope Alexander VI.", in Essays 
in Historical Criticism (1901), pp. 212-214. 

"The text is from the original manuscript of the ratification by John III. in the 
National Archives at Lisbon, gav. 18, mac.o 8, no. 29. 

"In 1524 the King of Portugal, who was the Emperor s first cousin, married the 
Emperor s sister, Catherine, and soon after the Emperor married the Infanta Isabella, 
sister to John III. 

12 



172 Doc. 16. Spain Portugal 

por la gracia de Dios rreies de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, de las Dos 
Secilias, de Jerusalem, de Navarra, de Granada, de Toledo, de Valencia, 
de Galizia, de Sevilla, de Cordova, de Corcega, de Murcia, de Jahen, de los 
Algarves, de Algezira, de Gibraltar, de las yslas de Canaria, de las Indias, 
yslas e tiera firme del mar Oceano, archiduques de Abstria, duques de 
Borgona y de Bravante, condes de Barcelona, Flandes, e Tirol, senores de 
Viscaya e de Molina, duques de Atenas e de Neopatria, condes de Ruisellon 
e de Cerdania, marqueses de Oristam e de Gociano, etc., vimos e leimos una 
escriptura de capitolacion e asiento de venta com pacto de rretro vendendo 
del derecho y posesion, o easy posesion, y action de las yslas de Maluquo, 
que em ellas tenemos o podriamos tener, por qualquier via que nos pertenezca 
y pertenecer pueda, y en las tierras, yslas, e mares contenidas em la dicha 
contratacion e asiento, fecho en nuestro nombre por Mercurio de Gatinara, 1 
conde de Gatinara, gran chamciller de my, el rrey, y por Don Fray Garcia 
de Loaysa," obispo de Osma, my confesor, y por Dom Garcia de Padilla, 11 
comendador mayor de Calatrava, todos del nuestro conseyo y nuestros procu- 
radores, y por Amtonyo dAzevedo, couthino, 1 * del conseio y embaxador del 
serenisimo, muy alto, e muy poderoso Rey de Portugal, nuestro muy caro 
e muy amado hermano, e su procurador, el tenor del qual de verbo ad verbnm 
es este que se sigue : 

En el nonbre de Dios Todopoderoso, Padre e Hijo y Espiritu Santo, tres 
Personas y un solo Dios verdadero. Notorio e manifiesto sea, a quantos este 
publico ynstrumento de transacion e contrato de venta com pacto de rretro 
vendendo vieren, como en la cibdad de Carogoga, que es en el rreino de 
Aragon, a veinte e dos dias del mes de Abril, ano del nacimiento de nuestro 
Salvador Jhesu Christo de mill e quinientos e veinte e nueve afios, em 
presencia de my, Francisco de los Covos, secretario e del conseio del 
emperador, Dom Carlos, e de la rreyna, Dona Juana, su madre, rreina e rrey 
de Castilla, y su escrivano y notario publico, y de los testigos de yuso 
escriptos, parecieron los senores, Mercurino de Gatinara, comde de Gatinara, 
gran chanciler del dicho senor emperador, y el muy rreverendo Dom Fray 
Garcia de Loaysa, obispo de Osma, su confesor, y Dom Frey Garcia de 
Padilla, comendador maior de la Ordem de Calatrava, todos tres del consejo 
de los dichos muy altos e muy poderosos senores principes, Dom Carlos, 
por la divina clemencia electo emperador senpre augusto, rrey de Alemania, 
y Dona Juana, su madre, y el mismo Don Carlos, su hiyo, por la gracia de 
Dios, rreies de Castilla, de Leon, y de Aragon, de las Dos Cezilias, de Jeru 
salem y de Navarra y de Granada, etc., en nonbre e como procuradores de 
los dichos senores, Emperador e Reies de Castilla, de la una parte, y el senor 
Antonyo de Azevedo, coutino, del consejo y embaixador del muy alto y muy 
poderoso senor, Dom Juam, por la gracia de Dios rrey de Portugal e dos 
Algarves de aquende y de allende el mar em Africa, senor de Guinea y de la 
conquista, navegacjon, e comercio de Ethiopia, Arabia, e Persia e de la India, 
etc., em nombre y como su procurador, de la otra, segun luego mostraron 
por sus soficientes e abastantes procuraciones para este contrato firmadas 
por los dichos senores Emperador e Rey de Castilla e Rey de Portugal, 
seladas con sus sellos, de las quales dichas procuraciones los treslados, de 
verbo ad verbum, son los seguientes : 

u See Doc. 13, note 14, and Docs. 14 and 15. " See Doc. 14, note 8, and Doc. 15. 
* See Doc. 13, note 16, and Doc. 14. " See Doc. 14, note 11, and Doc. 15. 



Saragosso, 1529 173 

[ Here follow the full powers granted by the sovereigns of Castile to the 
Count of Gattinara, the Bishop of Osma, and the Chief Knight-Commander 
of Calatrava on April 15, 1529, and the full powers granted by Joao III. 
of Portugal to Antonio d Azevedo on October 18, 1528.] 

Asy presentadas las dichas precuraciones por los dichos seiiores procura- 
dores, fue dicho que, por quanto antre el dicho senor Emperador e Rey de 
Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, de las Dos Secilyas, de Jherusalem, etc., y el 
dicho senor Rey de Portugual, e de los Algarves, etc., avia dubda sobre la 
propiedad y posesion y derecho o posesiom, o quasy posesiom, navegacion, 
e comercio de Maluquo y otras yslas y mares, lo qual cada uno de los dichos 
seiiores, Emperador e Rey de Castilla y Rey de Portugual, dize pertenecerle, 
asy por vertud de las capitolaciones " que fueron f echas por los muy altos 
y muy poderosos y Catholicos princepes Dom Fernando y Dona Ysabel, 
rreies de Castilla, abuelos del dicho senor emperador y con el rrey Dom Juan 
el segundo de Portugal, que ayan gloria, acerqua de la demarcacion del 
mar oceano, como por otras rrezones y derechos que cada uno de los dichos 
senores emperador e rreis dezia tener e pretendian a las dichas yslas, mares, 
y tierras ser suias, e estar em posesiom dellas ; y que, aviemdo los dichos 
senores emperador y rreis rrespecto al muy coniuncto deudo e gramde amor 
que antre ellos ay, lo qual no solamente deve, com mucha rezam, ser con- 
servado, mas, quanto posible fuere, mas acrecentado, y que, por se quitar de 
dudas e demamdas e debates que antre ellos podria aver, y muchos incon- 
vinientes, que antre sus vasallos y subditos y naturales se podriam seguir, 
som aguora los dichos senores emperador e rreis y los dichos procuradores 
em su nombre concordados e concertados sobre las dichas dubdas e debates, 
en el modo y forma seguiente : 

I. Primeramente, 18 dixeron los dichos Gran Chandler y Obispo de Osma 
y Comendador Maior de Calatrava, procuradores del dicho senor Emperador 
e Reis de Castilla, que ellos, em su nonbre, por vertud de la dicha su precu- 
racion, vendian, como luego de fecho vendieron, deste dia pera siempre 
jamas, al dicho senor Rey de Portugal, pera el y todos sus sobcesores de la 
corona de sus rreinos, todo el derecho, action, dominio, propiedad, y posesiom, 
o quasi posesion, y todo el derecho de navegar y qontratar y comerciar por 
qualquier modo que sea, que el dicho senor Emperador e Rey de Castilla 
dize que tiene y podria tener por qualquier via, modo, o manera que sea, 
em el dicho Maluquo, ysllas, luguares, tierras y mares, segundo abaxo sera 
declarado ; e esto, con las declaraciones y limitaciones y comdiciones y 
clausulas abaixo contenidas y declaradas, por precio de trezientos e cim- 
quoenta mil ducados de oro, paguados em monedas corientes en la tierra 
de oro o de plata, que valguan em Castilla trezientos y satenta y cinquo 
maravedis, cada ducado, los quales el dicho senor Rey de Portugal dara e 
pagara al dicho senor Emperador y Rey de Castilla y a las personas que su 
Magestad pera ello nonbrare, en esta manera : los ciento e cinquoenta mil 
ducados dellos em Lixbona. demtro de quinze o veinte dias primeros seguientes 
despues que este contrato, comfirmado por el dicho senor Emperador y Rey 
de Castilla, fuere llegado a la cidad de Lixboa, o a domde el dicho senor Rey 
de Portugal estuviere ; e trinta mil ducados pagados em Castilla, los vinte 

11 The treaty of Tordesillas, Doc. 9. " Cf. Doc. 15, art. i, and notes. 

"An order from the King of Portugal, dated June i, 1529, directed llcrnando 
Alvarez, his treasurer, to pay to Lope Hurtado de Mendoza, the Castilian ambassador 
in Portugal, 150,000 cruzados toward the amount due for the Moluccas. Two days 
later the ambassador gave the treasurer a quittance for the sum paid. Santarem, 
Quadfo Elementar, II. 67. 



174 Doc. 16. Spain Portugal 

mil cm Valhadolid, e los dez mil em Sevilla, hasta veinte dias del mes de 
Maio primero que viene deste ano ; y setenta mil ducados em Castilla, paguados 
en la feria de Maio de Medina del Campo deste dicho anno, a los terminos 
de los pagamientos della, y los ciem mil ducados restantes, en la feria de 
Otobre de la dicha villa de Medina del Campo deste dicha anno, a los plazos 
de los paguamientos della, pagado todo fuera del cambio; y asy fuere 
necesario, se daran luego cedulas pera el dicho tiempo; y, si el dicho sefior 
Emperador y Rey de Castilha quisiere tomar a canbio los dichos cem mil 
ducados en la dicha feria de Maio deste dicho ano, para socorrerse dellos, 
pagara el dicho senor Rey de Portugual a rrazom de cinquo o seis por ciento 
de canbio, como su tesorero, Hernand Alvarez, los suele tomar de feria a 
feria ; la qual dicha venta el dicho senor Emperador y Rey de Castilla haze 
al dicho senor Rey de Portugal com condiciom que, em qualquiera tiempo 
que el dicho senor Emperador y Rey de Castilla o sus sobcesores quisieren 
tornar, y con efecto tornaren, todos los dichos trezientos e cinquoenta mil 
ducados, y sin dellos faltar cosa alguna, al dicho senor Rey de Portugal o 
a sus sobcesores, que la dicha vienta quede desfecha, y cada uno de los dichos 
senores enperador y rreies quede con el derecho e action que agora tienen 
y pretiendem tener, asy en el derecho de la posesiom, o easy posesiom, como 
en la propiedad, por qualquier via, modo, y manera que pertenecerles pueda, 
como se este contrato non fuera hecho, y de la manera que primero lo tenian 
y pertendian tener, sin que este contrato les haga ni cause per juizo ni 
ynovacion alguna. 

2. Item,* es comcordado e asentado entre los dichos procuradores, em 
nombre de los dichos senores sus constituientes, que, pera se saber las yslas, 
lugares, tierras, y mares y derecho y actiom dellos que, por este contrato, el 
dicho senor Emperador e Rey de Castilla asy vende, con la comdiciom que 
dicha es al dicho senor Rey de Portugal, desde agora pera todo siempre, 
han por hechada una linia de polo a polo, conviene a saber, del norte al 
sul, por huum semicirculo que diste de Maluquo al nordeste, tomando la 
quarta del este, diez y nueve grados, a que conrrespondem diez y sete grados 
escasos en la equinocial, em que montam dozientas y novienta y sete legoas 
y media mas a oriente de las islas de Maluquo, dando diez y sete legoas e 
media por grado equinocial, en el qual merediano y rrunbo del nordeste y 
quarta del este, estam situadas las islas de las Velas y de Santo Thome, 
por donde pasa la sobredicha linia y semicirculo ; y, siemdo caso que las dichas 
yslas estiem y distem de Maluquo mas o menos, todavia, han por bien e sam 
Concordes que la dicha lynia quede lancada a las dichas dozientas y novienta 
y sete legoas y media mas a oriente, que hacem los dichos diez e nueve grados 
al nordeste y quarta de leste de las dichas yslas de Maluquo, como dicho es ; 
y dixeron los dichos procuradores que, pera se saber por donde se ha la dicha 
linia por lancada, se hagan dos padrones de him tenor, conformes al padron 
que esta en la Casa de la Contratacion w de las Imdias de Sevilha, por donde 
navegan las armadas y vasallos y subditos del dicho sefior Emperador y 
Rey de Castilla, y dentro de treinta dias despues de la fecha deste contrato se 

" Cf. Doc. 15, art. 2, and notes. 

11 Cf. Doc. 15, note 24. The Casa de Contratacion, or India House of Trade at 
Seville, founded in 1503, supervised all matters connected with maritime affairs. See 
the article by B. Moses in the Report of the Am. Hist. Asso. for 1894, pp. 93-123. and 
J. Piernas Hurtado, La Casa de la Contratacion de las fndias (1907), articles published 
in La Lectura and Ateneo. 



Saragossa, 1529 175 

nombre clos personas de cada parte, pera que vean y hagan luego los dichos 
padrones, con forme a lo suso dicho, y en ellos sea lancada la dicha linia, por 
el modo sobre dicho, y que los dichos senores emperador e rreies los firmen 
de sus nonbres y sellen com sns sellos, pera quedar a cada uno el suyo, y 
dende em adelante quede la dicha linia por lancada pera declaracion del 
punto y lugar por donde ella pasa ; y tambien pera declaracion del sitio en 
que los dichos vasallos del dicho senor Emperador y Rey de Castilla tienen 
situado y asentado a Maluquo, la qual durante el tienpo deste contrato se vea 
que esta puesta en el tal sitio, puesto que, en la verdad este em menos o mas 
distancia a oriente de lo que en los dichos padrones es sytuado, y para que 
en el punto de la situacion em que en los dichos padrones esta situado 
Maluquo se continuen los dichos diez y siete grades a oriente, que, por biem 
deste contrato el dicho senor Rey de Portugal ha de aver, y que, non se 
alhando en la Casa de la Contratacion de Sevilha el dicho padron, las dichas 
personas, nombradas por los dichos senores emperador y rreis, dentro de 
huum mes hagan los dichos padrones y se firmen y sellen, como dicho es, 
y por ellos se haguan cartas de navegar em que se lance la dicha linia en la 
manera suso dicha, pera que de aquy adelante naveguen por ellas los dichos 
vasallos, naturales, y subditos del dicho senor Emperador y Rey de Castilha, 
y para que los naveguantes de una parte y de otra scan ciertos del sitio de 
la dicha linia y distancia de las sobredichas dozientas y novienta y sete 
leguas y media, que aya entre la dicha linia y Maluquo. 

3. Item, 21 es concordado e asentado por los dichos procuradores que em 
qualquier tiempo que el dicho senor Rey de Portugal quisiere que se vea el 
derecho de la propiedad de Maluco, y las tierras y mares contenidas em este 
contrato, y puesto que, al tal tienpo, el dicho senor Emperador y Rey de 
Castilla no tenga tornado el dicho precio, ny el dicho contrato sea rresoluto, 
se vea en esta manera, conviene a saber, que cada uno de los dichos senores 
nombre tres astrologos y tres pilotos o tres marineros, que scan expertos en 
la navegacion, los quales se ajuntaran em huum logar de la rraya dentre sus 
rreynos, donde fuere acordado que se juntem desdel dia que el dicho senor 
Emperador y Rey de Castilha o sus sobcesores f ueren rrequerydos por parte 
del dicho senor Rey de Portugal, que se nombren hasta quatro meses, y ally 
consultaran y acordaran y tomaran asiento de la manera em que ha de hyr 
a se ver el derecho de la dicha propiedad, conforme a las dichas capitola- 
ciones e asiento que f ue f echo antre los dichos Catholicos rreis, Dom Fernando 
y Dona Isabel, y el dicho rrey, Dom Juam el segundo de Portugual ; y, siemdo 
caso que el derecho de la dicha propiedad se juzge al dicho senor Emperador 
y Rey de Castilla, no se executara ni usara de la tal sentencia sim que, primero, 
el dicho senor Emperador e Rey de Castilla y sus sobcesores tornem rreal- 
mente y com efecto, todos los dichos trezientos e cinquoenta mil ducados 
que, por vertude deste contrato, fueron dados ; e, juzgandose el derecho de 
la propiedad por parte del dicho senor Rey de Portugal, el dicho senor 
Emperador e Rey de Castilla y sus sobcesores seran obligados a tornar, 
rrealmente e com efecto, los dichos trezientos e cimquoenta mil ducados al 
dicho senor Rey de Portugal o a sus sobcesores desdel dia em que la dicha 
sentencia fuere dada, hasta quatro annos primeros seguientes. 

4. Item, 2 * fue concertado e asentado pelos dychos procuradores em 
nombre de los dichos senores sus constetuientes, que, siendo caso que em 

M Cf. Doc. 15, art. 5. " Cf. Doc. IS, art. 3. 



176 Doc. 16. Spain Portugal 

quanto este comtrato de venta durar y nom fuere desfecho, desdel dia de la 
f echa del em adelante, vinieren alguunas especiarias o drogarias, de qualquier 
suerte que seam, a qualesquier puertos o partes de los rreynos e senhorios de 
cada uno de los dichos senores constetuientes que seam traidas por los 
vasallos, subditos, y naturales del dicho senor Emperador e Rey de Castilla, 
o por otras qualesquier personas, puesto que sus subditos y naturales e 
vasallos non scan, que el dicho senor Emperador e Rey de Castilla em sus 
reinos e senhorios, y el dicho seiior Rey de Portugal en los suios, seam 
obligados a mandar e hazer e mandem e hagan depositar las dichas especiarias 
o drogarias em tal manera que el tal deposito quede seguro, sim que aquel 
a cuya parte viniere sea por el otro pera esto rrequerido, pera que asy estem 
depositadas em nombre de ambos, em poder de aquella persona o personas 
em quiem cada uno de los dichos senores em sus tierras e seiiorios las 
mamdaren e hizierem depositar; el qual deposito seram los dichos senores 
obligados a hazer e mamdar hazer por la manera sobredicha, aguora las 
dichas especerias o droguerias se hallem en poder de aquellos que las traxeren, 
o en poder de qualquier otra persona o personas, en qualesquier luguares o 
partes donde f uerem halladas, y los dichos senores emperador y rreies seram 
obligados de lo mandar asy noteficar desde aguora em sus reinos e senorios 
para que asy se cumpla, em modo que nom se pueda alegar ignorancia ; y 
viniendo a aportar las dichas especirias o droguerias a qualesquier puertos 
o tierras que de cada uno de los dichos senores constituientes no fueren, no 
siendo de enemigos, cada uno dellos por virtud deste contrato podra rrequerir, 
em nombre de ambos, sin mas mostrar ninguna provisam ni poder de otro 
a las justicias de los r reinos e senhorios domde las dichas especerias o 
droguerias vinieren a parar, o fuerem halladas, que las manden depositar 
e depositen, y em qualquier de las dichas partes donde asy fueren halladas 
las dichas especearias o droguerias, estaram embargadas e depositadas por 
ambos hasta se saber de cuya demarcacion f ueron sacadas ; y para se saber 
si el lugar e tierras de donde las dichas especearias o droguerias f ueron traidas 
e sacadas caem dentro de la demarcaciom e limites que por este contrato 
quedan con el dicho senor [Emperador] e Rey de Castilla, e ay em ellas 
las dichas especearias o droguerias embiaram los dichos senores emperador 
y rreis dos o quatro navios, tantos el uno como el otro, en los quales yran 
personas juramentadas que biem lo emtendam, tantos de la una parte, como 
de la otra, a los dichos luguares e tierras donde dixeren que sacarom y 
traxerom las dichas especearias o droguerias, pera ver y determinar em cuia 
demarcacion caen las dichas tierras e luguares de domde asy las dichas 
especerias o droguerias se dixere que fueron sacadas, e hallamdose que las 
dichas tierras e luguares caem dentro de la demarcaciom del dicho senor 
Emperador e Rey de Castilla y que em ellas ay las dichas especerias e 
droguerias en tanta cantidad que rrazonablemente pudiesen traer las dichas 
especerias o droguerias, en tal caso, se alcara e quitara el dicho deposito, y 
se entreguaran libremente al dicho senor Emperador e Rey de Castilla, syn 
que por ello seam obligados a pagar ningunas costas ny gastos, ny intereses, 
ny otra alguna cosa ; e siendo hallado que fueron sacadas de las tierras e 
luguares de la demarcaciom del dicho senor Rey de Portugal, asy mesmo 
sera alcado y quytado el dicho deposito, y se entregaram al dicho senor Rey 
de Portugal, sim que por ello sea obligado a pagar ningunas costas ni gastos, 
ny intireses, ny otra alguna cosa de qualquier calidad que sea ; y las personas 
que asy las truxerem seram pugnidos e castigados por el dicho senor empera- 



Saragassa, 1529 177 



dor, rey cle Castilla, o por sus justicias, como quebrantadores de fee y de 
paz, conforme a justicia ; y los dichos senores Enperador e Rey de Castilla 
y el dicho senor Rey de Portugal seram obligados de enbiar los dichos sus 
navios e personas tanto que por cada uno dellos al otro fuere rrequerido y, 
enquanto asy las dichas especerias o droguerias estuvieren depositadas y 
enbargadas en el modo sobredicho, el dicho senor emperador, rey de Castilla, 
ny otro por el, ni con su favor ni consentimiento, no iran ni enbiaran a la 
dicha tierra o tierras de donde asy las dichas especerias e droguerias fueron 
traidas, y todo lo que dicho es en este capitulo acerca del deposito de las 
especerias o droguerias, no avra lugar ny se entendera en las especiarias o 
droguerias que vinieren a cualesquier partes pera el dicho senpr Rey de 
Portugual. 

5. Item,* 4 es concordado y asentado que en todalas yslas, tieras y mares 
que f ueren de la dicha linea para dentro no puedam las naos, navios, e gentes 
del dicho senor Emperador e Rey de Castilla ny de sus subditos, vasallos, e 
natu rales ny otras algunas personas, puesto que sus subditos ny vasallos 
naturales no seam por su mamdado, consentimiento, favor e ajuda, o sin 
su mamdado, favor ni aiuda entrar, navegar, tratar ny comerciar ny cargar 
cosa alguna que en las dichas yslas, tieras, y mares oviere de qualquier suerte 
o manera que sea, y que qualesquier de los sobredichos que de aquy adelante 
el contrario de todas las dichas cosas y cada una dellas hiziere, o fuerem con- 
prendidos e hallados de dentro de la dicha linea scan presos por qualquier 
capitan o capitanes o gentes del dicho senor Rey de Portugal e por los dichos 
sus capitanes oydos e castigados e pugnidos como cosarios e quebrantadores 
de paz ; e, no siendo hallados dentro de la dicha linea por los dichos capitanes 
o gentes del dicho senor Rey de Portugal, se vinieren a qualquier puerto, 
tiera o senhorio del dicho senor Emperador e Rey de Castilla, que el dicho 
senor Emperador e Rey de Castilla e sus justicias donde asy vinieren o 
fueren hallados, seam tenidos e obligados de los tomar y prender, entanto que 
les fueren presentados autos e pesquisas que les fueren embiados por el dicho 
senor Rey de Portugal o por sus justicias por que se muestre ser culpados 
en cada una destas cosas sobredichos y los pugnir e castigar enteramente 
como malhechores e quebrantadores de fee e de paz. 

6. Item," es concordado e asentado por los dichos procuradores que el 
dicho senor Emperador e Rey de Castilla no embie por sy ny por otro a las 
dichas islas, tierras y mares dentro de la dicha linea ni consientan que alia 
vayan de aquy adelante sus naturales e subditos e vasallos o estranjeros, 
puesto que sus naturales e vasallos ny subditos no scan ny les de para ello 
ajuda ni favor ny se concierte com ellos para ellos alia yr contra la forma e 
asiento deste contrato, antes sea obligado de lo defender, estorvar e inpedir 
quanto en el fuere, e ynbiando el dicho senor Emperador e Rey de Castilla 
por sy o por otro a las dichas yslas, tierras o mares de dentro de la dicha linea, 
o consentiendo que alia vaiam sus naturales, vasallos, subditos o extranjeros, 
puesto que sus naturales, vasallos ny subditos no scan, dandoles pera ello 
ayuda o favor o concertandose com ellos para que alia vayan contra la forma 
e asiento deste contrato e sy lo no defendiere y estorvare e inpidiere quanto 
en el fuere, que el dicho pacto de rretro vendendo quede luego rresoluto, y 
el dicho senor Rey de Portugal no seia mas obligado a rrecibir el dicho precio 
ny al rretro vender el derecho e acion que el dicho seiior Emperador e Rey 

H Cf. Doc. 15, art. 3. M Cf. Doc. 15, art. 3. 



178 Doc. 16. Spain Portugal 

de Castilha, por qualquier via e manera que sea, podria tener a ello, antes que 
aquel por virtud deste contrato tenga vendido e rrenunciado y traspasado 
en el dicho senor Rey de Portugal y por el mismo fecho la dicha venta quede 
pura e valedera para sienpre jamas, como si al principio fuera fecha sin 
condiciom y pacto de rretro vendendo ; pero, porque poderia ser que, nave- 
guando los sobredichos por los mares del sur, donde los subditos e naturales 
e vasallos del dicho senor Emperador e Rey de Castilha puedem navegar, 
les podria sobrevenir tienpo tam forcoso e contrario o necesidad com que 
fuesem costrenidos, continuando su camino c naveguacion a pasar la dicha 
linea, en tal caso, no incurriran em pena alguna, mas, antes que, aportamdo 
e lleguamdo em qualquier de los dichos casos a alguna tierra de las que asy 
entraren en la dycha linea, e por vertud deste contrato pertenecieren al dicho 
senor Rey de Portugal, que scan tratados por sus subditos e vasalos e mora- 
dores della como vasalos de su hermano y asy como el dicho senor Emperador 
e Rey de Castilha mandaria tratar a los suyos que desta manera aportasen a 
sus tieras de la Nueva Espana o a otras de aquellas partes, con tanto que, 
cesando la dicha necesidad, se salgam lueguo y se buelvan a sus mares del sur ; 
y, siendo caso que los sobre dichos pasasem por ignorancia la dicha linea, 
es concordado e asentado que no incurram por ello em pena alguua, em quanto 
no constare claramente que, sabiendo ellos que estavan dentro de la dicha 
linea, no se bolvieren e salieren fuera della, como es acordado e asentado em 
el caso que entrasem con tiempo forcoso y contrario o de necesidad ; porque. 
quamdo esto constare, se avra por probado que com malicia pasaran la linea, 
y seran pugnidos y avran aquelas penas que han de aver aquellos que entraren 
dentro de la linea, como dicho es, y en este contrato es conteniclo y declarado ; 
y hallando los sobredichos o descubriendo emquanto dentro de la dicha linea 
ansy anduvieren algunas yslas o tierras dentro de la dicha linea, que las tales 
yslas o tierras quedem luego libremente e con efecto al dicho seiior Rey de 
Portugal e a sus sobcesores, como sy por sus capitanes e vasallos descuviertas 
e halhadas e poseydas al tal tempo fuesen ; y es concordado y asentado por los 
dichos procuradores que las naaos e navios del dicho senor Emperador Rey de 
Castilla y de sus subditos, vasalos, e naturales puedam yr e navegar por los 
mares del dicho senor Rey de Portugal, por donde sus armadas vam para 
la Imdia, tanto solamente quanto les fuere necesario para tomar sus derrotas 
derechas para el estrecho de Magalhanes ; y haziemdo lo contrario de lo 
suso dicho, naveguando mas por los dichos mares del dicho senor Rey de 
Portugal, de lo que dicho es, yncuriran por el mismo fecho, asy el dicho senor 
Emperador e Rey de Castilla, constando que lo hizieron por su mandado, 
favor y ajuda o consentimiento, y los que asy navegaren y fueren contra lo 
suso dicho en las penas sobredichas, asy e de la manera que de suso em este 
contrato es declarado. 

7. Item," fue asentado e comcordado que lo que toca a que sy algunos 
subditos del dicho senor Emperador e Rey de Castella o otros algunos fueren 
tornados e hallados, de aquy adelante, dentro de los dichos limites ariba 
declarados, seam presos por qualquier capitan o capitanes o gentes del dicho 
senor Rey de Portuguall, y por los dichos sus capitanes, oydos, castigados 
y pugnidos como cosarios, violadores e quebrantadores de paz ; y que, no 
siendo hallados dentro de la dicha linea, y vinienclo a qualquier puerto del 
dicho senor Emperador e Rey de Castilla, su magestad e sus justicias seam 

"C/. Doc. 15, art. 4. 



Saragassa, 1529 170 

obligados de los tomar e premder, tanto que les fueren presentados autos e 
pesquisas que les fueren enbiados por el dicho senor Rey de Portugal e por 
sus justicias, por los quales se muestre ser culpados en las cosas suso dichas 
y los pugnir y castigar enteramente, como malhechores y quebrantadores de 
fee y de paz y lo demas que se asienta por este contrato, em quanto toca a no 
pasar la dicha linea nimgunos subditos del dicho senor Emperador e Rey 
de Castilha, ni otros algunos por su mamdado, consentimiento, favor o ayuda ; 
y las penas que cerca desto se ponen, se entienda desdel dia que fuere note- 
ficado a los subditos del dicho senor Emperador y gentes que por aquellas 
mares e partes estam y naveguan, en adelante ; y que, antes de la tal notifi- 
cacam, no incurram en las dichas penas ; pero esto se entienda quanto a 
las gentes de las armadas del dicho senor emperador, que, hasta aguora, a 
aquelas partes son ydas, y que desd el dia del otorgamiento deste contrato 
em adelante, durante el tempo que la dicha venta no fuere desfecha en la forma 
suso dicha, no pueda embiar ni embie otras algunas de nuevo, sin incorrir 
en las dichas penas. 

8. Item,* 7 fue concordado e asentado por los dichos procuradores que el 
dicho senor Rey de Portugal no hara por sy ny por otro ny mandara hazer 
de nuevo fortaleza alguna em Maluco, ny al rrededor del com veinte leguas, 
ny de Maluco hasta donde por este contrato se ha por lancada la linea ; y es 
asentado y son Concordes todos los dichos procuradores de la una parte y de 
la otra que este tempo de nuevo se entienda, comviene a saber, desd el tiempo 
que el dicho senor Rey de Portugal pudiere alia embiar a noteficar que no se 
haga ninguna fortaleza de nuevo, que sera en la primera armada que fuere 
del dicho rreino de Portugal para la Imdia, despues deste contrato ser con- 
firmado e aprobado por los dichos sefiores sus constituientes, y selado de 
seus sellos ; y, quanto a la fortaleza que aguora estaa f echa em Maluquo, no 
se hara mas obra alguna em ella de nuevo, desdel dicho tiempo em adelante, 
solamente se rreparara e sosterna em el estado em que estuviere al dicho 
tiempo, si ell dicho senor Rey de Portugal quisiere, el qual jura e prometa de 
gardalo e comprilo asy. 

9. Item," es asentado e concordado que las armadas que el dicho seiior 
Emperador e Rey de Castilha hasta aguora tiene enbiadas a las dichas partes 
seam miradas y bien tratadas e favorecidas del dicho senor Rey de Portugal y 
de sus gentes, y no les sea puesto embaraco ni impidimiento en su naveguacion 
e contratacion, y que si dano alguno, lo que no se cree, ellos ubieren rrecebido 
o rrecebieren de sus capitanes o gentes, o les ubieren tornado alguna cosa, 
que el dicho senor Rey de Portugal sea obligado de emmendar e satisfazer 
e rrestetuir y pagar luego todo aquelo em que el dicho senor Emperador e 
Rey de Castilla y sus subditos y armadas ubieren sido danificados, e de 
mamdar pugnir y castigar a los que lo hizieren y de proveer que las armadas 
y gentes del dicho senor Emperador e Rey de Castilla se puedam venir 
quando quisieren, libremente sin impidimiento alguno." 

10. Item, 30 es asentado que el dicho senor Emperador y Rey de Castilla 
mamde dar luego sus cartas y provisiones para sus capitanes e gentes que 

" Cf. Doc. IS, art. 6. ** Cf. Doc. 15, art. 7- 

" A fierce struggle was kept up in the Moluccas for several 3 r ears between the Portu 
guese at Ternate and the Spaniards at Tidore and their respective native allies. See 
Doc. 15, bibliography, for references to the history of the two nationalities in the 
Moluccas from 1521 to 1532. 

"* This article is the same as art. 8 of Doc. 15. 



180 Doc. 1 6. Spain Portugal 

estuvieren en las dychas yslas que lueguo se vengam y no contraten mas em 
ellas, com que les dexem traer libremente lo que ubieren rrescatado y con- 
tratado y cargado. 1 

11. Item," es asentado e comcordado que en las provisiones e cartas que 
cerca deste asiento e contrato ha de dar e despachar el dicho senor Emperador 
e Rey de Castilla, se ponga e digua que lo que, segun dicho es, se asienta, 
capitula e contrata, valga biem asy como se fuese fecho e pasado em cortes 
generales com consentimiento expreso de los procuradores dellas ; y que, para 
validacion dello, de su poderio rreal absoluto de que, como rrey e senor natural, 
no rreconociente superior en lo temporal, quiere usar e usa, abroga e deroga, 
casa e anula la supplicacion que los procuradores de las cibdades e vyllas 
destos rreynos en las cortes que se celebraron en la cibdad de Toledo el ano 
pasado, de quinientos e veinte e cinquo, le hizieron cerca de lo tocante a la 
contrataciom de las dichas yslas e tierras y la rrespuesta que a ello dio y 
qualquier ley que en las dichas cortes sobre ello se hizo y todas las otras que 
a esto puedam obstar. 

12. Item, 33 es asentado que el dicho senor Rey de Portugal, porque algunos 
subditos del dicho senor Emperador y Rey de Castilla y otros de fuera de 
sus rreynos que le vinieron a servir se quexan que em su Casa de la Imdia 
y em su rreyno le tienem embaracadas sus haziendas, promete de mandar 
hazer clara e abierta e breve justicia, sin tener rrespecto a henojo que dellos 
se pueda tener, por aver venido a servir y servido al dicho senor Emperador. 

13. Item," fue asentado y concordado por los dichos procuradores em 
nombre de los dichos sus constetuientes que las capitulaciones hechas entre 
los dichos Catolicos rreies, Dom Fernando e Dona Ysabel, y el rrey, Dom 
Juam el segundo, de Portugal, sobre la demarcaciom del mar oceano, quedem 
firmes e valederas em todo e per todo, como en ellas es contenido e declarado, 
tirando aquelas cosas em que, por este contrato, em otra manera som con- 
cordadas e asentadas ; y, siendo caso que el dicho senor Emperador y Rey de 
Castilla torne el precio que, por este contrato, le es dado, en la manera que 
dicha es, em modo que la venta quede desfecha, en tal caso, las dichas capitu 
laciones hechas entre los dichos Catholicos rreyes, Dom Fernamdo e Dona 
Ysabel, y el dicho rrey, Dom Juam el segundo, de Portugal, quedaran em toda 
su fuerca e vigor, como si este contrato no fuera fecho, como en ellas es 
contenido ; y seran los dichos senores sus constituientes obligados de las 
complir e gardar em todo e por todo, como en ellas es asentado. 

14. Item," es acordado e asentado por los dichos procuradores que puesto 
que el derecho e action que el dicho senor Emperador e Rey de Castilla dize 
que tiene a las dichas tierras, lugares e mares e yslas que ansy por el modo 
sobredicho vende al dicho senor Rey de Portugal valgua mas de la mitad del 
justo precio que por ello le da, el dicho senor Emperador e Rey de Castilla 
sepa cierto e de cierta sabiduria por cierta informacion de personas em ello 
expertas, que lo muy biem saben y entiendem que es de mucho maior valor y 
estimacion, alende de la mitad del justo precio que el dicho senor Rey de 

" The Spaniards in the Moluccas, who had been defending the claims of the Emperor 
there, first heard of the sale of the islands from the Portuguese in 1532. Navarrete, 
Viages, V. 148, 395. 

"This article is the same as art. u of Doc. 15. 

"This article corresponds to Doc. 15, art. 14. 

14 This article corresponds to Doc. 15, art. 13. Note that the words " enpeno y retro- 
vendendo " in the corresponding article of the earlier treaty are changed to venta. 

**This article corresponds to Doc. 15, art. 15. 



Saragossa, 1529 181 



Portugal da al dicho senor Emperador e Rey de Castilla a plaze hazer dona- 
cion, como de hecho la haze, donde el dicho dia para siempre jamas entre bivos 
valedera de la dicha maior valia y estimacion que asy vale mas e alemde de la 
mitad del justo precio por muy gran mas valia que sea, la qual maior valia 
y estimacion, alende de la mitad del justo precio, el dicho senor Emperador e 
Rey de Castilla dimitte de sy e de sus subcesores y desmienbra de la corona 
de sus rreynos para sienpre, y todo trespasa al dicho senor Rey de Portugal 
e a sus subcesores y corona de sus rreynos, rrealmente e com efecto, por el 
modo sobredicho, durante el tienpo deste contrato. 

15. Item,** es concordado y asentado por los dichos procuradores que 
qualquier de las paries que contra este contrato o parte del fuere, por sy o 
por otro, por qualquier modo, via, o manera, que sea, pensada o no pensada, 
que por el mismo hecho pierda el derecho que tiene por qualquier via, modo, 
o manera que sea; y todo lueguo quede aplicado, junto, e adquirido a la 
otra parte, que por el dicho contrato estuviere y contra el no fuere y a la 
corona de sus rreynos, sin para ello el que contra el fuere, sea mas citado, 
oydo, ni rrequerido, ny ser necesario sobre ello darse mas otra sentencia por 
juez ni juzgador alguno que sea, averigandose y provandose primeramente 
el mandado o consentimiento o favor de la parte que contra ello viniere ; y 
alende desto, el que contra este contrato fuere, por qualquier modo e 
manera que sea, em parte o em todo, pague a la otra parte que por el estuviere, 
duzientos mil ducados de oro, de pena, y en nombre de pena e intarese, en la 
qual pena incuriran tantas vezees quantas contra el fueren, em parte, o em 
todo, como dicho es ; y la pena llevada o no llevada, todavia este contrato 
quedara firme y valedero y estable para siempre jamas em favor de aquel que 
por el estuviere, y contra el o parte del no fuere, para lo qual obligaron todos 
los bienes patrimoniales e fiscales de los dichos sus constetuientes y de las 
coronas de sus rreinos, de todo conplir y mantener asy e tan cumplidamente 
como em ellos se contiene. 

16. Item, 11 fue asentado e concordado por los dichos procuradores que los 
dichos senores sus constetuientes y cada uno dellos, juraram solenemente y 
prometeran por el dicho juramiento, que por sy e por sus sucesores nunca 
em ninguun tiempo vendram contra este contrato em todo ny em parte, por 
sy ny por otro, en juizio ny fuera del, por ninguna via, forma, ny manera 
que sea y pensar se pueda, y que nunca em tiempo alguno, por sy ny por otro, 
pediran rrelaxacion del dicho juramiento a nuestro muy Sancto Padre, ny a 
otro que, pera ello, poder tenga; y, puesto que Su Santidad, o quiem pera 
ello poder tuviere, sin le ser pedido, de su propio motu, les rrelaxe el dicho 
juramiento, que lo no aceptaran, ny nunca em alguun tiempo usaran de la 
dicha rrelaxacion, ny se aiudaran della, ni aprovecharan em ninguna manera 
ny via que sea, em juizio, ny fuera del. 

17. Item,* 8 fue comcordado e asentado por los dichos procuradores que, 
para mas corroboracjon y firmeza deste contrato, que este contrato e tran- 
sacion, com todas sus clausulas, comdiciones, pactos, obligaciones y declara- 
ciones del, asy e por la manera que en el som contenidas, sea juzgado por 
sentencia del papa, e confirmado e aprobado por Su Santidad, por bulla 
appostolica, com su sello, en la qual bula de sentencia, confirmacion, e aproba- 
cion sera inserto todo este contrato, de verbo ad verbum ; y que Su Santidad, 

M This article corresponds to Doc. 15, art. 16. 
"This article corresponds to Doc. 15, art. 9. 
"This article corresponds to Doc. 15, art. 10. 



182 Doc. 16. Spain Portugal 

en la dicha sentencia, supla e aya por suplido, de su cierta sciencia, e poderio 
absolute, todo e qualquier defeto e solenidad que de hecho e de derecho 
se rrequiera para este contrato ser mas firme e valedero en todo e qualquier 
parte dello; y que Su Sanctidad ponga sentencia descomunion, asy en las 
partes principales, como em qualesquier otras personas que contra el fueren 
y lo no gardaren, em todo o em parte, por qualquier via, modo, e manera que 
sea, en la qual sentencia descomunion declarara e mandara que incurram 
ipso facto los que contra el dicho contrato fueren, em todo o em parte, sin 
para ello se rrequiera ni sea necesaria otra sentencia descomunion ny declara- 
ciom della, y que los tales no puedam ser absueltos por Su Sanctidad, ny por 
otra persona por su mandado, sin consentimiento de la otra parte a quien 
tocare, y sim primero ser para la tal absolucion citada e rrequerida e oyda ; 
e los dichos procuradores desde agora para entonces, y desde entonces para 
agora, em nombre de los dichos sus constetuientes, suplican a Su Sanctidad 
que lo quiera asy confirmar e juzgar por sentengia del modo e manera que 
em este capitolo esta asentado e declarado, de la qual confirmacion e aproba- 
cion cada una de las partes podra sacar su bulla, la qual los dichos procura 
dores, em nombre de los dichos sus constituientes peden a Su Sanctidad que 
mande dar a cada uno dellos que la expedir quisiere, sim mas la otra parte 
para ello se rrequerir para confirmacion e firmeza de su derecho. 

Y todo lo sobredicho asy concordado e asentado, como de suso es contenido, 
los dichos procuradores, em nombre de los dichos sus constituientes, y por 
vertud de las dichas sus procuraciones, dixeron ante mym, el dicho secre- 
tario e notario publico, e ante los testigos de yuso escriptos y firmados, que 
aprobavan, loavan, y otorgavan pera siempre jamas, asy e tan enteramente, 
com todas las clausulas, declaraciones, pactos y convenciones, penas y obliga- 
ciones en este contrato contenidas ; y promitieron y se obligaron, la una parte 
a la otra, la otra a la otra, em nombre de los dichos sus constituientes, estipu- 
lantes e aceptantes por solene estipulacion, de asy lo tener e complir y gardar 
para siempre jamas, y que los dichos sus constituientes y sus sobcesores y 
todos sus vasalhos, subditos, y naturales, ternan y gardaran e compliran, 
agora e pera siempre, el dicho contrato e todo lo en el contenido, so las penas 
y obligaciones en el declaradas ; y que nom yran nim vernam, nym consentiran 
ny permitiran que sea ido ny venido contra el, ny parte alguna del, directe 
ny indirectemente, em juizio ny fuera del, por ninguna causa, color, ni caso 
alguno que sea, o ser pueda, pensada o por pensar; y dixeron los dichos 
procuradores em nombre de los dichos senhores sus constituientes que 
rrenunciavan, como de hecho rrenunciaran todas las enexaciones y ecepciones 
e todos rremedios juridicos, beneficios y concilios ordinaries y extraordinarios, 
que a los dichos senores sus constituientes, y a cada uno dellos conpetem, o 
podram conpetir e pertenecer por derecho, aguora y en qualquier tiempo de 
aquy adelante, para anular y rrevocar o quebrantar, en todo o em parte, este 
contrato, o para inpedir el efecto del, y ansy mismo rrenunciaran todos los 
derechos, leis, costunbres, estilos, hazanas y openiones de doctores, que para 
ello les pudiesem aprovechar, em qualquier manera, y especialmente rrenun 
ciaran las leis y derechos que dizem que general rrenunciacion no val, para 
lo qual todo asy tener e gardar y conplir obligaron los dichos procuradores 
todos los bienes, patrimoniales e fiscales, de los dichos sus constituientes y 
de las coronas de sus rreinos ; y, por maior firmeza. los dichos procuradores 
dixeron que jurarian, como de hecho loguo juraran ante mym, el dicho 
secretario y notario suso dicho, e testigos de yuso espritos, a Dios y a Sancta 



Saragossa, 1529 183 

Maria y a la serial de la Cruz ^ y a los sanctos Avangelios, que com sus 
manos derechas tocaran, em nombre y en las animas de los dichos sus con- 
stituientes, por virtud de los dichos poderes que especialmente para ello 
tienem, que ellos, y cada uno dellos, por sy y por sus subcesores, ternam, e 
gardaran y haran tener y gardar, para siempre jamas, este contrato, como 
en el es contenido ; y que los dichos senores sus constituientes, y cada uno 
dellos, confirmaran, aprovaran, loaran e rratificaran y otorgaran de nuevo 
esta capitulation, y todo lo en ello contenido, y cada cosa, y parte dello, y 
prometeran y se obligaran y juraran de lo gardar y conplir cada una de las 
partes, pelo que le toca, incumbe e atane de hazer e gardar e complir, rreal- 
mente y com efecto, a buena fee, sim mal engano, y sim arte ni cautela alguna ; 
y que los dichos sus constituientes ny alguno dellos, no demamdaran, por sy, 
ny por otras personas, absulucion, rrelaxacion, dispensacion, ny conmutacion 
del dicho juramiento, a nuestro muy sancto Padre, ni a otra persona alguna 
que poder tenga para lo dar e conceder ; y, puesto que de propio motu, o en 
otra qualquier manera, les sea dada, no usaran della, antes, sin enbargo della, 
ternan, gardaran, y cumpliran, y haran tener y gardar y conplir todo lo 
contenido en este dicho contrato, com todas las clausulas, obligaciones y 
penas, y cada cosa, y parte dello, segund en el se contiene, fiel e verdadera, 
rrealmente e com efecto, y que dara y entregara, cada una de las dichas 
partes a la otra, la dicha aprobacion e rratificacion deste contrato, jurada e 
ffirmada de cada huum de los dichos sus constituientes, y sellada com su 
sello, desd el dia de la fecha del em veinte dias luego seguientes. Em 
testimonio y firmeza de lo qual, los dichos procuradores otorgaron este 
contrato en la forma suso dicha, ante mym, el dicho secretario y notario suso 
dicho, y de los testigos de yuso espritos, y lo firmaron de sus nombres, y 
pidierom a mym, el dicho secretario y notario, que les diese uno y muchos 
instrumentos, se les necesario fuesen, sub my publica firma y signo ; que 
fue fecha y otorgada em la dicha cibdad de Caragoca, el dia, mes y anno 
suso dichos. Testigos que fuerom presentes al otorgamiento deste dicho 
contrato, y vieron firmar en el a todos los dichos senores procuradores, en el 
rregistro de mym, el dicho secretario, y los vieron jurar corporalmente em 
mano de mym, el dicho secretario : Alonso de Valdes, secretario del dicho 
senor Emperador, y Agustin de Urbina, chancyller de su Magestad, Jeronimo 
Rancio, criado del dicho senor chandler, y Conde de Gatynara ; y Hernam 
Rodriguez y Antonio de Sosa, criados del dicho senor embaixador Antonio 
de Azevedo, y Alonso de Ydiaquez, criado de mym, el dicho secretario, los 
quales dichos testigos, asy mismo firmaran sus nombres en el rregistro de 
mym, el dicho secretario. Mercurinus, cancellarius. Frater Garcia, episcopus 
Oxomensis. El Comemdador Mayor. Antonio de Azevedo, coutinho. 
Testigos : Alonso de Valdes, Jeronimo Rancio, Agustin de Urbina, Antonio 
de Sousa, Fernan Rodriguez, Alonso de Ydiaquez. E yo, el dicho secretario 
y notario, Francisquo de los Covos, fuy presente, en uno con los dichos 
testigos, al otorgamiento deste contrato y asiento, y al juramiento en el 
contenido, que en mis manos hizieron los dichos senores procuradores, y al 
firmar dellos y de los dichos testigos, en el rregisto que queda en my poder ; 
e a pedimiento del dicho senor embaxador Antonio de Azevedo, hyze sacar 
este treslado ; e, por.ende, fize aquy mi signo em testimonio de verdad. Fran 
cisquo de los Covos. 



184 Doc. 16. Spain Portugal 

La qual dicha espritura e asiento, que de suso va incorporado, por nos 
vista y entendida, y cada cosa y parte dello, y siendo ciertos y certeficados 
de todo lo en ella contenido, por la presente lo loamos e confirmamos e 
aprobamos y rreteficamos, y quanto es necesario de nuevo otorgamos, y 
prometemos de tener y gardar la dicha escriptura y asiento, que asy polos 
dichos nuestros procuradores, e asy mismo por el dicho embaixador, procu- 
rador del dicho serenisimo, muy alto, muy poderoso Rey de Portugal, nuestro 
ermano, fue asentada e otorgada e concertada em nuestros nombres, y cada 
cosa e parte dello, de todo lo tener y guardar, rrealmente y com efeto, a 
buena fee, sim mal emgano, cesante todo fraude e simulacion, dolo e cautela, 
e toda otra especie de decebcion y arte ; y queremos y somos contentos que 
se guarde e cunpla, segund y como en ella se contiene, bien asy y tan com- 
plidamente, como sy por nos fuera hecha y asentada. E, para validacion 
e corroboracion e firmeza de la dicha espritura de venta e asiento, derogamos 
e abrogamos, casamos e anulamos todas las leis e derechos, prematicas, 
hazanas, y openiones de doctores, que al valor de la dicha espritura de suso 
emcorporada seam contrarias ; especialmente derogamos, casamos, e anulamos 
quallesquiera peticiones de procuradores del rreyno que en las cortes de 
Toledo, o en otras qualesquiera que ayamos tenido, no [sic] seam fechas 
sobre que no hagamos este concierto e asiento, ny otro alguno, con el dicho 
serenisimo rrey, nuestro hermano, puesto que especie de contrato tengan ; 
e asy mismo qualesquiera prematicas, capitolos de cortes, que, sobre las 
dichas peteciones de procuradores del rreyno, hayamos hecho, porque todas 
e cada una dellas derogamos, abrogamos, anulamos y casamos, y avemos 
por ningunas, de nuestro poderio rreal absuluto, no rreconocientes superior 
en lo temporal ; y avemos por buena la dicha spritura de venta, con el dicho 
pacto de rretro vendendo, y la confirmamos y rreteficamos, desde aguora 
pera siempre jamas, y la avemos por buena y provechosa a nos y a la corona 
de nosos rreinos ; y queremos que valga como se em cortes, y con consen- 
timiento de los procuradores de las cibdades, villas y pueblos de nuestros 
rreinos, fuese fecha ; la qual asy confirmamos e rreteficamos e aprovamos por 
causas a nos conocidas y provechosas, y a la corona de nuestros rreinos ; y 
avemos por casadas, anuladas, e abrogadas todas e qualesquiera leies e 
derechos que en contrario seam ; especialmente derogamos, casamos e 
anulamos las leies que dizen e disponen que general rrenunciacion nom vale. 
E yo, el rrey, juro a Dios y a Santa Maria, y a las palavras de los Sanctos 
Avangelios, y a la serial de la Cruz >J< em que ponguo nuestra mano derecha, 
y prometemos, por nos, y por nuestros subcesores, de nunca yr nem venir, 
ny consentir, ny permetir que se vaya ny pase contra esta espritura de venta, 
com pacto de rretro vendemdo, ny parte della. dereite ny imlereite, ny por 
otra alguna caussa, pensada o no pensada, so color alguna, por nos ny por 
otro, ny consentiremos ny permiteremos que otra alguna persona o personas 
vayam contra la dicha espritura e asiento, antes lo defenderemos. y casti- 
garemos e proiberemos quanto a nos posible sea, so cargo del dicho juramiento, 
del no pediremos rrelaxacion, como por mys procuradores esta otorgado, ny 
usaremos della, puesto que el papa, o otro que su poder tenga, de su propio 
motu nos la conceda, puesto que tenga clausulas derogatorias e abrogatorias 
de todo lo que dicho es, porque todo lo rremmciamos, y prometemos de 
no usar dello, so cargo del dicho juramiento, y, para certenidad desta nuestra 
voluntad y firmeza y validacion de lo suso dicho, mandamos pasar y dar 
esta nuestra carta de aprobacion, rratificacion, abrogacion y anulacion, firmada 



Saragossa, 1529 185 



por my, el rrey, y sellada con nuestro sello. Dada en la cidad de Lerida, a 
veinte e tres dias del mes dAbril, ano del Senor de mil e quinientos e veinte 
e nueve anos. Yo, El Rey. Yo, Francisquo de los Covos, secretario de Sus 
Cesarea y Catholicas Magestades, la fize screvir por su mamdado. Mercu- 
rinus, cancelarius. Prater Garcia, episcopus Oxomensis. El Comendador 
Maior. 

A qual carta de contrato, capitolacam, e asento de pacto de rretro ven- 
dendo, vista por mym, e todas as condicoes e clausulas em ella conteudas, de 
palavra a palavra, bem vistas e entemdidas, a comfirmo, aprovo, e rretefico, 
e ey por booa e todas as cousas em ella conteudas e cada huua dellas ; e 
prometo por minha fee rreal, y juro aos santos Avangelhos, sobre que pus 
minims maaos, que as comprirey e gardarey, comvem a saber, aquelas que 
a mym toca comprir e guardar, por bem, do dito contrato, capitolacam, e 
asento, asy e tam inteiramente como nela he conteudo e declarado e sem 
mingoamento alguum, e sob as penas, clausulas, pactos, e condicoes que 
nela se contem. E prometo e juro, por mym e por meus erdeiros e sobcesores, 
de nunca em nenhuum tempo, nem por modo alguum, por mym, nem por 
outrem, hiir nem viir contra o dito contrato, capitolacam, e asento, nem 
contra cousa alguua das que em elle sam contiudas, antes em todo e por todo 
as comprirey e guardarey, e farey comprir e gardar, a boa fee, sem arte, 
cautela, emgano nem malicia alguua, como dito he. E, por certidam de 
todo, mamdeey fazer esta carta de comfirmacam, aprovacam e rreteficacam, 
por mym asinada e aselada do meu selo pendente em chumbo. Dada em a 
cidade de Lixboa, a vinte dias de Junho. Pero dAlcacova Carneiro a fez. 
Anno de Noso Senhor Jesuu Cristo de mil e quinhentos e trinta annos. 

EL REY. 

TRANSLATION. 

Dom John, by the grace of God king of Portugal, and of the Algarves on 
this side and beyond the sea in Africa, lord of Guinea and of the conquest, 
navigation, and commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and India. Be it 
known to all who shall see this my deed of confirmation, approval, and 
ratification, that between me and Don Charles, emperor ever august, king of 
Germany, Castile, Leon, Aragon, the Two Sicilies, Jerusalem, etc., my very 
beloved and prudent brother, there was doubt and dispute in respect to the 
ownership and possession (or quasi-possession), title, navigation, and com 
merce of the Moluccas and other islands and seas, each of us saying that 
they belonged to him and that he was in the possession of all the aforesaid ; 
and because of our very close relationship, and in order that no discontent 
might ever be felt between our vassals and the natives of our kingdoms, 
and that the great love, justice, and obligation existing between us might 
always be preserved, we have concerted in respect to the aforesaid a deed 
of contract, treaty, and agreement, made by our sufficient and qualified repre 
sentatives, deputed therefor, the tenor of which, word for word, is as 
follows : 

Don Charles, by the divine clemency elected emperor ever august, king of 
Germany, Dona Joanna, his mother, and the same Don Charles, her son, by 
the grace of God king and queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, the Two Sicilies, 



18G Doc. 16. Spain Portugal 

Jerusalem, Navarre, Granada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, Seville, Cordova, 
Corsica, Murcia, Jaen, the Algarves, Algeciras, Gibraltar, the Canary Islands, 
the Indies, islands and mainland of the ocean sea, archduke and archduchess 
of Austria, duke and duchess of Burgundy and Brabant, count and countess 
of Barcelona, Flanders, and Tyrol, lord and lady of Biscay and Molina, duke 
and duchess of Athens and Neopatras, count and countess of Roussillon and 
Cerdagne, marquis and marchioness of Oristano and Gociano, etc., we have 
seen and read a deed of treaty and agreement of sale with compact of retro- 
vendendo of the right and possession, or quasi-possession, and action that 
we have or may have in the Molucca Islands in whatever way the right 
may or can pertain to us and in the lands, islands, and seas mentioned in the 
said contract and agreement, made in our name by Mercurino de Gattinara, 
count of Gattinara, grand chancellor of me, the king, and by Don Fray 
Garcia de Loaysa, bishop of Osma, my confessor, and by Don Garcia de 
Padilla, chief knight-commander of Calatrava, all members of our council 
and our representatives, and by Antonio d Azevedo, contino, member of the 
council and ambassador of the most serene, very exalted and very mighty 
King of Portugal, our very dear and greatly beloved brother, and his repre 1 
sentative, the tenor of which, word for word, is as follows : 

In the name of God Almighty, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, three Persons, 
and only one true God. Be it known and manifest to all who shall see this 
public instrument of adjustment and contract of sale, with compact of retro- 
vendendo, that in the city of Saragossa, which is in the kingdom of Aragon, 
on the twenty-second day of the month of April, in the year of the nativity 
of our Savior Jesus Christ, 1529, in the presence of me, Francisco de los 
Cobos, secretary and member of the covmcil of the emperor, Don Charles, 
and of the queen, Dona Joanna, his mother, queen and king of Castile, and 
their scrivener and notary public, and in the presence of the undersigned 
witnesses, appeared the lords, Mercurino de Gattinara, count of Gattinara, 
grand chancellor of the said emperor, the very reverend Don Fray Garcia de 
Loaysa, bishop of Osma, his confessor, and Don Fray Garcia de Padilla, 
chief knight-commander of the Order of Calatrava, all three members of the 
council of the said very exalted and very powerful princes, Don Charles, 
by divine clemency elected emperor ever august, king of Germany, and 
Dona Joanna, his mother, and the same Don Charles, her son, by the grace 
of God, king and queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, the Two Sicilies, Jerusalem, 
Navarre, Granada, etc., in the name and as representatives of the said lords, 
emperor and king and queen of Castile, on the one part, and Antonio 
d Azevedo, contino, member of the council and ambassador of the very 
exalted and very powerful lord, Dom John, by the grace of God king of 
Portugal, of the Algarves on this side of and beyond the sea in Africa, lord 
of Guinea and of the conquest, navigation, and commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, 
Persia, and India, etc., in his name, and as his representative on the other 
part; as they presently proved by their procurations, suitable and sufficient 
for this contract, signed by the said lords, emperor and king and queen of 
Castile and the King of Portugal, and sealed with their seals. Verbatim 
transcripts of these said procurations are as follows : 

[Here follow the full powers granted by the sovereigns of Castile to 
the Count of Gattinara, the Bishop of Osma, and the chief Knight- 
Commander of Calatrava on April 15, 1529, and the full powers granted by 
John III. of Portugal to Antonio d Azevedo on October 18, 1528.] 



Saragossa, 1529 187 

After" said authorizations were presented by the said representatives it 
was declared that, inasmuch as there existed a doubt between the said 
Emperor and King of Castile, etc., and the said King of Portugal, etc., con 
cerning the ownership, possession, and rights, or possession, or quasi-posses- 
sion, navigation, and trade of the Moluccas and other islands and seas, which 
each one of the said lords, the Emperor and King of Castile and the King 
of Portugal, declares as his, both by virtue of the treaties made by the most 
exalted, powerful, and Catholic sovereigns, Don Fernando and Dona Isabella, 
rulers of Castile, grandparents of the said Emperor and the King, Dom 
John II., of Portugal (may they rest in glory), about the demarcation of the 
ocean sea, and by virtue of other rights and privileges which each one of the 
said emperor and monarchs asserts to belong and pertain to said islands, seas, 
and lands belonging to him of which he is in possession ; and inasmuch as 
the said emperor and monarchs considering the very close relationship and 
great affection existing between them, and which not only should very 
rightly be preserved, but as far as possible be increased, and in order to free 
themselves from the doubts, complaints, and disputes that might arise between 
them, and the many troubles that might ensue among their vassals and sub 
jects and the natives of their kingdoms, the said emperor and monarchs, and 
the said attorneys acting in their names, have covenanted and agreed as to 
the said doubts and disputes in the following form and manner: 

i. First, the said Grand Chancellor, the Bishop of Osma, and the Com 
mander-in-chief of Calatrava, attorneys of the said emperor and sovereign 
of Castile, declared that they, in his name, and by virtue of their said power of 
attorney, would sell and in fact did sell from this day and for all time, to 
the said King of Portugal, for him and all the successors to the crown of his 
kingdoms, all right, action, dominion, ownership, and possession, or quasi- 
possession, and all rights of navigation, traffic, and trade in any manner 
whatsoever, that the said Emperor and King of Castile declares that he holds 
and could hold howsoever and in whatsoever manner in the said Moluccas, 
the islands, places, lands, and seas, as will be declared hereafter ; this, with 
the declarations, limitations, conditions, and clauses contained and stated 
hereunder, for the sum of three hundred and fifty thousand ducats of gold, 
paid in the current money, of gold or silver, each ducat being valued in 
Castile at three hundred and seventy-five maravedis. The said King of 
Portugal will give and pay this amount to the said Emperor and King of 
Castile, and to the persons whom his Majesty may appoint, in the following 
manner : one hundred and fifty thousand ducats to be paid at Lisbon within 
the first fifteen or twenty days after this contract, confirmed by the said 
Emperor and King of Castile, shall have arrived at the city of Lisbon, or 
wherever the said King of Portugal may be ; thirty thousand ducats to be 
paid in Castile twenty thousand at Valladolid and ten thousand at Seville, 
by the twentieth day of the month of May of this present year; seventy 
thousand ducats to be paid in Castile at the May fair of Medina del Campo 
of this same year, at the terms of the payments of said fair, and the hundred 
thousand ducats remaining at the October fair at the said town of Medina 
del Campo, of this same year, at the terms of the payment of the same all 
to be paid over and above the rate of exchange. If necessary, notes will 

" From this point through art. 14 the translation is from Blair and Robertson, Philip 
pine Islands, I. 223-238. 

13 



188 Doc. 1 6. Spain Portugal 

be given for the said time ; and, if said Emperor and King of Castile wishes 
to take in exchange the said hundred thousand ducats at the said May fair 
of this said year in order to avail himself of their use, he shall pay the said 
King of Portugal exchange at the rate of five or six per cent., the rate which 
his treasurer, Hernand Alvarez, is accustomed to exact from fair to fair. 
The aforesaid sale is made by the said Emperor and King of Castile to the 
said King of Portugal on condition that, at whatever time the said Emperor 
and King of Castile or his successors should wish to return and should return 
all of the said three hundred and fifty thousand ducats without any shortage 
to the said King of Portugal or his successors, the said sale becomes null and 
void and each one of the said sovereigns shall enjoy the right and authority 
which he now holds and claims to hold, both as regards the right of posses 
sion or quasi-possession, and as regards the proprietorship, howsoever and 
in whatever manner they belong to him, as if this contract were not made, and 
in the manner in which they first held possession and claimed to hold it, and 
this contract shall cause no prejudice or innovation. 

2. Item, it is covenanted and agreed by the said attorneys, in the names 
of their said constituents, that, in order to ascertain what islands, places, 
lands, seas, and their rights and jurisdiction, are sold henceforth and forever 
by the said Emperor and King of Castile, by this contract under the afore 
said condition, to the said King of Portugal, a line must be determined from 
pole to pole, that is to say, from north to south, by a semicircle extending 
northeast by east nineteen degrees from Molucca, to which number of degrees 
correspond almost seventeen degrees on the equinoctial, amounting to two 
hundred and ninety-seven and one-half leagues east of the islands of Molucca, 
allowing seventeen and one-half leagues to an equinoctial degree. In this 
northeast by east meridian and direction are situated the islands of Las 
Velas and * Santo Thome, through which the said line and semicircle 
passes. Sinee these islands are situated and are distant from Molucca the 
said distance, more or less, the deputies determine and agree that the said 
line be drawn at the said two hundred and ninety-seven and one-half leagues 
to the east, the equivalent of the nineteen degrees northeast by east from 
the said islands of Molucca, as aforesaid. The said deputies declare that, 
in order to ascertain where the said line should be drawn, two [model] charts 
of the same tenor shall be made, conformable to the [model] chart in the India 
House of Trade at Seville, and by which the fleets, vassals, and subjects of 
the said Emperor and King of Castile navigate. Within thirty days from the 
date of this contract two persons shall be appointed by each side to examine 
the aforesaid chart and make the two copies aforesaid conformable to it. In 
them the said line shall be drawn in the manner aforesaid ; and they shall 
be signed by the said sovereigns and sealed with their seals, so that each one 
will keep his own chart ; and the said line shall remain fixed henceforth at 
the point and place so designated. This chart shall also designate the 
spot in which the said vassals of the said Emperor and King of Castile shall 
situate and locate Molucca, which during the time of this contract shall be 
regarded as situated in such place, although in truth it is situated more or 
less distance eastward from the place that is designated in the said charts. 
The seventeen degrees eastward shall be drawn from the point where Molucca 
is situated in said charts. For the good of this contract the said King of 

**The word of is omitted from the translation. Cf. Doc. 15, note 23. 



Saragossa, 1529 189 

Portugal must have said chart, and in case the aforesaid be not found in the 
House of Trade of Seville, the said persons appointed by the said sovereigns 
shall make said charts within one month, signed and sealed as aforesaid. 
Furthermore navigation charts shall be made by them, in which the said line 
shall be drawn in the manner aforesaid, so that henceforth the said vassals, 
natives, and subjects of the said Emperor and King of Castile shall navigate 
by them; and so that the navigators of either part shall be certain of the 
location of the said line and of the aforesaid distance of the two hundred 
and ninety-seven and one-half leagues between the said line and Molucca. 

3. It is covenanted and agreed by the said deputies that, whenever the said 
King of Portugal shall wish to prove his right to the proprietorship of 
Molucca, and the lands and seas specified in this contract, and although at 
that time the said Emperor and King of Castile shall not have returned 
the price abovesaid, nor the said contract be cancelled, it shall be done in 
the following manner, namely, each one of the said sovereigns shall appoint 
three astrologers and three pilots or three mariners, who are experts in 
navigation, who shall assemble at a place on the frontier between the king 
doms, where it shall be agreed that they assemble, within four months of the 
time when the Emperor and King of Castile, or his successors, shall be 
notified by the said King of Portugal to appoint a day. There they shall 
consult, covenant, and agree upon the manner of ascertaining the right of 
said proprietorship conformable to said treaty and contract made between the 
said Catholic sovereigns, Don Ferdinand and Dona Isabella, and the said 
king, Dom John II., of Portugal. In case the said Emperor and King of 
Castile be judged to have the right of said proprietorship, such sentence shall 
not be executed nor used until the said Emperor and King of Castile, or his 
successors, shall first have actually returned all the said three hundred and 
fifty thousand ducats, which by virtue of this contract shall have been given. 
If the right of proprietorship be conceded to the said King of Portugal, the 
said Emperor and King of Castile, or his successors, shall be obliged actually 
to return the said three hundred and fifty thousand ducats to the said King 
of Portugal, or his successors, within the first four years ensuing after the 
date of such sentence. 

4. Item, it was covenanted and agreed by said deputies, in the names of 
their said constituents, that, since this contract of sale shall be valid and 
hold good henceforth from date, if any spices or drugs of any sort whatever 
be brought to any ports or parts of the kingdoms and seigniories of either 
of the said constituents, in charge of the vassals, subjects, or natives of the 
kingdoms of the said Emperor and King of Castile, or by any other persons 
whomsoever who may not be vassals, subjects, or natives of said kingdoms, 
then the said Emperor and King of Castile in his kingdoms and seigniories, 
and the said King of Portugal in his, shall be obliged to order and cause, 
and they shall order and cause, the said spices or drugs to be deposited 
securely, without him to whose kingdom they have been brought being so 
notified to do so by the other side ; but they shall be deposited in the name of 
both, in the power of the person or persons whom each one of the said 
sovereigns shall have ordered to take charge of said deposit in his lands and 
seigniories. The said sovereigns shall be obliged to order and cause such 
deposit to be made in the manner abovesaid, whether the said spices or drugs 
are found in the possession of those who brought them, or in the power of 
any other person or persons, in whatsoever regions or districts they shall 



190 Doc. 16. Spain Portugal 

have been found. The said emperor and kings shall be obliged to give notifi 
cation to this effect henceforth throughout all their kingdoms and seigniories 
so that these instructions may be complied with and no one may plead ignor 
ance of them. The said spices or drugs having been taken to any ports or 
lands that do not belong to either one of the said sovereigns, provided they 
are not those of enemies, either one of them by virtue of this contract may 
require, in the name of both, and without showing any further provision or 
power of the other to the justice of the kingdoms and seigniories where 
said drugs or spices happen to be, or to have been found, and they may 
order them to be deposited, and they shall be deposited. In whatsoever ports 
said drugs or spices are thus found they will be under embargo and deposited 
by both until it is known from whose demarcation they were taken. In order 
to ascertain if the places and lands from which the said spices or drugs are 
taken and brought fall within the demarcation and limits which by this con 
tract remain to the said King of Castile, and if they contain the said spices 
or drugs, the said emperor and kings shall despatch two or four ships, an 
equal number being sent by both. In these an equal number of persons from 
both sides, sworn to fulfill their obligation, shall sail to those places and lands 
whence the said spices or drugs were said to have been taken and brought, in 
order to ascertain and determine within whose demarcation are situated the 
said lands and places whence the said spices or drugs are said to have been 
brought. Should it be found that said places and lands are within the 
demarcation of the said Emperor and King of Castile, that the said spices 
and drugs exist there in such quantity that they could reasonably be carried 
away, then the said deposit shall be given up and freely delivered to the said 
Emperor and King of Castile without his being obliged to pay any costs, 
expenses, interests, or any other thing. If, on the other hand, it be dis 
covered that said drugs or spices were taken from the districts and lands 
belonging to the said King of Portugal, the said deposit shall be ceded and 
delivered in like manner to the said King of Portugal without his being 
obliged to pay any costs, expenses, interests, nor anything whatsoever. The 
persons who thus imported said drugs or spices shall be penalized and pun 
ished by the said Emperor and King of Castile or by his justices, as violators 
of peace and faith, according to law. Each one of the aforesaid, the emperor 
and king of Castile and the king of Portugal, shall be obliged to send as many 
ships and persons as may be required by the other. As soon as the said 
spices or drugs shall be deposited and placed under embargo in the manner 
aforesaid, neither the said Emperor and King of Castile, nor his agents, nor 
anyone with his favor or consent, shall go or send to the said land or lands 
whence were taken the said drugs or spices in this manner. All that is set 
forth in this section about the deposit of the spices or drugs shall not be under 
stood to refer to the spices or drugs which may come to any places whatso 
ever for the said King of Portugal. 

5. Item, it is covenanted and agreed that, in all the islands, lands, and 
seas within the said line, the vessels and people of the said Emperor and King 
of Castile, or of his subjects, vassals, or natives of his kingdom, or any 
others (although these latter be not his subjects, vassals, or natives of his 
kingdoms), shall not, with or without his command, consent, favor, and aid, 
enter, navigate, barter, traffic, or take on board anything whatsoever that 
may be in said islands, lands, or seas. Whosoever shall henceforth violate 
any of the aforesaid provisions, or who shall be found within said line, 




Saragassa, 1529 191 

seized by any captain, captains, or people of the said King of 
Portugal, and shall be tried, chastised, and punished by the said captains as 
privateers and violators of the peace. Should they not be found inside of 
said line by the said captains or people of the said King of Portugal and 
should come to any port, land, or seigniory whatsoever of the said Emperor 
and King of Castile, the said Emperor and King of Castile, by his justices in 
that place, shall be obliged and bound to take and hold them. In the mean 
time the warrants and examinations proving their guilt in each of the afore 
said things shall be sent by the said King of Portugal, or by his justices, and 
they shall be punished and chastised exactly as evil-doers and violators of the 
peace and faith. 

6. Item, it is covenanted and agreed by said deputies that the said Emperor 
and King of Castile shall not personally, or through an agent, send the natives 
of his kingdoms, his vassals, subjects, or aliens (and although these latter 
be not natives of his kingdoms, or his vassals or subjects), to the said islands, 
lands, and seas within said line, nor shall he consent nor give them aid or 
favor or permit them to go there contrary to the form and determination of 
this contract. Rather he shall be obliged to forbid, suppress, and prevent 
it as much as possible. Should the said Emperor and King of Castile, 
personally or through an agent, send natives of his kingdoms, or his vassals, 
subjects, or aliens (although these latter be not natives of his kingdoms, or 
his vassals or subjects), to the said islands, lands, or seas within the said 
line, or consent to such a thing, giving them aid or favor or permitting them 
to go contrary to the form and determination of this contract ; and should 
he not forbid, suppress, or prevent it as much as possible, the said agreement 
of retrovendendo becomes null and void ; and the said King of Portugal 
shall no longer be obliged to receive the said sum, nor to sell back the rights 
and dominion which the said Emperor and King of Castile might have 
therein, in any manner whatsoever, but which he has sold, renounced, and 
delivered to the said King of Portugal by virtue of this contract, and by this 
very act the said sale shall remain complete and valid forever, as if at first it 
were made without condition and agreement to sell back. However, since it 
may happen that, when the aforesaid subjects, natives, or vassals of the said 
Emperor and King of Castile, navigating as aforesaid in the southern seas, 
should meet with winds so tempestuous or contrary that they would be 
constrained by necessity to continue their course and navigation within the 
said line, they shall in such case incur no penalty whatever. On the contrary, 
when, in such circumstances, they shall come to and anchor at any land 
included within the said line, pertaining by virtue of this contract to the said 
King of Portugal, they shall be treated by his subjects, vassals, and inhabi 
tants of said land as the vassals of his brother, as in the same manner the 
Emperor and King of Castile would command the Portuguese subjects 
to be treated who should in like manner arrive at ports in his lands of New 
Spain or in any other of his ports. It is understood, however, that when 
such necessity ceases they shall immediately set sail and return to their part 
of the southern seas. Should the aforesaid subjects cross said line through 
ignorance, it is herein covenanted and agreed that they shall incur on that 
account no penalty whatsoever, and as long as it is not fully evident that they 
know themselves to be within the said line, they shall not turn about and go 
outside of it as is covenanted and agreed in case of entering on account of 
tempestuous and contrary winds or necessity. But, when such a fact is 



192 Doc. 16. Spain Portugal 

quite evident, if it shall be proved that they have entered the line maliciously, 
they shall be punished and dealt with as those who shall enter the line as 
aforesaid and as is set forth in this contract. Should the aforesaid discover 
any islands or lands while navigating within the said line, such islands or 
lands shall belong freely and actually to the said King of Portugal and his 
successors, as if they were discovered, found, and taken possession of by 
his own captains and vassals at such time. It is covenanted and agreed by said 
deputies that the ships and vessels of the said Emperor and King of Castile 
and those of his subjects, vassals, and the natives of his kingdoms may 
navigate and pass through the seas of the said King of Portugal, whence his 
fleets sail for India, only as much as may be necessary to take a due course 
toward the Strait of Magellan. And if they violate the abovesaid and sail 
farther over the said seas of the said King of Portugal than is mentioned 
above, both the said Emperor and King of Castile, if it is proved that they did 
it by his order, countenance, aid, or consent, and those sailing in this manner 
and violating the abovesaid, shall incur the above penalties in the completeness 
set forth above in this contract. 

7. Item, it was covenanted and agreed that if any of the subjects of the 
said Emperor and King of Castile or any others shall henceforth be seized 
and found within the said limits above declared, they shall be imprisoned by 
any captain, captains, or subjects whatsoever of the said King of Portugal 
and shall be tried, chastised, and punished as privateers, violators, and dis 
turbers of the peace by the said captains. Should they not be discovered 
within the said line, and should afterwards come to any port whatever of the 
said Emperor and King of Castile, his Majesty and his justices shall be 
obliged to seize and imprison them until the warrants and testimonies sent 
by the said King of Portugal, or his justices, shall have been presented. If 
proved guilty of the aforesaid offenses they shall be punished and chastised 
to the limit as evil-doers and violators of the faith and peace, and of every 
thing else set forth in this contract in regard to the crossing of said line by 
any subjects of the said Emperor and King of Castile, or any others by his 
command, consent, favor, or aid. It is understood that these penalties shall 
apply from the day when the subjects and people of the said emperor now in 
and navigating those seas and regions shall be notified. Before such noti 
fication they shall not incur said penalties. It is to be understood, however, 
that the aforesaid refers to the people of the fleets of the said emperor which 
have until now gone to those parts, and that no others be sent without 
incurring said penalties from the day of the signing of this contract, and 
henceforth during the time that the said sale be not cancelled in the afore 
said manner. 

8. Item, it was covenanted and agreed by the said deputies that the said 
King of Portugal shall not build nor order built for himself, or any other, 
any new fortress whatever in Molucca, nor within twenty leagues of it, nor 
any nearer Molucca than the line which is to be drawn according to this 
contract. It is covenanted unanimously by the said deputies of both sides 
that this provision shall take effect, namely, from the time that the said King 
of Portugal can send there a notification to make no new fortress whatever, 
that is to say, in the first fleet which shall sail for India from the said king 
dom of Portugal after this contract shall have been confirmed and approved 
by the said constituents and sealed with their seals. There shall be no new 
work whatsoever undertaken on the fortress which is already built at Molucca, 



Saragossa, /5<?p 193 

from the said time henceforth ; it shall only be repaired and kept in the 
same condition in which it may be at the aforesaid time, if the said King of 
Portugal so desires ; to the above he shall swear and promise full compliance. 

9. Item, it was covenanted and agreed that the fleets which heretofore 
have been despatched to those regions by the said Emperor and King of 
Castile be well treated in every way by the said King of Portugal and his 
people ; and that no embargo or obstacle to their navigation or traffic be 
imposed upon them. If there should be any damage, which is not looked for 
however, which they shall have received or shall receive from his captains 
or people, or shall anything have been seized from them, the said King of 
Portugal shall be obliged to give satisfaction, restore, make good and pay 
immediately all such damages suffered by the said Emperor and King of 
Castile and his subjects and fleets ; he shall order the offenders to be punished 
and chastised, and he shall allow the fleets and people of the said Emperor 
and King of Castile to come and go as they please, freely, without any obstacle 
whatever. 

10. Item, it is covenanted that the said Emperor and King of Castile 
command letters and instructions to be given immediately to his captains and 
subjects who are in the said islands that they do no more trading henceforth 
and return at once, provided that they be allowed to bring freely whatever 
goods they shall have already bartered, traded, and taken on board. 

11. Item, it is covenanted and agreed that in the instructions and letters 
relating to this covenant and contract, which are to be given and despatched 
by the said Emperor and King of Castile, it shall declare that this statement, 
instruction, and contract as above made is as binding as though it were made 
and passed in the General Cortes, 41 with the express consent of the deputies 41 
thereof ; and to make it valid by his royal and absolute power, which, as 
king and natural lord, recognizing no temporal superior, he may exercise 
and shall exercise, abrogate, abolish, repeal, and annul the supplication made 
by the deputies of the cities and towns of these kingdoms at the cortes held in 
the city of Toledo in the past year, [one thousand] five hundred and twenty- 
five, concerning the trade of the said islands and lands, the reply given to it, 
and any law that was made on this subject in the said cortes or in any others 
that may conflict with this. 

12. Item, it is hereby covenanted that the said King of Portugal promises 
to command manifest, sincere, and summary justice to be executed, because 
certain subjects of the said Emperor and King of Castile and other aliens 
of his kingdoms who entered his service complain that their possessions 
have been seized by the former s India House of Trade " and in his kingdoms, 
without any regard to the annoyance caused them thereby, because they have 
entered the service and did serve the said emperor. 

13. Item, it was covenanted and agreed by the said deputies in the names 
of their said constituents that the treaties negotiated between the said Catholic 
sovereigns, Don Ferdinand and Dona Isabella and the King Dom John II., 
of Portugal, in regard to the demarcation of the ocean sea, shall remain 
valid and binding in toto and in every particular, as is therein contained and 
declared, excepting those things which are otherwise covenanted and agreed 
upon in this contract. In case the said Emperor and King of Castile returns 

41 The editor has ventured to alter the translation in respect to this word. 
"The translation has been slightly altered. 



194 Doc. 1 6. Spain Portugal 

the sum which, according to this contract, is to be given in the manner afore 
said, thus cancelling the sale, the said treaties negotiated between the said 
Catholic sovereigns, Don Ferdinand and Doiia Isabella and the said king Dom 
John II., of Portugal, shall remain in full force and power as if this contract 
were not made; and the said constituents shall be obliged to comply with it 
in every respect, as is therein agreed. 

14. Item, it is covenanted and agreed by the said deputies that although 
the rights and dominion which the said Emperor and King of Castile claims 
to possess in the said lands, districts, seas, and islands, and which he sells 
to the said King of Portugal in the manner abovesaid are worth more than 
[the] half of the just price given, and the said Emperor and King of Castile 
has certain definite knowledge, through exact information, of persons who 
are experts on the subject, and who have investigated and ascertained defi 
nitely, that said rights are of much greater value and worth, more than 
[the] half of the just price that the said King of Portugal gives to the said 
Emperor and King of Castile, he is pleased to make him a gift of it, as he 
does in fact, which from the said day henceforth shall be valid among the 
living, of the said excess in value above the half of the just price, however 
great that excess may be. This excess in value above the half of the just 
price the said Emperor and King of Castile relinquishes for himself and 
his successors, and disunites the same from the royal crown of his kingdoms 
forever, and delivers it entire to the said King of Portugal, to him and to his 
successors and crown of his kingdoms, really and effectually, in the afore 
said manner and during the time of this contract. 

15. Item, it is covenanted and agreed by the said representatives that which 
ever of the parties shall violate this contract, or part of it, of himself or 
through another, in any way, shape, or manner, premeditated or unpremedi 
tated, he shall, ipso facto, lose the right that he holds in any way, shape, or 
manner whatsoever. The whole shall be immediately adjudged, given to, 
and acquired by the other party, who shall abide by the said contract and 
not violate it, and to and by the crown of his realms. He who shall violate 
it shall not be cited, heard, or notified further ; nor shall it be necessary that 
any further sentence be given in respect to that matter, by any judge or 
judicator whatsoever, provided that the command, consent, or support of 
the party who shall violate it shall have been first investigated and proved. 
Furthermore, he who shall violate this contract in any form or manner 
whatsoever, in part or in whole, shall pay to the other party, who shall 
abide by it, 200,000 ducats of gold, as a penalty and under the name of fine 
and interest. This fine they shall incur as often as they shall violate the treaty 
in part or in whole, as has been said ; and whether this fine be exacted or not, 
the contract will, nevertheless, remain secure, valid, and stable forever and 
ever, to the advantage of him who shall abide by it, and to the disadvantage 
of the party who shall violate it. To this end they have pledged all the posses 
sions, patrimonial and fiscal, of their said constituents, and of the crowns of 
their realms, to fulfill and maintain all in the same manner and as com 
pletely as is set forth therein. 

1 6. Item, it was covenanted and agreed by the said representatives that 
the said lords, their constituents, and each one of them, shall solemnly swear 
and shall promise on the said oath, that neither they nor their successors 
will ever, at any time, violate this contract, in whole or in part, of themselves 
or through another, in court or without, in any way, shape, or manner what- 



Saragassa, 1529 195 



soever, or that may be thought of ; and that never, at any time, of themselves 
or through another, will they seek release from the said oath from our Very 
Holy Father, or from any other who may have power to release them. And 
although his Holiness, or whoever shall have power to release them, shall, 
without being asked, but proprio motu, release them from the said oath, they 
will not accept it, or ever, at any time, make use of the said release, or help 
themselves by it, or avail themselves of it, in any manner or way whatsoever, 
in court or out. 

17. Item, it was covenanted and agreed by the said representatives, that, 
for the further corroboration and strengthening of this contract, this con 
tract and adjustment, with all the clauses, conditions, compacts, obligations, 
and declarations thereof, as and in the manner in which they are set forth 
therein, be adjudged by sentence of the Pope, and confirmed and approved 
by his Holiness, by an apostolic bull, with his seal, in which bull of sentence, 
confirmation, and approval, all this contract will be inserted verbatim ; and 
that, in the said sentence, his Holiness supply and consider as supplied, of 
his certain knowledge and absolute power, all or any defect or formality, 
which may be required, in fact or in law, to render this contract more secure 
and valid, in all and every part of it ; and that his Holiness impose sentence of 
excommunication both upon the principal parties and upon all other persons 
who shall violate it, and shall not observe it, in whole or in part, in any way, 
shape, or manner whatsoever. In this sentence of excommunication, he shall 
declare and ordain that those who shall violate the said contract, in whole or in 
part, shall incur excommunication ipso facto, without any other sentence of 
excommunication, or declaration thereof, being necessary or required for that 
purpose ; and that those who violate it cannot be absolved by his Holiness, 
or by any other person acting by his command, without the consent of the 
other party concerned, and without his being first cited, notified, and heard 
in regard to the said absolution. The said representatives, henceforth and 
forever, and forever and henceforth, acting in the name of their said contitu- 
ents, entreat his Holiness that he will thus consent to confirm and adjudicate 
the contract in the form and manner agreed upon and stated in this article. 
Of this confirmation and approval each one of the parties will be able to 
obtain a copy of the bull, which the said representatives, acting in the name 
of their said constituents, shall solicit from his Holiness ; and the latter shall 
order it to be given to either one of them who shall choose to ask for it, 
without the other party s requiring it for the preservation and strengthening 
of his right. 

And all the foregoing having thus been covenanted and agreed, as is set 
forth above, the said representatives, acting in the name of their said con 
stituents, and by virtue of their said powers of attorney, declared before me, 
the said secretary and notary public, and before the undersigned witnesses, 
that they approved, commended, and authorized this contract forever and 
ever, as it is and in its entirety, with all the clauses, declarations, compacts 
and conventions, penalties, and obligations set forth in it ; and they promised 
and bound themselves reciprocally, in the name of their said constituents, 
stipulating and accepting as a formal stipulation, that they will keep, fulfill, 
and observe it in this manner forever ; and that their said constituents and 
their successors, and all their vassals, subjects, and natives of their kingdoms. 
shall keep, observe, and fulfill, now and forever, the said contract and all 
that is set forth therein, under the penalties and obligations stated therein ; 



196 Doc. 16. Spain Portugal 

and that they will not violate it, or consent or permit that it, or any part of it, 
be violated, directly or indirectly, in court or out, for any cause, pretext, or 
contingency, which may or can be, premeditated or unpremeditated. The 
said representatives declared in the name of the said lords, their constituents, 
that they renounced, as in fact they did renounce, all releases, exceptions, 
and all juridical remedies, benefits, and ordinary and extraordinary councils 
which are or may be due or rightfully pertain to the said lords, their constitu 
ents, and to each one of them, now and at any future time, to annul, revoke, 
and break this contract, wholly or in part, or to obstruct the effect of it, and 
in like manner they renounced all the rights, laws, customs, uses, decisions, 
and opinions of doctors of the law, which could protect them in any manner ; 
and they renounced specifically the laws and rights which declare that a 
general renunciation is invalid ; and as guarantee that they would keep, 
observe, and fulfill all this, the said representatives pledged all the patri 
monial and fiscal possessions belonging to their said constituents and to the 
crowns of their realms. For greater security, the said representatives de 
clared that they swore, as in fact they did swear forthwith, before me, the 
said secretary and notary aforesaid, and the undersigned witnesses, in the 
presence of God and of Holy Mary and upon the sign of the Cross >J<, and 
upon the Holy Gospels, which they touched with their right hands, in the 
name and on the consciences of their said constituents, by virtue of the said 
powers which they had especially for this purpose, that they, jointly and 
severally, themselves and their successors, will keep and observe this con 
tract and will cause it to be kept and observed forever and ever, as is set forth 
therein ; and that the said lords, their constituents, and each one of them, 
will confirm, approve, commend, ratify, and authorize anew this agreement 
and all that is set forth therein, and each part and parcel of it, and that they 
will promise, bind themselves, and swear to observe and fulfill it, each one of 
the parties [promising] to do, observe and fulfill, really and in effect, in good 
faith and without any deception, evasion, or mental reservation whatsoever, 
that which concerns, is incumbent upon, and appertains to him; and that 
neither their said constituents nor any of them will ask for himself or for 
others, absolution, release, dispensation, or commutation of the said oath, 
from our Very Holy Father, or from any other person who may have power 
to give and grant it ; and even though he gives it to them proprio motu or in 
any other way whatsoever, they will not make use of it, but rather, in spite 
of this, they will keep, observe, and fulfill, and will cause to be kept, observed, 
and fulfilled, all that is set forth in this said contract, with all the clauses, 
obligations, penalties, and every part and parcel thereof, as they stand, faith 
fully and truly, really and effectively, and that each one of the said parties 
will give and deliver to the other the said approval and ratification of this 
contract, sworn to, and signed by each one of their said constituents, and 
sealed with his seal, within the term of the first twenty days following the 
day when it is dated. In testimony and assurance of this, the said represen 
tatives authorized this contract in the foregoing form, before me, the afore 
said secretary and notary, and the undersigned witnesses; and they signed 
it with their names and they requested me, the said secretary and notary, 
to give them one, and, if they should need them, many instruments written 
under my public signature and sign. This was made and authorized in the 
said city of Saragossa on the day, month, and year abovesaid. Witnesses 
who were present at the authorization of this said contract, and saw it 



Saragossa, 1529 197 

signed by all the said representatives in the register made by me, the said 
secretary, and saw them take oath in person, by the hand of me, the said 
secretary : Alonso de Valdes, secretary of the said lord emperor ; Augustin 
de Urbina, chancellor of his Majesty ; Geronimo Ranzo, servant of the said 
lord Chancellor and Count of Gattinara ; Fernando Rodriguez and Antonio 
de Sosa, servants of the said lord ambassador, Antonio d Azevedo ; Alonso de 
Idiaquez, servant of me, the said secretary. The said witnesses likewise 
will sign their names in the register made by me the said secretary : Mercu- 
rinus, chancellor. Fray Garcia, bishop of Osma. The Chief Knight-Com 
mander. Antonio de Acevedo, contino. Witnesses: Alonso de Valdes, 
Hieronimo Ranzo, Agustin de Urbina, Antonio de Sousa, Fernando Rodri 
guez, Alonso de Idiaquez. I, the said secretary and notary, Francisco de los 
Cobos, was present, together with the said witnesses, at the authorization 
of this contract and treaty, and at the oath set forth therein, which the said 
representatives made by my hands, and at the signing of it by them, and by the 
said witnesses, in the register which remains in my possession ; and at the 
instance of the said ambassador, Antonio d Azevedo, I have caused this 
transcript to be made, and for that reason I have made this my sign here, 
in testimony of the truth, Francisco de los Cobos. 



Spanish ratification. 

The said instrument and treaty, incorporated above, and every part and 
parcel of it, having been seen and understood by us, we, being certain and 
assured of all its contents, commend, confirm, approve, and ratify it, by 
these presents, and so far as is necessary we execute it anew, and we promise 
to keep and observe the said instrument and treaty, which thus by our said 
representatives, and likewise by the said ambassador, representative of the 
said most serene, very exalted, and very mighty King of Portugal, our 
brother, was agreed to, authorized, and concerted in our names, and every 
part and parcel of it, to keep and observe it all, really and in truth, in good 
faith, without deceit, renouncing all fraud and subterfuge, imposition and 
mental reservation, and every other form of deception and evasion ; and we 
desire and are content that it shall be observed and fulfilled just as is set forth 
therein, in the same manner as, and as completely, as if it had been made and 
adjusted by us. And for the validation, corroboration, and security of the 
said instrument of sale and treaty, we abolish and abrogate, repeal and annul, 
all the laws and rights, rescripts, decisions, and opinions of doctors of the 
law that may be opposed to the validity of the said instrument incorporated 
above. In particular, we abolish, repeal, and annul any petitions from 
deputies of the realm that, in the Cortes of Toledo, or in any other cortes 
whatsoever held by us, they may have presented against our concluding this 
or any other agreement and treaty with the said Most Serene King, our 
brother, although they may regard the petition as a kind of contract; and 
likewise whatever rescripts and articles of the Cortes we may have made, 
in respect to the said petitions of the deputies of the realm, we, of our absolute 
royal power, recognizing no superior in temporal affairs, abolish, abrogate, 
annul, and repeal all and each of them, and deem them as nothing, and we | 
consider as good the said deed of sale, with the said compact of retrovendendo, 
and we confirm and ratify it, from now on forever and ever. And we regard 



198 Doc. 16. Spain Portugal 

it as good and profitable for us and for the crown of our realms ; and we 
desire that it shall be valid, as if it had been made in the Cortes and with 
the consent of the deputies of the cities, villages, and towns of our realms. 
We thus confirm, ratify, and approve it, for reasons known and profitable to 
us and to the crown of our realms ; and we consider as repealed, annulled, 
and abrogated all and whatsoever ordinances and laws may be contrary to 
it. In particular we abolish, repeal, and annul the laws that state and direct 
that a general renunciation is not valid. And I, the King, swear before God 
and Holy Mary and on the words of the Holy Gospels and on the sign of the 
Cross >J on which I place my right hand, and we promise for ourselves and 
for our successors never to violate or permit to be violated by ourselves or 
by another this deed of sale with compact of retrovendendo, or any part of 
it, directly or indirectly, for any other cause, premeditated or unpremeditated, 
under any pretext ; nor shall we consent or permit any other person or persons 
to violate the said deed and treaty, but rather we will forbid, punish, and 
prohibit it, as much as we can, under obligation of the said oath. We will 
not ask to be released from the oath as it was executed by my representatives, 
nor will we make use of the release although the Pope, or other person who 
shall have his power, shall grant it to us proprio motu, and although it shall 
have clauses abolishing and abrogating all that is said ; for we renounce it all 
and promise not to make use of it, under obligation of the said oath. And 
to secure this our will, and to establish and validate the aforesaid, we order 
this our letter of approval, ratification, abrogation, and annulment, signed 
by me, the King, and sealed with our seal, to be drawn up and delivered. 
Given in the city of Lerida, on the twenty-third day of the month of April, 
in the year of the Lord, 1529. I, the King. I, Francisco de los Cobos, secre 
tary of his Imperial Majesty and of their Catholic Majesties, caused it to 
be written by his command. Mercurino. chancellor. Fray Garcia, bishop of 
Osma. The Chief Knight-Commander. 

Portuguese ratification. 

This instrument of contract, agreement, and compact of retrovendendo, 
having been seen by me, and all the conditions and clauses contained therein, 
having been, word for word, seen and well understood, I confirm, approve, 
and ratify it, and I approve of all and every part of its contents ; and I promise 
on my royal faith and I swear on the Holy Gospels, on which I place my hands, 
that I will fulfill and will observe as good the contents of the said contract, 
treaty, and agreement (?. e., such parts of it as it pertains to me to fulfill 
and observe), as, and as entirely, as is contained and declared in it, and 
without any diminution, and under the penalties, clauses, compacts, and 
conditions contained therein ; and I promise and swear, for me and for my 
heirs and successors, never, at any time, or in any way, of myself, or through 
another, to contravene or violate the said contract, agreement, and treaty, 
or any of its contents, but rather, I will fulfill and observe them wholly and 
completely, and I will cause them to be fulfilled and observed in good faith, 
without any evasion, mental reservation, deception, or malice, as is aforesaid ; 
and to secure this I command this instrument of confirmation, approval, and 
ratification to be made, signed by me and sealed with my hanging leaden 
seal. Given in the city of Lisbon on the 2Oth day of June. Pero d Alcaqova 
Carneiro made it. In the year of our Lord Jesus Christ, 1530. 

THE KING. 



17. 

Articles concluded between France and Portugal at Lyons, 

July 14, 1536. 

INTRODUCTION. 

As early as 1512 King Ferdinand of Spain complained that the King of 
Portugal sheltered in his ports French vessels lying in wait for the Spanish 
ships from the West Indies. 1 A few years later the French corsairs became 
a terrible plague to both Spanish and Portuguese mariners, who in turn made 
reprisals on French shipping. When the Emperor and Francis I. renewed 
war in 1536, they both desired the friendship of Portugal, situated near 
the pathway of their ocean commerce. Portugal, fearing the overgrown 
power of the Emperor, needing the good-will of the French in order that 
her spice-fleet might sail safely to Flanders, 1 and hoping that the French king 

1 C. Fernandez Duro, Armada Espafiola (1895-1903), torn. I., app. 14, pp. 420, 421. 
Later complaints, which throw light on the meaning of the articles of Lyons, are printed 
in Cal. St. Pap., Spain, 1538-1542, vol. VI., pt. I., p. 294, and in T. Buckingham Smith, 
Coleccion de Varios Documentos para la Historia de la Florida (1857), I. 116, trans 
lated in J. P. Baxter, Memoir of Jacques C artier (1906), p. 359. 

"I see .... no chance for the present of the Portuguese consenting to join their 
fleet to that of the Emperor, and should the war with France break out .... I fear 
these people will do everything they can to keep neutral, though on the other hand, 
should the Emperor put some pressure upon them they will hardly dare to decide for 
the French. 

" If a vessel from France happens to meet with bad weather at sea she makes for the 
coasts of this kingdom, shelters and takes in provisions. The same thing they do as 
if they were the friends and confederates of Portugal in the lands and territories which 
this king has on the other side, such as the Terceiras and the island of Madeira, and 
there prowl about for Spanish vessels returning from the Indies. Should it be known 
and published that these Portuguese are the friends and allies of the Emperor, the 
French would not venture on such expeditions." Cal. St. Pap., Spain, loc. cit. 

In 1541 in a "Statement of what was agreed upon in the Council of the Indies in regard 
to the fleet to be fitted out to resist that of the French which is said to have set out for 
the Indies " the following passage occurs : " The most important thing to pro 
vide for at present, it seems, is that your Majesty ask the Most Serene King of Portugal 
not to allow the French ships to take shelter in any of the ports of his kingdom or 
in the Azores ; and that if they should enter port they be treated as enemies of your 
Majesty and his enemies too, since it is well known that for no other purpose can they 
sail in that sea than to do injury to your Majesty and his Highness; and that with 
reference to this matter there should, on your Majesty s part, be shown the king of 
Portugal all the urgency the case demands." J. P. Baxter, loc. cit. 

For accounts of the French corsairs in the early years of the sixteenth century, see 
Ch. de La Ronciere, La Marine Franqaise, III. (1906) 243 ff . ; Fernandez Duro, op. cit., 
torn. I., c. 15; Guenin, Ango et ses Pilotes; Paul Gaffarel, "Jean Ango " in the Bulletin 
of the Societe Normande" de Geographic, torn. XI. (1889) ; G. Marcel, Les Corsaires 
Francois au XV I e Siecle dans les Antilles (1902). 

3 Cal St. Pap., Spain, 1536-1538, p. 318. Cf. Doc. 15, introduction, note 8. 

199 



200 Doc. 77. France Portugal 

would prohibit his subjects from going to Brazil and other Portuguese 
colonies, inclined toward France. 4 

The negotiations conducted by the Portuguese ambassador in France 
were advanced by the French admiral, Chabot, -a pensionary of Portugal.* 
In Portugal negotiations were probably entrusted to the French ambassador, 
Honore de Caix, an agent especially obnoxious to the Emperor." 

On July 14, 1536, at Lyons, the temporary residence of the French court, 
a treaty between France and Portugal was concluded. It provided for the 
protection of the neutral commerce of Portugal a neutrality which, accord 
ing to the Portuguese, the French had violated during the first war between 
Francis I. and the Emperor 10 and it permitted the French to bring prizes 
and these, for the most part, would be Spanish ships into the harbors of 
the King of Portugal. Now, the regions east of the Antilles especially 
frequented by the French corsairs in wait for the Spanish treasure-ships, 
were the Azores, Madeira, and the coasts of Portugal. By this treaty the 
harbors of all these were opened to the French as places from which to 
pounce upon the enemy or to which to bring the prizes they had made. 

The Emperor soon observed the ill effects of this treaty. In February, 
1537, he instructed his ambassador to Portugal to represent to John III. the 
many injuries that the French were inflicting upon the Emperor in all parts 
of the world, " the principal cause of such damages and injuries at sea being 
that French vessels are allowed to enter and take shelter in the ports of 
Portugal ". The ambassador was to request the king to order that no 
French vessels of any description be allowed to enter the ports of the Azores, 
or take shelter there." 

For some years France remained on amicable terms with Portugal. In 
1536, Francis I. charged his officers to punish violators of the treaty and 
restore what they had taken from the Portuguese; in 1537 and 1538, he 
ordered members of the Parliament of Normandy to punish infractors of 
the treaty. 12 In 1537, 1538, and 1539, he forbade his subjects to sail to 

* Relations des Ambassadeurs Venitiens (ed. M. N. Tommaseo), I. (1838) 88, 89, in 
Coll. de Docs. Inedits sur I Histoire de France. 

" Luiz de Sousa, Annaes de El Rei Dom Joao Terceiro (pub. by A. Herculano, 1844), 
pp. 400, 401. 

"La Ronciere, op. cit., III. 291, 292. The Venetian ambassador (cf. note 4), writing 
> n J535 about the Franco-Portuguese negotiations, described the situation succinctly: 
" L amiral traite pour la France, 1 ambassadeur de Portugal pour son roi ; mais les 
riches presents que celui-ci donne a I amiral trainent I affaire en longueur." The Admiral 
arrived at Lyons on June 2, 1536. Cal. St. Pap., Spain, 1536-1538, p. 136. 

Two days after the signing of the treaty, Francis I. ordered 1350 livres to be paid 
to Honore. Cat. des Actes de Francois l er (1887, etc.), III. 228. 

1 Cal. St. Pap., Spain, 1536-1538, p. 318, and cf. Doc. 15, introduction. 

* F. Decrue, Anne, Due de Montmorency, a la Cour de Francois I er (1885), p. 255. 
* Guenin, op. cit., p. 192. 

"Cal. St. Pap., Spain, 1536-1538, pp. 314, 315. For Portugal s answer, see ibid., pp. 
317. 3i8, 334, 335. Cf. also ibid., p. 374; and above, note i. 

" Santarem, Quadra Elementar, III. 257-260; Guenin, op. cit., 204. 



Lyons, 1536 201 

Brazil, or Guinea, or the lands discovered by the Portuguese." In 1540, 
however, upon the discovery of Admiral Chabot s dealings with the Portu 
guese ambassador, this embargo was removed, and the French seamen at 
once prepared to invade again those regions." 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Text: MS. A copy of the treaty that was signed by Francis I. and Bayard 
at Lyons, July 14, 1536, is in the National Archives at Lisbon, Corpo 
Chronologico, parte i a , mago 57, doc. 65. 

Text: Printed. The text has never, it is believed, been printed. An abstract, 
in Portuguese, is in Viscount de Santarem, Quadro Elementar (1842- 
18/6), III. 254-256, and a French translation of this abstract is in 
E. Guenin, Ango et ses Pilotes (1901), pp. 201, 202. 

References. Guenin, op. cit., pp. 156, 157, 166, 167; Santarem, op. tit., III. 
Ixxxviii ff. 

TEXT." 

Pera continuar a amizade, alianga, e confederagao dantre o Rey Chris- 
tianisimo e el Rey de Portugal, e pera bem e proveito dos ditos senhores reis 
e de seus sugeitos seram gardados os artigos que se seguem. 

[i.] Primeiramente, que os ditos portos e avras dos ditos princepes 
fiquaram e seram livres 19 e comuuns a seus sugeitos, e seram suas pesoas, 
navios, beens, e mercadarias rrecebidas em seguridade, e Ihe seram dados 
mantimentos e tudo o que Ihe for necesario, pagaudo rrezoadamente a tudo 
aquilo que for por seus sugeitos respeitivamente tornado e comprado. 

[2.] Item, pera entretimento e liberdade do dito comergio entre os sugeitos 
dos ditos senhores reis, os embaixadores do Rey Christianisimo que estam 
com o senhor Rey de Portugal, depois de feita por elas inquisigam e tornado 
as copias [blank in original] daram certeficagam, asinadas de suas maos e 
aseladas de seus selos, aos Portugueses, como os navios e mercadarias 
declaradas na dita certeficagam pertencem aos ditos Portugueses ou a outros 
que nam sejam imigos do dito Christianisimo Rey. 

[3.] E pera que as ditas certefycagoes posam ser mais seguramente feitas, 
o dito senhor Rey de Portugal fara defesas, sob confiscagam dos corpos e 
avras, a todos de qualquer estado ou condigam que sejam, que nam careguem 
nos ditos seus portos e avras alguma mercadaria que pertenga aos Espanhoes 
e a outros quaes quer sugeitos do emperador, debaixo do nome dos Portu 
gueses e como a eles pertengem. 

Sob semelhantes penas sera defeso pelo dito senhor Rey de Portugal a 
seus sugeitos, que nam metam nem careguem alguuma mercadaria em navios 

13 The decree of Dec. 22, 1538, is printed in Guenin, Ango et ses Pilotes, pp. 203-205; 
see also La Ronciere, La Marine Fran<;aise, III. 292. This decree was referred to by 
the Portuguese ambassador to England, when he was urging Elizabeth to prohibit her 
subjects from sailing to Guinea. Cal. St. Pap., Foreign, Elizabeth, 1562, p. 54. 

" La Ronciere, op. cit., III. 297. 

11 The text is from a copy, written on paper, preserved in the Archivo Nacional at 
Lisbon, Corpo Chronologico, parte i*, maqo 57, doc. 65. 

" The words e seram livres are repeated in the text. 



202 Doc. 77. France Portugal 

dEspanhoes e outros imigos do Rey Christianisimo se nam tiver cerleficagam 
de seus enbaixadores. 

[4.] E se for achado alguuma mercadaria que pertenga aos imigos del Rey 
Christianisimo em navios de Portugueses sem a dita certeficacam, tudo sera 
de boa presa, asy o navio como a mercadaria, ora pertenga aos Portugueses 
ora aos imigos do dito Christianisimo Rey. 

[5.] Igualmente, sera de boa presa a mercadaria que pertencer aos Portu 
gueses que for achada nos navyos dos Espanhoes e outros imigos do dito 
Rey Christianisimo, se nam for certeficada per seus enbaixadores pela 
maneira sobredita. 

Que aqueles que tomaren navios e mercadaryas de Portugueses tendo a 
dita certeficagam dos embaixadores do dito Christianisimo Rey, tomando os 
embaixadores do dito Christianisimo Rey verificagam do caso feyta pelos 
Portugueses, sejam punidos pela justiga do dito senhor Rey de Portugal como 
quebrantadores de paz, segundo o caso rrequer. 

E se os ditos rroubadores nam f orem tornados pelos navios c gentes do dito 
Rey de Portugal, e levarem seus navios ou mercadarias rroubadas ao senhorio 
do Christianisimo Rey, o dito senhor Rey Ihe mandara fazer a punigam e 
justiga, como dito he. 

[6.] E igualmente sera feito aos Portugueses que tomarem navios e 
mercadaria que pertenger aos sugeitos do Christianisimo Rey. 

[7.] E por tirar os enganos que poderiam ser feitos por alguuns piratas 
e rroubadores dos navios e mercadarias Portuguesas, nao obstante as certe- 
ficagoes dos ditos embaixadores, escondendoas ou queymandoas ou lance- 
andoas no mar, podera o dito senhor Rey de Portugal cometer e deputar 
alguumas pesoas nos portos e avras do dito senhor Rey Christianisimo, e 
fazer secrestar os ditos navios e mercadaria per autoridade de justiga, onde 
seram achados, ate que seja conhecido e verificado se levavam certeficagam 
expedida pelos ditos embaixadores, os quaes Ihe daram pelo treslado de seus 
rregistos tudo aquilo que se achar que nisso fose feyto. 

[8.] E iguaes certeficagoes acima ditas seram dadas e expedidas pelo 
embaixador do dito Christianysimo Rey que estaa com el Rey de Ingraterra 
aos mercadores Portugueses que quiserem caregar na dita terra. 

[9:] E por nam impedir o dito comercio entre os ditos Franceses e Portu 
gueses, os portos e avras del Rey de Portugal seram franquos e livres de 
todas as presas dantre os Franceses e seus imigos nem poderam fazer presas 
huuns sobre os outros nos ditos portos e avras. 

[10.] Mas as presas que forem feitas fora das ditas avras em piano e 
alto mar por os Franceses sobre seus imigos nam seram impedidas pelo dito 
senhor Rey de Portugal nem por seus navios nem pelos de seus sugeitos, 
posto que depois as ditas presas, navios, gentes, e mercadarias fosem levadas 
aos portos e avras do dito senhor Rey de Portugal, onde poderam fazer e 
despor delas como dautras presas feytas sobre imigos. 

[u.] Hos quaes artiguos e defesas neles nomeadas seram feytas e publi- 
cadas nos portos e avras dos ditos senhores Reys, por tal que nenhuum posa 
pretender causa de inorancia. 

E por tal que as ditas publicagoes e defesas sejam rrespeitivamente feitas 
em Franga e em Portugal em iguaes tempos, seram declarados os dias em 
que se f aram as ditas publicagoes. 

Sera contente o dito senhor Rey Christianisimo de emviar a Flandres 
huitma pesoa pera fazer e expedir aos Portugueses taes e semelhantes certe- 



Lyons, 1536 208 

ficagocs como asyma he feyto mengam, que se fara em Portugal e Inglaterra, 
avendo o dito senhor Rev cle Portugal salvo conduto suficiente pera a dita 
pesoa e o tera pera o dito efeito na dita terra de Frandes as suas custas e 
despesas. 

Sera asy mesmo contente o dito Senhor Rey Christianisymo que os juizes 
ja ordenados sobre o feyto dos rroubos procedam segundo as comisoes ja 
expedidas no lugar e dentro daquele tempo que sera ordenado. Feyta em 
Lyam a xiiii dias de Julho de 1536. 

FRANCISQUO. IT BAYARD." 

TRANSLATION." 

{ or the continuance of the friendship, alliance, and confederation between 
the Most Christian King and the King of Portugal, and for the good and 
advantage of the said lord kings and of their subjects the following articles 
shall be kept : 

1. First, that the said ports and roadsteads of the said princes shall 
remain and be free and common to their subjects, and their persons, ships, 
goods, and merchandise shall be received in safety, and they shall be pro 
vided with provisions and everything they may require, everything respec 
tively taken and bought by their subjects to be paid for at a reasonable rate. 

2. Item, for the fostering and freedom of the said commerce between the 
subjects of the said lord kings, the ambassadors of the Most Christian King 
to the lord King of Portugal, after making inquiry and taking the copies 
[blank in original], shall give a certificate signed by their hands and sealed 
with their seals to the Portuguese, that the ships and merchandise specified 
in the said certificate belong to the said Portuguese, or to others not enemies 
of the said Most Christian King. 

3. And in order that the said certificates may be given with greater security, 
the said lord King of Portugal shall make prohibition to all men, of what 
ever sort or condition they may be, under penalty of confiscation of their 
persons and goods, forbidding them to lade in his said ports or roadsteads 
any merchandise belonging to Spaniards, or any other subjects of the F.m- 
peror, under the name of Portuguese or seeming to be their property. 

The said lord King of Portugal shall prohibit his subjects, under the like 
penalty, from shipping or embarking merchandise in ships belonging to 
Spaniards, or other enemies of the Most Christian King, without the certifi 
cate of his ambassadors. 

4. And should any merchandise belonging to enemies of the Most Christian 
King be found in Portuguese ships without the said certificate, all shall be 
lawful prize, both ship and merchandise, whether belonging to the Portu 
guese, or to the enemies of the said Most Christian King. 

5. Likewise, merchandise belonging to the Portuguese which shall be found 
in Spanish ships, or those of other enemies of the said Most Christian King, 
uncertified by his ambassadors in the manner aforesaid, shall be lawful 
prize. 

17 The Portuguese form of the name Frangois. 

11 Gilbert Bayard, seigneur de Lafont, one of the secretaires des finances. Cf. Doc. 
18, note 4. 

" The translation is by Miss Amalia Alberti. 

14 



204 Doc. //. France Portugal 

Those who shall seize ships or merchandise belonging to the Portuguese 
having the said certificate of the ambassadors of the said Most Christian 
King, the said ambassadors having verified the case brought by the Portu 
guese, justice shall be done upon them by the lord King of Portugal as 
breakers of the peace, as the case may require. 

And should the said robbers not be taken by the ships and forces of the 
said King of Portugal, and should they bring such stolen ships or merchan 
dise into the dominions of the said Most Christian King, the said lord king 
shall order them to be brought to justice and punished as aforesaid. 

6. And the like shall be done to such Portuguese as shall seize ships or 
merchandise belonging to the subjects of the Most Christian King. 

7. And to avoid the frauds which might be practised by any pirates and 
robbers of Portuguese ships and merchandise, in spite of the certificates of 
the said ambassadors, by concealing, burning, or throwing them into the 
sea, the said lord King of Portugal may commission and depute certain 
persons in the ports and roadsteads of the said Most Christian King, and 
cause the said ships and merchandise to be sequestrated by authority of 
justice, wherever they may be found, until it can be known and ascertained 
whether they carried certificates granted by the said ambassadors, who shall 
supply a copy from their registers of everything to be found that has been 
done in connection therewith. 

8. And similar certificates to the abovesaid shall be given and granted by 
the ambassador of the said Most Christian King to the King of England to 
Portuguese merchants wishing to embark merchandise in that country. 

9. And that the said commerce between the said French and Portuguese 
may not be impeded, the ports and roadsteads of the King of Portugal shall 
be closed to and free from all prizes taken from the French by their enemies, 
nor shall they take prizes from each other in the said ports and roadsteads. 

N 10. But prizes taken outside the said roadsteads, on the high seas, by the 
French from their enemies shall not be impeded by the said lord King of 
Portugal nor by his ships, nor by those of his subjects, though the said 
prizes, ships, men, and merchandise be afterwards brought into the ports 
and roadsteads of the said lord King of Portugal, where they may do with 
them and dispose of them as other prizes captured from their enemies. 

ii. The said articles, and prohibitions therein mentioned, shall be made 
and proclaimed in the ports and roadsteads of the said lord kings so that 
no man may be able to plead ignorance. 

And in order that the said proclamations and prohibitions may be made 
respectively in France and Portugal at the same time, dates shall be appointed 
for the said proclamations. 

The said Most Christian King shall be obliged to send some person to 
Flanders to issue such similar certificates to the Portuguese as those to be 
issued in Portugal and England, as aforesaid, the said lord King of Portugal 
having sufficient safe conduct for such person ; and he will maintain him 
for that purpose in the said land of Flanders, at his own cost and expense. 

The said Most Christian King shall likewise be obliged to have the judges 
already appointed in the case of thefts proceed in accordance with the com 
missions already issued, in the place and within the time which shall be 
appointed. 

Given at Lyons the I4th day of July, 1536. 

FRANCIS. BAYARD. 



18. 

Treaty concluded between France and Spain, at Crepy-en- 
Laonnois, September 18, 1544; 1 separate article relating to 
the Indies, signed by the plenipotentiaries of France on the 
same day. 

INTRODUCTION. 

Among the articles considered by the Emperor at the end of November, 
1537, in connection with the instructions to his ministers, Cobos and Gran- 
velle, for treating with Montmorency, the grand master of France, the 
following was included : " Whether some article ought not to be introduced 
concerning the Indies, to prevent King Francis from undertaking anything 
in that quarter?"* In the truce of Nice (June 18, 1538), which was the 
fruit of these negotiations, no reference to the Indies, however, appears to 
have been made. 

In July, 1542, the King of France, Francis I., irritated by the Emperor s 
action in respect to the Milanese, broke the truce of Nice by declaring war 
against him. Francis had as allies the Turks and some of the minor European 
powers ; the Emperor formed an alliance with Henry VIII. of England. Both 
the last-named allies invaded France, and the Emperor terrified Paris by 
his successful siege of Saint-Dizier (July 5-August 25) and his subsequent 
march toward the capital. While the siege of Saint-Dizier was in progress, 
Francis made overtures of peace. From August 29, there were frequent 
conferences, at which France was represented by the Admiral d Annebaut, 
Gilbert Bayard, secretary of state, and Erraut de Chemans, keeper of the seals, 
whose place was soon taken by Charles de Neuilly, master of requests. The 
Emperor s representatives were his chancellor, Nicolas Perrenot, sieur de 
Granvelle, Ferrante Gonzaga, viceroy of Sicily, Antoine Perrenot, bishop of 
Arras, and Alonso de Idiaquez, one of the Emperor s secretaries. 4 At Crepy- 

1 This is the date and place as given in the treaty. Some have maintained that it 
was concluded a day or two earlier at Soissons, or that it was signed as late as Sept. 
19. Cf. Cal. St. Pap., Spain, 1544, vol. VII., pp. xxvii, 348; Gachard, Trots Annees, 
p. 62; Paillard, L hivasion Allemande, pp. 391 ff., 412 ff. The text of the treaty of peace 
is printed in F. Leonard, Recueil des Traitez (1693), II. 430 ff., and in J. Dumont, Corps 
EHpIomatique (1/26-1731), torn. IV., pt. II., pp. 279 ff. 

1 Cal. St. Pap., Spain, 1536-1538, p. 407. " Sy se tractara y articulara alguna cosa 
tocante a las Indias, a fin que el dicho Rey de Francia no emprenda de aqui adelante 
algo en perjuyzio de Su Magestad." British Museum Add. MSS., 28590, f. 27. 

* The text of the truce is in Leonard, op. cit., II. 407 ff. For its effect on depredations 
by the French in the West Indies, see La Ronciere, La Marine Franfaise, III. 296. 

4 Gachard, Trois Annees, pp. 54 ff. ; Paillard, L Invasion Allemande, pp. 366 ff. 

205 



20(5 Doc. 18. France Spain 

en-Laonnois, on September 18, a treaty of peace was signed, which provided, 
among other things, for a marriage between the Due d Orleans and either 
a daughter or a niece of the Emperor, with either Flanders and Burgundy, 
or the Milanese, as dower. A secret treaty included the stipulation that 
France should aid the Emperor in repressing heresy. 5 On September 18, 
the French commissioners also signed the separate article relating to the 
Indies, which is printed below. To understand this article it is to be recalled 
that the incursions of the French into the western seas had caused immeasur 
able annoyance to Spain. 8 It was bad enough when the French confined 
themselves to attacking Spanish treasure-ships and settlements in the West 
Indies; they became even more obnoxious when they attempted to explore 
and colonize. Jacques Carder s third voyage had greatly disturbed the 
Emperor/ The Council of the Indies sent a spy to France to ascertain the 
equipment and destination of Cartier s fleet. The Emperor despatched a 
caravel to the region of Newfoundland, 8 and vainly tried to persuade the King 
of Portugal to join him in preventing the French from settling in those 
regions. 

The article respecting the Indies provided that France would leave the 
Emperor and Portugal in peaceable possession of the West and East Indies, 
and would not attempt any discoveries or other enterprises therein; but it 
reserved to the subjects of France the right to go to these Indies, for trade 
only. Probably the French were the more ready to make this concession 
because of their disappointment in the " gold and diamonds " of Canada 
that Cartier had brought back. 19 However that may be, the article signed 
by them, and apparently accepted by the Emperor and Prince Philip," was 
displeasing to the Council of the Indies, the council of state summoned at 
Valladolid by Prince Philip," and the Royal Council of Castile ; although, on 
the other hand, Fr. Garcia de Loaysa," president of the Council of the Indies, 

* Paillard, op. cit., p. 414. 

* For instances of depredations committed by the French in the West Indies prior 
to 1544, see E. Ducere, Histoire Maritime de Bayonne: Les Corsaires (1895), app. 11., 
pp. 345 ff. ; Fernandez Duro, Armada Espanola (1895-1903), torn. 1., app. 14; La 
Ronciere, op. cit., III. 249 ff. ; G. Marcel, Les Corsaires Francois au XV I e Siecle dans 
les Antilles (1902). 

7 As is shown by the documents printed in T. Buckingham Smith, Colecclon de Varios 
Documentos, pp. 103-116, and in translation in J. P. Baxter, Memoir of Jacques Cartier, 
PP- 347-3595 and in the letter from the Emperor in Hapke, " Der Erste Kolonisations- 
versuch in Kanada (1541-1543)", in Hansische Geschichtsblatter, 1911, Heft 2, pp. 450-451. 

* J. T. Medina, Una Expedition Espai wla a la Tierra de los Bacallaos en 1541 (1896). 
T. Buckingham Smith, op. cit., pp. 112-114; J. P. Baxter, Memoir of Jacques Cartier, 

PP- 354-356. 

"La Ronciere, La Marine Franqaise, III. 326. 

u A copy of a ratification of the article by Prince Philip is in the Archives of the 
Indies, Patronato, 2-5-1/26, ramo i. 

"Prince Philip s letter to the Emperor, Dec. 14, 1544, Cal. St. Pap., Spain, 1544. vol. 
VII., pp. 479-480. 

" See Doc. 14, note 8. 



Crepy-en-Laonnois, 1544 207 

believed that " the clause should be accepted with some modifications, and 
that trade should be permitted "." The objection of the councils was based 
on the opinion that the contemplated permission to trade would make trouble, 
because the French would not trade in accordance with regulations. The 
Council of the Indies urged that in this, as in former treaties, matters per 
taining to the Indies should not be mentioned at all. If, however, the French 
were permitted to trade, they should be held to the laws prohibiting the 
removal of gold and silver from territory subject to Castile, even in exchange 
for merchandise, and their homeward-bound ships should be obliged to touch 
at Cadiz or San Lucar." The King of Portugal also objected to the article, 
declaring that the French went in armed ships not only for the purpose of 
trading, but in order to rob with more security." Doubtless on account of 
the strong opposition, the article, as would appear, was never duly ratified ; 
and in 1545, in accordance with the Emperor s demand, Francis I. forbade 
his subjects to go to the oversea possessions of Spain." 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Text: MS. The original of the article relating to the Indies, printed below, 
it is believed for the first time, is in the Archives of the Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs in Paris, Memoires et Documents, Espagne. vol. 306, 
f. 196. 

14 Cal St. Pap., Spain, 1544, vol. VII V pp. 495-496. 

"The opinions of the councils are given in a document in the Archives of the Indies, 
Patronato, 2-5-1/26, ramo i. The opinion of the Council of the Indies is as follows : 
" Paresce al Consejo que por algunos inconvinientes que se seguiran de la contractagion 
de los Franceses en las Indias, fuera mas servygio de Su Magestad, que en estas pazes 
no se tractara en las cosas de las Indias mas que en las pazes y capitulaciones hasta qui 
hechas, y que se guardara en esto lo que siempre se ha hecho, que los Franceses no fueran 
a contratar a las Indias, como nunca havian ydo, sin hazer sobresto ntievo asiento, y que 
esto quedara con la costumbre muy usada, que ha havido desde el tiempo del descu- 
brimiento y publicacion de las Indias, de no passar a ellas Franceses. Pero sy los 
negocios vinieron a terminos que se sospechava, que aunque con estos reynos hoviera 
paz, el Rey de Francia y sus subditos molestaran e hizieran dano a las Indias, y que 
para assentar bien las cosas dellas, no se pudo, o no se puede, dexar de congeder este 
capitulo que se ha visto en consejo, en tal caso, por lo que conviene la paz a las Indias, 
paresge que se puede sufrir lo tractado en el capitulo con tanto que entienda el Rey de 
Frangia que sus subditos que fueren a contratar a las Indias, han de guardar en todo 
las leyes y prematicas que ellos mismos y los Ingleses y Portugueses y vassallos de 
qualquier reyno estrano guardan en estos reynos de Castilla y de Leon, de cuya corona 
son las Indias, quando vienen a contratar en ellos ; en las quales entre otras cosas se 
dispone que ningunos mercaderes ny otras personas, estrangeros ny naturales, no puedan 
sacar de los reynos de Castilla oro ny plata, en pasta ny en moneda ny vellon, aunque 
lo ayan habido en precio y pago de las mercaderias que a ellos traen, por que si en 
retorno de sus mercaderias hoviesen de sacar oro o plata, era enriqueger el reyno de 
Frangia y enpobreger estos reynos, y sy con esto se pudiese tractar que los navios 
Frangeses a la buelta de las Indias fuesen obligados a tocar en Caliz o en Sanlucar, y 
manifestar lo que traen ally, escusar seyan algunos inconvinientes que se temen desta 
contractagion y ellos no rodeavan mncho en su viage." 

" Santarem, Quadra Elementar, III. 308-309. 

K La Ronciere, op. cit., III. 302, 303. 



208 Doc. 18. France Spain 

Translation. A Spanish translation (manuscript) is in the Archives of the 
Indies in Seville, Patronato, 2-5-1/26, ramo i. 

References: Contemporary and early writings. Letter from Prince Philip 
of Spain to the Emperor, Dec. 14, 1544, in Calendar of State Papers, 
Spain, 1544, pp. 495-496; T. Buckingham Smith, Coleccion de Varios 
Documentos para la Hlstoria de la Florida, I. (1857) 103-116, with 
translation in J. P. Baxter, Memoir of Jacques Cartier (1906), collateral 
documents, nos. 13-17, pp. 347~359; Viscount de Santarem, Quadro 
Elementar (1843-1876), III. 306-309, with translation (not wholly trust 
worthy) in E. Guenin, Ango et ses Pilotes (1901), pp. 232-233. 

References: Later writings. Ch. de La Ronciere, Histoire de la Marine 
Franqaise, III. (1906) 293-305, 315-326; R. Hapke, " Der Erste Koloni- 
sationsversuch in Kanada (1541-1543)", in Hansische Geschichtsbldtter, 
1911, Heft 2. Accounts of the negotiations leading to the treaty of 
Crepy, but not referring to the article respecting the Indies, are in 
L. P. Gachard, Trois Annees de I Histoire de Charles-Quint, 1543-1546 
(1865) ; Ch. Paillard, L Invasion Allemande en 1544 (ed. Herelle, 1884), 
pp. 366 ff . ; A. Rozet and J.-F. Lembey, L Invasion de la France et le 
Siege de Saint-Dizier par Charles-Quint en 1544 (1910), ch. 12. 



TEXT." 

L article suyvant a este accorde par nous, Claude, sieur d Annibault, cheva 
lier de 1 ordre du Roy Tres Chrestien, mareschal et admyral de France, lieuten 
ant general dudict sieur roy en ses armees en 1 absence et soubz 1 auctorite de 
Messieurs les Daulphin et Due d Orleans, Maistre Charles de Nully, conseiller 
et maistre des requestes ordinaire de 1 hostel dudict sieur roy, et Gilbert 
Bayard, sieur de la Fons, aussi conseiller et secretaire d estat dicelluy sieur 
roy et de ses finances, et contrerolleur general de ses guerres, procureurs 
et ambassadeurs du Roy Tres Chrestien, en passant le traicte de paix entre 
1 Empereur et ledict sieur roy avec tres illustre sieur Don Fernando de 
Gonzague, chevalier de 1 ordre de la Toison d Or, prince de Melphete, due 
de Ariano, visroy de Sicille, et lieutenant general de 1 armee de 1 Empereur, 
et Messieur Nicolas Perrenot, chevalier, sieur de Grantvelle, commandeur 
de Calamer en 1 ordre d Alcantara, premier conseiller d estat et garde des 
sceaulx de sa Majeste Imperiale, procureurs et ambassadeurs dudict sieur 
Empereur, au lieu de [blank], le XVIII* jour de Septembre, 1 an mil cinq 
cens quarante quatre. 

Et pource que de la part dudict sieur Empereur a este remonstre que 
aucuns subgectz dudict sieur Roy Tres Chrestien s avancent de armer navires 
et bateaulx soubz ombre d aller descouvrir aux Indes, nonobstant que Sadicte 
Majeste Imperiale maintient que a luy et au Roy de Portugal, son beaufrere, 
appartiennent a bon et juste tiltre selon la division de traictez dentre eulx, 
toutes les terres des Yndes, tant en isles que de terre ferme, descouvertes et 
a descouvrir, tant par eulx que par le moyen des feurent roys et reynes de 
Castille et de Portugal, sans que autre y puisse emprendre, como qu il soit 

" The following text is taken from the original manuscript, preserved in the archives 
of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Paris, Memoires et Documents, Espagne, vol. 306, 
f. 196. The editor is indebted to Mr. H. P. Biggar for knowledge of this document. 



Crepy-en-Laonnois, 1544 209 

soubz ceste coulleur de descouvrement se font plusieurs roberies et pilleryes 
en mer, a este accorde par ledict sieur Roy Tres Chrestien que doresnavant 
luy et ses successeurs, roys de France, et ses subgectz, laisseront paisibles 
lesdicts sieurs Empereur et Roy de Portugal en tout ce qui concerne lesdictes 
Yndes, descouvertes et a descouvrir, sans directement ou indirectement y 
faire emprises quelconques, en quelque lieu ou endroict que ce soit, reservant 
seullement que les subgectz de France pourront aller marchandement en 
icelles Yndes, descouvertes et qui se descouvriront par lesdicts sieurs 
Empereur et Roy de Portugal, et que en cas que soubz coulleur de ceste 
navigacion ilz font aucune violances, soit esdictes Yndes en allant ou retour- 
nant, quilz soient chastiez selon et ou ilz seront trouvez coulpables. 

D ANNIBAULT. DE NULLY. G. BAYARD. 



19. 

Articles concluded between Spain and Portugal in 1552. 

INTRODUCTION. 

Near the close of the year 1551, when France and Spain were on the eve 
of war and Spain was reorganizing the defense of her commerce/ the 
Emperor Charles V., acting through Lope Hurtado cle Mendoza, his ambas 
sador at the Portuguese court, 3 endeavored to arrange with the King of 
Portugal a union of armaments for securing Spanish and Portuguese ship 
ping against the French corsairs. The Emperor had long identified his 
interest in protecting ocean commerce with that of Portugal ; * but Portugal 
had preferred a French to an imperial alliance. 5 The recent capture by the 
French of richly laden vessels, bound from Lisbon to Flanders," had, however, 
impressed upon Portugal the necessity of better guarding her ships. More 
over, as was urged, the proposed union of armaments need cause no breach 
between Portugal and France, since " the corsairs were not a fleet in the pay 
of the French King but robbers " whom Portugal had a right to punish. 7 

1 Fernandez Duro, Armada Espanola, torn. I., app. 14, p. 438, " Prior y Consules de la 
Universidad al Emperador ", and pp. 440, 441 ; Navarrete, Coleccion de Documentos 
Ineditos para la Historia de Espana (1842-1895), L. 265 ff., " Copia del asiento de 
D. Alvaro de Bazan sobre el armada, Valladolid 14 de Febrero 1550 " ; Ordenanzas 
Reales para la Casa de la Contratacion de Sevilla (1604), ff. 49-53; Cat. St. Pap., Spain. 
1550-1552, pp. 27, 364 ff. 

Cf. Doc. 15, introduction. Lope Hurtado de Mendoza was first appointed to the 
Portuguese court in 1527. A few years later he was withdrawn and was reappointed 
in 1543. Santarem, Quadra Elementar, II. 84. 

1 Papers concerning this negotiation are in the Archives at Simancas, Secretaria de 
Estado, leg. 375. 

*Thus, in 1531, the Emperor had intervened in favor of the King of Portugal in the 
latter s dispute with France over the issue of French letters of marque against the 
Portuguese. E. Guenin, Ango et ses Pilotes (1901), ch. 6. The Emperor s instructions 
on foreign policy sent to Prince Philip in 1548 included an injunction "to keep a good 
understanding with Portugal, especially in what relates to the Indies, and their de 
fence ". P. de Sandoval, Historia de la Vida y Hechos del Emperador Carlos V ., 
II. (1614) 650; or Papiers d Etat du Cardinal de Granvelle, III. (1842) 296 (ed. by 
Ch. Weiss, in Coll. de Docs. Inedits sur I Histoire de France). Cf. also in Prince Philip s 
letter to the Emperor, Sept. 28, 1544, the passage beginning " Your Majesty knows 
already that I wrote to the King of Portugal requesting him to send his fleet to the 
Azores, in order to escort the vessels returning from the Indies ". Cal. St. Pap., Spain, 
VII. (1899), 375- 

B Cf. Doc. 17, introduction. 

* Ch. Piot, "La Diplomatic concernant les Affaires Maritimes des Pays-Bas vers le 
Milieu du XVI" Siecle jusqu a la Treve de Vaucelles ", in Bulletin de I Academic 
Royale des Sciences, 2d ser., torn. XL. (Brussels, 1875), p. 847, note 2. 

Paresce que para buscar los corsarios, unos por una parte y otros por otra, se 
devria conformar, syn embargo del respecto que el senor Rey de Portugal quiere tener 
a no romper por el presente con Francia, pues que estos corsarios no son armada que 
anda a sueldo del rey, syno ladrones, que andan a robar a toda ropa, como paresce por el 
dano que Portugueses han recibido dellos, y justamente el senor Rey de Portugal los 
puede mandar buscar y seguir para castigallos." Archives of Simancas, Secretaria de 
Estado, leg. 375, f. 120. 

210 



155* 211 

In the convention that was concluded, Portugal agreed to provide a coast 
guard, to send vessels to protect the region of the Azores, and to order ships 
bound for the African islands and mainland and Brazil to sail at fixed 
seasons, armed and with an armed convoy. Ships bound for the Antilles 
might accompany these fleets. Spain agreed to guard the straits of Gibraltar 
and Galicia, and to share with Portugal the defense of the Azores and Cape 
St. Vincent. 

J Vi 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Text: MS. No signed manuscript of the articles has been found. A manu 
script account of the contents of the articles is in the Archives at 
Simancas, Secretaria de Estado, leg. 375, f. 102. It corresponds almost 
precisely to the printed account mentioned below, except that it omits 
particulars as to the stations of the Portuguese coast-guard. 

Text: Printed. An account of the articles is in Fr. d Andrada, Chronica 
do Key Dom Joao o III. (1796), pt. IV., c. 91, pp. 369-372. 

References : Contemporary and early writings. For notices relative to the 
corsairs and the Spanish and Portuguese fleets about 1552, see C. Fer 
nandez Duro, Armada Espaiiola ( 1895-1903), torn. I., app. 14, pp. 438 ff. ; 
Viscount de Santarem, Quadro Elementar (1842-1876), III. 330 ft. 

References: Later writings. For diplomatic relations between Portugal 
and France, see Viscount de Santarem, op. cit., III. xcvi ff. For accounts 
of the Spanish treasure fleets, see C. Fernandez Duro, La Mar Descrita 
por los Mareados Mas Disquisiciones (1877), " Disquisicion Novena: 
Galeones y Flotas de Indias " ; and Naval Tracts of Sir William Monson 
(ed. by M. Oppenheim for the Navy Record Society, 1902), vol. II., 
app. B, " The Spanish Treasure Fleets of the Sixteenth Century ". 

TEXT." 

El Rey nosso senhor * e o Emperador Carlos Quinto, vendo as perdas e 
danos que seus vassalos recebiao dos continues roubos e insultos dos cossayros, 
que em todos os tempos e lugares andavao sempre vigiando o mar para este 
effeito, como erao princepes Cristianissimos e zelosissimos do bem de seus 
reynos, assentarao antre sy este anno de 1552, mandarem sair suas armadas 
ao mar para guarda e defensao das suas costas e seguranga do comercio de 
seus vassallos ; e o concerto f oy que Sua Alteza mandaria armar vinte navios 
latinos de vinte e cinco ate trinta tonelladas cada hum, 10 que andassem sempre 
ha vista da terra para guarda da sua costa, de que os tres aviao d estar em 
Cascaes," coatro na Atougia," coatro em Caminha, " coatro em Lagos," dous 

"The text is from Andrada, Chronica do Rey Dom Joao o III., pt. IV.. c. 91, pp. 
369-372. 

John III., king of Portugal from 1521 to 1557. 

" For an account of the various kinds of Portuguese ships at this period, see H. 
Lopes de Mendonga, " Estudos sohre Navios Portuguezes nos Seculos XV. e XVI.", in 
Centenario do Descobrimento da America: Memorias da Commissao Portuguesa 
(Acad. Real, das Sciencias, Lisbon, 1892). 

" A town 14 miles west of Lisbon. 

11 Near Cape Carvoeiro. 

u At the mouth of the Minho river, which separates Portugal from Spain. 

** About twenty miles east of Cape St. Vincent. 



212 Doc. 19. Spain Portugal 

em Villa nova," e tres em Cizimbra ou Sinis," qual milhor parecesse, que 
erao os lugares a que os navios armados custumavao vir, e que tambem os 
navios Portugueses e Castelhanos aviao de vir demandar f orgadamente ; e 
mandaria mais coatro naos ou galeoes para correrem a costa deste reyno mais 
ao mar, e ajuntariao a sy cada vez que cumprisse os vinte navios acima 
declarados ; e af ora estas armadas se ordenaria outra para a costa do reyno 
do Algarve de coatro navios de remo, hum navio grosso e tres caravellas, 
que tambem ajuntariao a sy, cada vez que fosse necessario, os outros navios 
latinos que aviao de andar continuamente na costa do mesmo reyno, os quais 
navios todos mandaria Sua Alteza que no verao e inverno andassem sempre 
no mar sem se recolherem a porto algum, senao com necessidade, tirando 
os de remo, que se recolheriao no inverno ; e para as Ilhas " se mandariao 
cada anno, no mes de Abril, dez navios armados, tres naos ou galeoens e 
sete caravellas. Mandaria Sua Alteza que os navios que ouvessem de navegar 
para Arguim, Cabo Verde, tratos de Guine, costa da Malagueta, Mina, Ilha 
de Sao Tome, e Brasil, f ossem e viessem em tres mougoes, huma em Janeyro, 
outra em Margo, em companhia das naos da India, e outra em Setembro ; e 
que alem dos navios armados de Sua Alteza, que aviao de ir naquellas mougoes, 
se ordenaria que todos os outros navios, ou os mais delles, fossem tambem 
armados, e de se navegar por aquellas mougoes parecia que se podia esperar 
seguranga para os que navegassem para aquellas partes, e para as Antilhas, 
que tambem se podiao aproveitar dellas, e alem disso seria cousa de muyto 
proveyto para ajudar a guardar as Ilhas dos Ago res, aonde todas aquellas 
frotas aviao de ir demandar. O Emperador da sua parte parecia que devia 
de mandar guardar o estreyto, con forme has novas que tivesse dos Turcos 
e Franceses," porque quanto importava a guarda do estreyto, se conhecia 
entao claramente do trabalho que dava a toda Christandade estar pejado o 
canal de Frandes. Parecia que devia o Emperador mandar cada anno, no 
mes d Abril, has Ilhas os dez navios redondos," que entao se dizia que para 
la se armavao em Sevilha, e que deviao de ir bem armados, por quanto 
importava a seguranga daquella paragem, onde se dizia que aviao de ir 
armadas grossas ; e por boa rezao parecia que nao deixaria de ser assy, porque 
em ninhuma outra parte podiao ellas fazer tanto proveito para sy, com dano 
de todas as outras partes a que pretendessem f azello ; e que esta armada 
devia andar nas Ilhas ate o fim do mes d Agosto, e ametade della devia andar 
todo o anno ao mar do cabo de Sao Vicente, que era a paragem onde vinhao 
demandar os navios que vinhao das Antilhas e do Peru, e que na costa de 
Galiza devia o Emperador de trazer coatro ou cinco navios armados, para 
favor daquella costa, e seguranga das naos, que de todas aquellas navegagoes 
com alguns tempos contraries hiao demandar os seus portos ; e que as nave 
gagoes dos Castelhanos, Framengos, e Portugueses destas partes para Frandes 
fossem cos navios todos juntos, e em duas mongoes, huma em Abril, e outra 
em Setembro; e as navegagoes de Frandes para estas partes fossem em 

lf Villa Nova de Portinao, east of Lagos. 

" Cezimbra is situated on a bay n miles W.S.W. of Setubal. 

" The Azores. 

u In the early part of the year 1552, the Turks, whose sea-power was then at its 
height, were preparing to aid the French in maritime operations against the Emperor. 
Negotiations de la France dans le Levant (1848-1860), II. 175, 177, et passim (pub. by 
E. Charriere in Coll. de Docs. Inedits sur I Histoire de France). 

19 For descriptions of the various kinds of Spanish ships of this period, consult 
C. Fernandez Duro, Disquisiciones Nduticas (1876-1881), general index, torn. VI. 



1552 213 

outras cluas mongoes, huma em Janeyro, e outra em Junho ; e que para se bem 
effeituar o que acima fica dito, devia mandar o Emperador dar ordem para 
que as ureas, que entao estavao reteudas em Frandes, e por este respeito outros 
muytos navios de Castella e Portugal, viessem logo na milhor ordem que 
ser pudesse ; e viessem cada anno aos tempos acima declarados, porque de 
navegarem todos juntos e nas moucoes acima ditas se seguiria seguranga 
nao somente das mercadorias que elles levassem e trouxessem, mas ainda 
das dos outros que navegassem dentro daquelles lemites de hunas partes 
para outras ; e alem destes proveitos, se seguiriao outros muytos grandes aos 
estados do Emperador e d el Rey nosso senhor ; e que mandaria Sua Alteza 
que os navios das suas armadas e dos seus vassallos dessem favor e ajuda 
aos do Emperador, e o Emperador mandaria que os das suas armadas fizessem 
o mesmo aos de Sua Alteza, o que se entenderia somente sendo necessario 
para def ensao de huns e dos outros. O que tudo se aprovou polio Emperador 
e por Sua Alteza, e ficou antre ambos assentado de se cumprir inteyramente. 



TRANSLATION.** 

Our lord, the king, and the Emperor Charles V., in view of the loss and 
injury which their vassals were suffering from the continual robberies and 
insults of the corsairs, who at all times, and in all places, kept constant watch 
at sea for that purpose, and since they were most Christian princes and most 
zealous for the good of their kingdoms, agreed together in this year of 1552, 
to send their fleets out to sea for the protection and defense of their coasts, 
and the security of the commerce of their vassals. The agreement was that 
his Highness was to have twenty lateen-rigged vessels equipped, of from 
twenty-five to thirty tons each, which were to cruise continually in sight of 
land, in order to guard the coast: of which three were to be stationed at 
Cascaes, four in the Atouguia, four at Caminha, four at Lagos, two at 
Villanova, and three at Cezimbra or Sinis, as should be thought best these 
being the places whither the armed vessels were wont to resort, and to 
which the Portuguese and Castilian vessels were forced to put in. He [i. e., 
his Highness] was also to send four more ships or galleons to cruise along the 
coast of this kingdom, further out to sea, and join with the twenty ships afore 
said whenever it should be advisable. Besides these fleets, another fleet was 
also to be prepared for the coast of the kingdom of the Algarve, consisting 
of four oared vessels, one large ship, and three caravels, which were also to 
unite, whenever it should be necessary, with the other lateen-rigged vessels, 
that were to cruise constantly along the coast of that kingdom. His Highness 
was to order all those ships to remain constantly at sea, summer and winter, 
without putting into any port, unless in case of necessity, excepting the oared 
vessels, which were to go in during the winter. Ten armed ships, three 
ships or galleons, and seven caravels were to be sent to the Islands every 
year in the month of April. His Highness was to order the ships bound for 
Arguin, Cape Verde, trade of Guinea, coast of Malagueta, Elmina, Island 
of St. Thomas, and Brazil, to come and go during the three monsoons, 
[namely], the one in January, the one in March (in company with the ships 
India), and the one in September. Besides the armed ships of his 

1 The translation is by Miss Arnalia Alberti. 



214 Doc. /p. Spain Portugal 

Highness, which were to sail during those monsoons, orders were to be given 
that all the other ships, or most of them, were also to be armed ; and by sailing 
during those monsoons, it was thought that the vessels journeying to those 
regions might hope for security, as well as those bound for the Antilles, which 
might also take advantage of the monsoons. In addition to this, it would be 
of great advantage in helping to guard the islands of the Azores, where all 
these fleets had to put in. It was thought best for the Emperor, on his side, 
to order the guarding of the Straits, in accordance with the news that he 
might have of the Turks and French, the importance of such guarding of the 
Straits being then clearly apparent from the trouble caused to the whole of 
Christendom by the channel of Flanders being blocked. It was thought best 
for the Emperor to send to the Islands, every year, in the month of April, 
the ten square-rigged ships which, it was said, were to be equipped for that 
purpose in Seville ; and that they should be well armed, because of the impor 
tance of the safety of that region, whither it was reported that great fleets 
[of the corsairs] were about to sail. There was good reason to believe that 
such would not fail to be the case, for in no other region could they gain 
so much profit for themselves or do so much damage to all other parts, as 
indeed was their intent. [It was thought best] for this fleet to remain off 
the Islands until the end of the month of August, and that half of it should 
cruise at sea during the whole year off Cape St. Vincent, since that is the 
region through which the ships from the Antilles and Peru must pass ; that the 
Emperor should keep four or five armed ships off the coast of Galicia, for the 
protection of that coast, and the security of the ships from all the aforesaid 
routes, which might be driven into its ports by bad weather ; that the voyages 
of the Castilian, Flemish, and Portuguese from these parts to Flanders should 
be made by their ships all together, during the two monsoons, [namely], the 
one in April, and the other in September, and the voyages from Flanders to 
those parts during the two other monsoons, [namely], the one in January, 
and the other in June ; that for the good accomplishment of what is set forth 
above, the Emperor should order the armed fly-boats then retained in 
Flanders, and for the same reason, many other Castilian and Portuguese 
ships, to come at once, in the best way possible, and to come every year at the 
seasons above named, for by voyaging all together during the monsoons, 
as aforesaid, they would ensure the safety not only of the merchandise which 
they brought and carried themselves, but also that of others journeying within 
those limits from one place to another. Besides these benefits, others, many 
and great, would ensue to the states of the Emperor and of our lord, the king. 
[It was thought best] for his Highness to order the ships of his fleets, and 
those of his vassals, to favor and assist those of the Emperor, and for the 
Emperor to do the like for those of his Highness, this to be understood only 
in case of necessity for the defense of each other. All of the abovesaid was 
approved by the Emperor and by his Highness, and the faithful observance 
thereof was agreed between them. 



20. 

Truce between Prance and Spain, concluded at Vaucelles, Feb 
ruary $, /55<5; separate article relating to the Indies and 
Savoy. 

INTRODUCTION. 

The war begun in 1552 between the Emperor Charles V. and Henry II. 
of France involved several other European powers and also spread to 
America. The corsairs of Guipuzcoa did much damage to the French fish 
eries of Newfoundland, Spanish troops were landed on the island, and many 
ships were captured in the ports and neighboring seas. 1 In Porto Rico and 
Cuba the French committed depredations; in 1555, Havana was taken and 
pillaged by the French Protestant, Jacques de Sores. 3 

Through the marriage of his son Philip with Queen Mary, Charles V. 
hoped to gain England as an ally against France, but the English would not 
be drawn into a Spanish quarrel. Their interest lay in bringing about a 
cessation of hostilities and Queen Mary undertook the role of mediator. The 
Pope also desired peace and appointed Cardinal Pole to negotiate it ; but 
Pole had little success.* Towards the close of 1555, however, conditions were 
favorable to a truce. Charles V. had already begun abdicating his various 
dignities, and wished to transfer to his son a realm at peace. He was also 
alarmed by the alliance between the King of France and the newly-elected 
pope, Paul IV. Henry II., on the other hand, feared lest his union with the 
Pope might drive England into an alliance with Spain. Moreover, both 
realms were impoverished. 4 Near the end of the year the French commis 
sioners, Admiral Coligny and Sebastien de 1 Aubespine, and the Imperial 
commissioners, Charles de Lalaing and Simon Renard, who were already 
conferring at the abbey of Vaucelles, near Cambray, were empowered to 

14< Informacion hecha en la villa de San Sebastian, el afio de 1555, para acreditar las 
acciones marineras de los capitanes armadores de Guipuzcoa durante la guerra con 
Francia ", printed by C. Fernandez Duro, Disquisiciones Nduticas, VI. : " Area de Npe " 
(1881), pp. 355-378; and by E. Ducere, Histoire Maritime de Bayonne: Les Corsaires, 
PP- 333-344- 

Ducere, op. cit., pp. 347, 348; La Ronciere, La Marine Franfaise, III. 579-584. 

*For Pole s part in the negotiations, see P. Friedmann, Les Depeches de Giovanni 
Michiel, Ambassadeur de Venise en Angleterre de 1554 d 1557 (1869), pp. xxxv ff. ; and 
Martin Haile, Life of Reginald Pole (1910), espec. chs. 20-22, and 23 to p. 480. 

* Papiers d tat du Cardinal de Graiwelle, IV., 556, 557; Romier, Les Origines 
Politiques, I. 488 ff. 

215 



216 Doc. 20. France Spain 

conclude a peace or truce. 8 In addition, Charles de Tisnacq, Philibert de 
Bruxelles, and Gian Battista Schizzo were appointed to act for the Emperor 
and Philip. The five years truce, signed on February 5, 1556, as a result 
of their deliberations, included the separate article, printed below, relating 
to the Duke of Savoy, the Emperor s ally, and to the Indies. By this article 
it was agreed that during the truce the subjects of the King of France should 
not sail to or trade in the Spanish Indies without special license from King 
Philip. Against those that acted to the contrary, force might be used without 
impairing the validity of the truce. This renunciation of trade in the Indies 
was obtained with great difficulty from the French, who claimed that the 
trade had been permitted them." In later treaties with France, e. g., in those 
of 1559 and 1598, Spain was unable to obtain a similar renunciation, and as 
late as the middle of the seventeenth century she harked back to this truce 
as a reason why the French should keep away from Spanish America/ The 
Spanish contention was of course weak since it rested on an article of a truce 
that was valid for only a short period. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Text: MS. A copy of the separate article on the Indies and Savoy, certified 
by Josse de Courtewille, secretary of state to Philip II., is in the Archives 
Nationales at Paris, K. 1643 (D. 6). 

Text of the separate article : Printed. F. Leonard, Recueil des Traitez de 
Paix (1693), II. 506-507; J. Dumont, Corps Diplomatique (1726-1731), 
torn. IV., pt. III., p. 84; G. Ribier, Lettres et Memoires d Estat (1666), 
II. 629-631 (verbal variations from Leonard). 

References: Contemporary and early writings. Papiers d Etat du Cardi 
nal de Gmnvelle (1841-1852), IV. 541 (ed. by Ch. Weiss, in Collection 
de Documents Inedits sur I Histoire de France) ; C. Fernandez Duro, 
Armada Espanola (1895-1903), I. 451. 

References: Later writings. Ch. de La Ronciere, Histoire de la Marine 
Fran^aise, III. (1906) 583, 584. The history of the negotiations pre 
liminary to the truce is given in F. Decrue, Anne, Due de Montmorency, 
sous les Rois Henri II., Francois 11., et Charles IX. (1889), ch. 8; 
A. Segre, " La Questione Sabauda e gli Avvenimenti Politici e Militari 
che prepararono la Tregua di Vaucelles ", in Memorie delta Reale Ac cad. 
delle Scienze di Torino, 2d ser., LV. (1905) 383-451 ; L. Romier, Les 

* The powers given to Coligny and 1 Aubespine on Dec. 25, 1555, to conclude a peace 
or truce are printed in J. Du Bouchet, Preuves de I Histoire de I lllustre Maison de 
Coligny (1662), pp. 475, 476; Henry II. s instructions to Coligny, Jan. 25, 1556, arc 
printed in part in J. Delaborde, Gaspard de Coligny (1879), I. 606-607. 

* Renard wrote to King Philip : " Quant a 1 article concernant les Indes, ilz 1 ont avec 
grande difficulte accorde, disans que par cy-devant la navigation marchande leur a este 
permise, comme vostre majeste verra." Papiers d Etat du Cardinal de Granvelle, IV. 
541- 

Thomas Le Fevre du Grand Hamel, Discours Sommaire de la Navigation (Rouen, 
1 650), p. 97. 



Vaucellcs, 1556 217 

Origines Politiques des Gucrres de Religion (1913, etc.), torn. I., liv. IV. ; 
G. Duruy, De pactis anno 1556 apud Valcellas Indutiis (1883). These 
writers do not, however, refer to negotiations respecting the Indies. 



TEXT. 

Commil soit que aujourdhuy, date de cestes, ait este traicte tresve 
marchande et communicative entre messres Charles, conte de Lalaing, baron 
de Scornetz, chevalier de lordre du thoison dor, lieutenant et capitaine general, 
et grand bailly de Haynnau, Simon Renard, Charles Tisnacq, Phillibert de 
Bruxelles, et Jehan Baptista Schicio, senateur et regent de Milan, conseilliers 
et procureurs de lempereur, et de treshault, tres excellent, et tres puissant 
prince, Don Philippe, roy dangleterre, de Naples, etc., et messres Caspar 
de Coligny, sieur de Chastillon, admiral de France, gouverneur et capitaine 
general tant en lisle de France quen Picardie, et Sebastien de Laubespine, 
abbe de Bassefontaine et de Sainct Martin en Ponthoise, conseillier et maistre 
des requestes du Roy tres Chrestien de France. Iceulx commis dudit seigneur 
Roy tres Chrestien ont en vertu de leur povoir oultre le contenu en ladite 
tresve accorde et promis que ledit seigneur Roy de France payera ou fera 
payer, reallement et de fait, durant ladite tresve et chacune annee dicelle, 
aux termes cy apres speciffiez, au sieur Due de Savoye,* ou ses procureurs ou 
entremecteurs ayans quictance de luy, la valeur du revenu annuel du plat 
pays et deppendans de la ville de Ivree," tel que sera estime et liquide par 
commis quy seront pour ce nommez et choisiz. Et se fera ledit paiement en 
la ville de Lyon par marchant particulier quy sera advise, assavoir la moictie 
au dernier jour de Juillet prochainement venant, et lautre moictie au dernier 
jour de Janvier suyvant, et consequamment de termes en termes. Dont 
ledit seigneur donnera mandemens et lettres en forme requise pour seurete 
et payement de la somme. Et joyra ledit seigneur due ses pays, subjectz, 
et serviteurs du benefice de ladite tresve, tout ainsi que les subjectz et pays 
desdits sieurs Empereur et roys. Et rentreront lesdits subjectz en la joys- 
sance de leurs biens, droictz, et actions, comme lesdits subjectz et serviteurs 
de leursdites majestez. Et audit sieur due ne sera mis empeschements en ce 
quil tient et possede, et se treuvera tenir et posseder, au temps de la date des 
presentes. Aussy a este expressement convenu et capitule, que jagoit ladite 
tresve soit marchande et communicative, sy est ce les subjectz dudit seigneur 
Roy de France ou aultres par leur adveu ne pourront naviguer, trafficquer, 
ou negocier aux Indes appertenant audit sieur Roy dangleterre, sans son 
expres conge et licence. Autrement, faisans le contraire, sera licite user 
centre eulx dhostilite, demeurant toutte ffois ladite tresve en sa force et vigeur. 

"The following text is from a copy, certified by Philip II. s secretary, preserved in 
the Archives Nationales at Paris, K. 1643 (D. 6). 

Emmanuel Philibert, who succeeded to the dukedom in 1553. The question of re 
storing to the Emperor s ally, the Duke of Savoy, the territories taken from him by 
France, had been the chief obstacle to an earlier conclusion of the negotiations. The 
truce was finally arranged on a basis of uti possidetis. The duke, bitterly disappointed, 
rejected the yearly stipend promised him by this article. A. Segre, "La Questione 
Sabauda", in Memoric dclla Rcale Accad. delle Sciense di Torino, ad sen, torn. LV. 
On the importance of the question of Savoy in these negotiations, see also Romier, Les 
Origines Politiques, torn. I., liv. IV., ch. i. 

lf Ivrea, a town 27 miles N.N.E. of Turin, taken from Savoy by France in 1553. 



218 Doc. 20. France Spain 

Moyennant aussy que soubz ceste umbre riens neste face ou commecte au 
prejudice des subjectz dudit seigneur Roy tres Chrestien quy se treuveront 
voiaiger par mer, ailleurs a leurs commoditez, et ou bon leur sembleroit, 
comme du passe. Le marquis Albert de Brandenburg est comprins de la 
part dudit seigneur Roy tres Chrestien en la presente tresve. Mais pour 
son esgard a este declaire, que nonobstant la comprehension faicte de luy 
par ledit seigneur roy, Ion entend quelle ne puisse avoir lieu en ce que concerne 
lempire, sinon apres que ledit marquis qui est au ban dudit lempire se sera 
reconcilie et remis comme devant ; et sera bon content que la justice et chambre 
imperialle y pourvoye commil appertiendra par droict et raison. A la charge 
aussy que cependant dune part ny dautre ne se donnera faveur ny ayde audit 
marquis, directement ou indirectement, pour emprendre centre les estatz, 
pays, et royaulmes de leurs Majestez, ny en quelque lieu que ce soit. Oultre 
la comprehension generalle, en laquelle la Royne Leonore sera inseree en la 
tresve, sy bon luy semble, aians les depputez de Sa Majeste Imperiale, et 
du Roy dengleterre son filz fait instance des arreraiges de son dot, et voulu 
entrer en la vigeur et contenu aux traictez qui font mention de ladite dame, 
Les depputez dudit seigneur Roy tres Chrestien ont respondu nen avoir aucune 
charge, et remis le tout a Sa Majeste royalle pour en adviser, ainsy que de 
raison. Aussy aiant les depputez dudit seigneur Roy tres Chrestien fait 
semblable instance pour Madame la Duchesse de Parme, ceulx de sadite 
Majeste Imperiale et dudit seigneur roy son filz ont remis le tout a leurs 
Majestez, Comme nen aiant aucune charge esperant quelles y auront tel 
regard que de raison. Tous lesquelz articles et chacun diceulx auront et 
sortiront effect comme sy distinctement ilz estoient comprins en ladite tresve 
generalle. En signe dequoy lesdits deputez ont promis et jure lobservation et 
ratification diceulx comme de ladite tresve. Et iceulx signez de leurs seingz. 
Au lieu de Vaulcelles, le cincqizesme jour de Febvr , Ian quinze cens cinc- 
quante cincq." Ainsy signe, C. de Lalaing, Renard, de Tisnacq, P. de 
Bruxelles, Giovanni Battista Sichzo, de Coulligny, et S. de Laubespine. 

Collationne avecq la lettre originale, escripte en parchemin et signee comme 
dessus par moy. 

COURTEVVILLE." 

n The year is reckoned from March 25. 

"Comparison of signatures shows that this is Josse (or Joseph) de Courtewille, 
clerk of the Order of the Golden Fleece and commander in the Order of Calatrava. 
Philip II. took him to Spain to serve as secretary of state for the affairs of the Low 
Countries. He died in 1572. 



21.* 

* Treaty between France and Spain, concluded at Cateau- 
Cambresis, April j, 1559. Oral agreement concerning the 
Indies. 

INTRODUCTION. 

The truce of Vaucelles was soon broken. Within a year, Henry II. renewed 
the papal alliance and began hostilities against Spain. In the ensuing war 
both sides won notable victories, which offset each other. In October, 1558, 
after preliminary conferences, the kings empowered plenipotentiaries to 
negotiate the peace, which both monarchs ardently desired. 1 Philip s re 
sources were nearly exhausted. Henry hoped that the return of the Constable 
Montmorency, who had been held as prisoner, would check the growing power 
of the Guises. Both sovereigns wished to begin a domestic campaign against 
Protestantism. 1 In a castle of the Bishop of Cambray, a treaty between 
France and Spain was signed on April 3, 1559. A treaty between France 
and England, the ally of Spain, was signed on the day preceding.* 

The treaty of Cateau-Cambresis, supplemented in 1598 by the treaty of 
Vervins, was " the fundamental charter of Europe up to the treaty of West 
phalia ". Contemporaries considered it disgraceful to France, which sur 
rendered two hundred towns to Savoy and Spain, and abandoned her 
pretensions to Italy. Among other things the treaty stipulated the marriage 
of Philip II. and the daughter of the King of France. 

In the course of the negotiations the right of the French to go to the 
Spanish Indies was discussed repeatedly and at length. 4 

The powers are printed in Traicte de Paix fait a Chasteau-Cambresis (1637), pp. 
160-165. The French plenipotentiaries were : the Cardinal of Lorraine, the Constable 
Montmorency, the Marshal Saint-Andre, Jean de Morvilliers, bishop of Orleans, Claude 
de 1 Aubespine, secretary of state, and later, his brother, Sebastien de 1 Aubespine, 
bishop of Limoges. Spain was represented by the Duke of Alva, William, prince of 
Orange, Ruy Gomez de Silva, count of Melito, Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle, bishop 
of Arras, and President Viglius. Bishop Thirlby, the Earl of Arundel, and Nicholas 
Wotton represented England. The Duke of Savoy and the King of Navarre also sent 
plenipotentiaries. From the middle of October, 1558, till nearly the end of the following 
January, negotiations were conducted at Cercamp ; afterwards, at Cateau-Cambresis. 

1 For the causes that made Philip desire peace, see L. P. Gachard, Relations des Ant- 
bassadeurs Venitiens sur Charles-Quint et Philippe II. (1855), PP- 3 r 4. 3*5- 

*The text of the French-Spanish treaty is in F. Leonard, Recueil des Traitcz (1693), 
II. 535 ff. ; and J. Dumont, Corps Diplomatique (1726-1731), torn. V., pt. L, pp. 34 ff. ; 
the text of the French-English treaty is in P. Forbes, Full View of Public Transactions 
in the Reign of Q. Elizabeth (1740-1741), I. 68-81. 

4 Papiers d Etat du Cardinal de Granvelle, V. 285, 286, 546, 564; Negociations relatives 
au Regne de Francois II., p. 270 ; Archives of Simancas, Secretaria de Estado, leg. 
518, f. 88. 

15 219 



220 Doc. 21. France Spain 

Philip thought the question of great importance. During the truce, in viola 
tion of the separate article, 1 and during the war just passed, the Spanish 
islands had been the prey of French corsairs. Villegagnon s colony in Brazil 
seemed a new danger to Spain as well as to Portugal. In 1557 the Venetian 
ambassador in Spain ascribed the recent rupture between that country and 
France partly to the sending of French ships to the Indies " to occupy some 
place and obstruct the navigation "/ The Council of the Indies advised Philip 
to arrange in the negotiations for the punishment of French corsairs and for 
the surrender of French pretensions to the Indies. 

The Spanish commissioners based their claim to a monopoly of the western 
navigation on the bulls of Pope Alexander VI. and Julius II. and on the fact 
that Spain alone had borne the labor and expense of discovery. They urged 
that Villegagnon should be recalled. 8 The French deputies, arguing that the 
sea was common, and making a distinction used by the English merchants 
during the Anglo- Portuguese negotiations of 1555, would not agree to exclude 
Frenchmen from places discovered by them and not actually subject to the 
kings of Portugal or Castile ; but they would consent either that the French 
keep away from lands actually possessed by the aforesaid sovereigns, or, 
as an alternative, that, as in earlier treaties, the Indies should not be mentioned, 
and if Frenchmen were found doing what they should not they might be 
chastised. Philip did not approve of the former alternative. The Indies 
were, therefore, not mentioned in the treaty, but an oral agreement was 
made, apparently to the effect that west of the prime meridian and south of 
the Tropic of Cancer might should make right, and violence done by either 
party to the other should not be regarded as in contravention of treaties. 
Beyond these " lines of amity " treaties should lose their force. Ships cap 
tured there were considered good prize." At a later period the Spaniards and 

* Doc. 20. Ch. de La Ronciere, La Marine Franqaise, III. (1906) 584. 

Papiers d tat du Cardinal de Granvelle, IV. 659. 

7 E. Alberi, Relazioni degli Ambasciatori Veneti, ser. I., torn. III. (1853), p. 304. 

"Letter from the French deputies to the King of France, dated Mar. 13, 1559. 
Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Correspondance Politique, Espagne, vol. 
IX., ff. 168-170. 

9 On Mar. 13, 1559, the Spanish plenipotentiaries at Cateau-Cambresis wrote to King 
Philip as follows : . . . . " Oultres ce, nous avons longuement debatu pour exclure les 
Franchois de la navigation des Indes : mais nous ne les avons sceu attraire a ce quilz 
voulussent exclure leurs subjectz de la ditte navigation, ny que Ion leur donnast mettes ou 
limites : du moins quil ne leur f ut permis daller aux lieux que si bien ilz sont descouvertz, 
toutesfois nobeissent ny au royaulme de Castille ny a celluy de Portugal. Bien consenti- 
roient ilz quilz nallassent aux terres possedees par Votre Majeste et par le Roy de Portu 
gal, ou que Ion demeurast aux termes des traictez passez. quest quil ne sen fist mention, et 
que si Ion les trouve f aisant chose quilz ne doibvent que Ion les chastye : alleghans les 
argumens ordinaires que la mer soit commune, et nous au contraire nous servant du 
fondement de la bulle du pape Alexandra et du pape Julie second, de la semination que 
se fit aux princes Cretiens pour scavoir ceulx que vouldriont contribuer aux frais du 
descouvrement, la demarcation que sen fit, et que ce nestoit raison que aultres vinssent 
joyr des travaulx et fraiz faictz par aultruy pour descouyrir les dittes Indes. Et que 
nous leur voulions bien declarer que silz y venoient, encoires quil fut en paix, que Ion 



Catcau-Cambresis, 1559 " 221 

French differed as to the situation of the prime meridian. The former placed 
it in the Azores ; the latter in Ferro, the westernmost of the Canaries. 10 In 
1634 Louis XIII. ordered French cartographers to place the prime meridian 
on their globes and charts at the island of Ferro." 

It may be noted that the " lines of amity " recognized by the Spaniards 
roughly corresponded to what may be described as the Portuguese demarca 
tion line of the bull of 1455, Doc. 1 the meridian of Cape Non " and the 
Spanish demarcation line of the bull of May 4, 1493, Doc. 7." 

procureroit de les jectcr au fond, sans que par ce nous entendissions que Ion peust 
alleguer davoir contrevenu ausdits traictez en ce quilz traictent de la communication et 
conversation des subjectz de lung stir les pays de laultre. Et finablement, apres longue 
dispute, nous nous sumes arrestez a ce que nous ferions coucher ung article sur ce 
point, lequel nous pourrions veoir et regarder si sur icelluy nous scaurions accorder. 
En quoy nous avons encharge au docteur portugais qui est icy apres lavoir informe de 
ce quest passe dy besoigner ceste nuict et demain le matin." . . . Archive General de 
Simancas, Sccretaria de Estado, torn. 518, f. 88. 

The following extract from a letter, apparently written by a member of the Council 
of the Indies, probably dates from or about the year 1565. It is in the Archives Na- 
tionales at Paris, K. 1504, No. iga (Fonds de Simancas). " Illustre Sefior. Quando Su 
Mag[esta]d en Elandes tomo el ultimo assiento de las pazes con el Rey de Frangia, 
embio a mandar a este consejo le advirtiese si en lo que tocaha a las Yndias avia que 
tratar cosas que tocasen a su servicio, y el consejo rrespondio que ordinariamente 
andavan frangeses cosarios por la mar aguardando a los navios que venian de las 
Yndias por hazer alguna presa, o rrobo en ellos, y que estos se debrian castigar como 
rrobadores, cosarios, y ynquietadores de la paz y amistad de los rreyes. Y asi mesmo 
que debria asentarse con el Rey de Frangia, que se apartase de qualquier pretension que 
tuviese en tierra de las Yndias, pues Su Mag[esta]d las tenia y poseya con tan justos 
titulos. 

" Y enquanto al primer capitulo se allanaron, y satisfizieron bien, pero enquanto a lo 
segundo rrespondieron que no tocarian en las tierras que Su Mag[esta]d poseya en las 
Yndias, pero que en las tierras que Su Mag[esta]d no poseya ni navegar por la mar no 
se las devia estorvar, ni se consentirian pribar de la mar y cielo. 

" Esto es lo que me acuerdo que entonges se trato y rrespondio en sustangia, pero yo 
hacer buscar la digha consulta y rrespuesta y vista advertire a v. m. si en ella oviere otra 
cosa de alguna ymportangia que se me olbide." 

Henry IV., writing on Sept. 20, 1604, to Maximilien de Bethune, remarked apropos 
of the treaty recently concluded between Spain and England (Doc. 27): " Je croy 
qu ils en useront de part et d autre, comme ont faict mes sujets ct les Espagnols depuis 
la paix de 1 an mil cinq cens cinquante-neuf, que les Frangois ont continue les diets 
voyages, jagoit qu il n en soit fait mention par la dicte paix; mais comme les Espagnols 
les rencontrans par dela la ligne les ont traittez en ennemis, les diets Frangois leur ont 
rendu la pareille et pour cela Ton n a entendu que la dicte paix fut violee." (Le Roi a 
Bethune, 20 Sept., 1604. Bibl. Nat. 500 Colbert, 348: 590. Printed in P. Laffleur de 
Kermaingant, L Ambassade de France en Angleterre sous Henri IV.: Mission de 
Christophe de Harlay (1602-1605) (1895), I. 193, note I.) See also the letters written 
by the Queen Regent of France to the King of England in 1610 and 1611, quoted in 
D. Asseline, Antiquitez de Dieppe, II. 149 ff., and in E. Guenin, Ango et ses Pilotcs 
(1901), p. 269 ff. In a document of the year 1588 (Santarem. Quadra Elcmentar, III. 
510, 511) the tropic of Cancer is mentioned in connection with the prime meridian 
the two constituting the " lines of amity ". 

** There is an interesting memoir by Richelieu on this question in the Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs in Paris, Memoires et Documents, France, 792. 

u F. A. Isambert et al., Recucil Central des Anciennes Lois Francoises (1822-1827), 
XVI. 409-411. 

"See Doc. 1, note 40. 

11 For instances of the use of the demarcation line of the treaty of Tordesillas as 
the prime meridian, see Doc. 10, introduction. 



222 *Doc. 21. France Spain 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Text. No statement of the wording of the oral agreement has been found. 

References: Contemporary and early writings. Papier s d Etat du Cardi 
nal de Granvelle (1841-1852), V. 169 ff. (ed. by Ch. Weiss, in Coll. de 
Docs. Inedits sur I Histoire de France) ; Negotiations relatives au 
Regne de Frangois II., tirees du Portefeuille de Sebastien de I Aubespine, 
Eveque de Limoges (ed. by L. Paris in the same collection, 1841), 
p. 271 ff. Under the title Traicte de Paix fait d Chasteau-Cambresis a 
collection of letters from the French deputies was printed in 1637. 
This contains nothing about the Indies, but some omitted passages 
relating to the Indies are preserved in manuscript form in the Ministry 
of Foreign Affairs, Correspondance Politique, Espagne, vol. IX., 
ff. 168-170. 

References: Later writings. The history of the treaty, but without refer 
ence to the question of the Indies, is in F. Decrue, Anne, Due de Mont- 
morency, sous les Rois Henri II., Frangois II., et Charles IX. (1889), 
ch. 10; A. de Ruble, Le Traite de Cateau-Cambresis (1889). 



22. 

Treaty between the King of Spain and the Catholic Princes of 
France, concluded at Joininlle on January 16, 1585* 

INTRODUCTION. 

On June 10, 1584, the Duke of Anjou, brother of Henry III., died, and 
Henry of Navarre, chief of the Huguenot party, became heir to the French 
crown. In anticipation of this event, the Duke of Guise, who secretly aspired 
to the throne, his brother, the duke of Mayenne, and other Catholic nobles, 
had already proclaimed the old and simple Cardinal of Bourbon as heir 
presumptive, and revived the Holy League of 1576 to oppose the succession 
of the King of Navarre. The Duke of Guise had long been in the pay of 
Philip II. That monarch was now at odds with the ruling family of France 
because of their dealings with his rebellious subjects in the Netherlands and 
their befriending of Dom Antonio, prior of Crato, a claimant of the crown of 
Portugal, which Philip had recently annexed to Spain. Thus a common 
hostility to the Valois and Protestants brought Philip and the Guises into 
alliance. Negotiations already begun through the Spanish agents, Juan 
Moreo and Juan Bautista de Tassis, were continued from the last days of 
December, 1584, to January 16, 1585, at the chateau of the Duke of Guise at 
Joinville on the Marne. On the latter date, a treaty of offensive and defensive 
alliance was signed by Tassis and Moreo on behalf of Philip II., by the Sieur 
de Mainville on behalf of the Cardinal of Bourbon, and by the dukes of 
Guise and Mayenne in their own names and those of their brother, the 
Cardinal of Guise, and their cousins, the dukes of Aumale and Elboeuf . The 
treaty was ratified by Philip, 2 and renewed at Rheims by the Duke of Guise 
on September 2, 1585." Its chief provisions were as follows : the Cardinal of 
Bourbon should be declared presumptive heir to the throne of France, from 
which all heretical princes or countenancers of heresy should be excluded, 
and, if necessary, opposed with arms ; the Cardinal of Bourbon should, on 
his accession, confirm the treaty of Cateau-Cambresis ; 4 in France, only 
Catholic forms of worship should be permitted, no places should be left in 

1 The main text of the treaty is dated Dec. 31. 1584; one of the separate articles, Jan. 
i, 1585; the other, Jan. 16, 1585. J. B. de Tassis, one of the negotiators, states with 
regard to the treaty : " confectum est foedus decima sexta die Januarii, octuagesimi 
quinti, etiamsi instrumentum Calendis ipsis asserat confectum." Commentariorum 
Libri Octo, p. 446. 

Ibid., p. 461 ; Riibsam, Johann Baptista von Ta.ris, pp. 75, ?6. 

3 See below, p. 225. 

*C/. Doc 21. 

223 



224 Doc, 22. Spain Catholic Princes of France 

the hands of heretics, those who would not return to the Catholic Church 
should be exterminated, and the decrees of the Council of Trent should be 
observed ; alliances with the Turks and voyages of the French to the Indies 
and Azores should cease; the King of Spain should pay the contracting 
princes 50,000 crowns monthly, for the expenses of the war, and advance 
other sums, as specified ; Cambray and the places in the Netherlands yielded 
by the heretics to the French should be restored to Spain, and every effort 
made to prevent the French from trading with or helping the heretics in the 
Netherlands ; all French Catholics might enter the League, but the con 
tracting parties to the treaty might not separately admit a foreign Catholic 
prince, or treat with any prince, including the King of France, to the League s 
prejudice, or make the treaty public. The dukes of Mercosur and Nevers 
being absent, a space should be left for them to sign the treaty ; the King of 
Spain, the Cardinal of Bourbon, and the dukes of Mercoeur and Nevers should 
ratify the treaty before the end of the following March. In two important 
separate articles, 5 the dukes of Guise and Mayenne promised that, on the 
outbreak of war, they would endeavor to have Dom Antonio delivered up to 
the King of Spain, on condition that nothing be attempted against his person ; 
and the Cardinal of Bourbon promised that every effort should be made to 
put all the lands of the King of Navarre situated outside France into posses 
sion of the King of Spain. 

There were obvious reasons why Philip and the Catholic Leaguers should 
desire to stop the voyages of the French to the Indies, and to the Azores where 
the Indian fleets regularly put in. Within the last two and a half years, the 
Queen-Mother, Catherine de Medici, to whom Dom Antonio had promised 
Brazil, had used the naval power of France in an attempt to preserve his 
authority in the Azores. The French captains who undertook the western 
voyages and chafed under the commercial restrictions imposed by Spain * 
were mostly Protestants. 7 The far-sighted Huguenot statesmen, Coligny 
and Duplessis-Mornay, had both planned a French invasion of Philip s 
western dominions in order to stop at its source the " golden Indian stream " 
that flowed through the Spanish king s coffers into the hands of the soldiers, 
agents, and rebels who fought with him against Protestantism. The plan of 
Duplessis-Mornay, which had been submitted to the King of France a few 
months before, included an attack upon the treasure fleet ; an occupation of 
the Isthmus of Panama which would give the French command of both 
oceans and a short route to the Moluccas ; and the diverting of the East Indian 
trade into the hands of the French by employing the route to Suez and 

s Printed in de Tassis, Commentariorum Libri Octo, pp. 456-460. 

6 Cf. " Plaintes sur les obstacles apportes au commerce maritime des Rouennais par 
les Espagnols ", Aug. 20, 1584, in E. de Freville, Memoire sur Ic Commerce Maritime de 
Rouen (1857), II. 503-505. 

T La Ronciere, La Marine Francaise, IV. (1910) 31. 



Joini illc, /5#5 225 



thence to the Mediterranean through the territory of their Turkish allies, 
who had recently proposed to establish at Antwerp, under the Duke of Anjou, 
a staple for all their European trade in Asiatic commodities, which should 
be conveyed across France from Marseilles to Bordeaux." 

The League was never able to give effect to the article in the treaty of 
Joinville concerning the Indies. After the death of Henry III., Philip offered 
in vain to allow the French to trade there on condition that the League should 
recognize him as protector of France, and agree to the marriage of his 
daughter (niece of Henry III.) with a French prince, who should become 
King of France after the death of the Cardinal of Bourbon. 1 " 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Text: MS. No original manuscript of this treaty has been found. Two 
copies of the French text are in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Fonds 
Frangais, 3363, f. 9, and 3974, f . 67. These are similar and in the same 
hand. The former is printed in part below. 

Text: Printed. The French text of the treaty, without the additional 
articles, is printed in F. Leonard, Recueil des Traitez de Paix (1693), 
II. 636-642, and J. Dumont, Corps Diplomatique (1726-1731), torn. V., 
pt. I., pp. 441-443. The Latin text, including the two separate articles, 
is in Joannis Baptistae de Tassis Commentariorum de Tumultibus 
Bclgicis sui Temporis Libri Octo, in C. P. Hoynck van Papendrecht, 
Analecta Belgica ( 1743), torn. II., pt. II., pp. 446-460. 

References: Contemporary and early writings. J. B. de Tassis, Commen 
tariorum Libri Octo (etc., as above), torn. II., pt. II., pp. 442-446, 461. 

References : Later writings. J. Riibsam, Johann Baptista von Taxis ( 1889) , 
Kap. 3 ; E. Saulnier, Le Role Politique du Cardinal de Bourbon 
(Charles X.), 1523-1590 (1912), in Bibliotheque de I Ecole des Hautes 
Etudes, fasc. 193. 

TEXT." 

Traicte faict avec le Roy d Espagne 1 an 1585 par Messieurs les Cardinal 
de Bourbon et Ducz de Guise et du Mayne en Janvier, 1585, a Janville. Le 
diet traicte depuis fut renouvelle par le diet sieur Due de Guise le deuxiesme 
Septembre, mil V c quatre vingtz cinq, a Reims." 

Memoires et Correspondance de Dupiessis-Montay (1824-1825), II. 580 ff.. and see 
La Ronciere, op. cit., IV. 201-205. 

* J.-A. de Thou, Histoire Universelle (1734), VIII. 646. 

10 " Que le commerce de la marchandise sera ouvert aux Francois pour aller aux terres 
de Perou et autres terres nouvellement conquises par Sa Majeste, et sc pourront associer 
avec les Espagnols ou Portugais, ou naviger a part si bon leur semble." P. V. Palma 
Cayet, Chronologic Novenaire, in Michaud and Poujoulat. Nouvelle Collection des 
Memoires (1836-1839), i re ser., torn. XII., pt. I., p. 190. See also J. Nouaillac, Villeroy 
(1909), pp. i/off. 

" The text is taken from a copy in the Bibliotheque N T ationale, Fonds Frangais, 
3363, f 9- 

"In margin in MS. : " Escript en pappier de la main de . . . , secretaire de Monsieur 
dumaine." This note is in a hand different from that of the text but like that in which 
the names of the signatories and the notes at the end of the text are written. 



226 Doc. 22. Spain Catholic Princes of France 

Au nom de Dieu le Createur. A tous ceux qui ces presentes lettres verront, 
soit notoire comme ainsy soict qu il ny aict en ce monde rien que oblige 
daventaige, ny en quoy les rois, princes, et tous Chrestiens soient plus tenuz, 
qu a ce qui est du service de Dieu, tuition, deffence, et conservation de sa 
saincte loy; et que les seectes et heresies de long temps dispersees par la 
Chrestiente ayent pris tel accroissement que grande partie dicelle sen trouve 
gastee et infectee, voires sy avant qu en plusieurs contrees grandes et notables 
Ion est venu jusques a la, que de banir la religion catolique, appostolicque, et 
Romaine, en faisant tout 1 effort possible pour 1 extirper et ruyner de fond 
en comble, et que les chefz et ministres des dictes sectes et heresie ne veillent, 
jour et nuict, par tous les subtilz couvertz et publicqz moiens quilz peuvent, 
que a corrompre et gaster de mesme ce quelle a encores, graces a Dieu, dentier 
et net, et que au lieu qu entre les princes Chrestiens, les sectaires et hereticques 
debvroient estre traictez et tenuz comme commungs ennemiz ; ce neantmoings 
du coste de la France et d aulcuns Francoys ilz ayent este tellement supportez, 
favorisez, et entretenuz au Pais Bas, qu ilz nauroient pen estre chastiez, puniz, 
et reduictz, comme il appartient par tres hault, tres excellent, et tres puissant 
prince, le Roy Catolicque, leur souverain. Ce que les soubzscritz catolicques 
de la dicte France disent avoir este faict en icelle seullement par le mauvais 
conseil et persuasion de certaines personnes, plus soigneux de leur proffict 
particullier que de Ihonneur de Dieu, du service de leur roy, et du bien de leur 
patrie ; et qu en cecy Ion y continue encores a present plus que jamais par 
negotiations, promesses, exortations, pour les rendre tous jours plus obstinez 
et endurciz en leurs pernitieuses intentions, mesmes que au dedans de la 
France les catolicques se plaignent de veoir limpunite du blaspheme, quilz 
appellent liberte de conscience, permise entreux, et daultre part, les villes, 
les forteresses, leurs maisons, et leurs families, voires les peuples entiers, estre 
livrez et habandonnez au bon plaisir et domination des hereticques. En 
quoy, oultre ce que lestat de la dicte France se dissippe par ce moien, encores 
sont ce aultant d arcenacqs et magasins dressez pour les hereticques affin 
d endommager plus aysement les catolicques, et sestant faict plusieurs et 
diverses plainctes sur ce particulier a tres hault, tres excellent, et tres puissant 
prince, le Roy Tres Chrestien, leur souverain, tant aux assemblees des estatz 
generaulx et particulliers que par les tres humbles requestes, supplications, et 
remonstrances faictes par plusieurs princes et aultres gens de quallite, 
lesquelles n auroient peu obtenir aucune consideration par les artifices de 
personnes trop soigneuses de leur proffict, comme dit est, et sur le poinct du 
plus grand denger, que depuis la mort de feu tres excellent prince, monsieur 
le Due dAlengon, le prince du sang, qui de tout temps et encores a present 
est chef des hereticques, se pretendant attribuer le premier degre en la suc 
cession de la couronne de France, a par nouveau serment jure et confirme 
la protection des diets hereticques, non obstant ce peril si present," luy 
ont este accordees nouvelles investitures pour plusieurs annees des villes quil 
possede, centre toutte raison, comme si de propos delibere. Ion le voulloict 
conduire ainsy enneiny de la foy quil est a la succession de ceste couronne 
de France, advenant le deceds sans hoirs masles du Roy Tres Crestien, qui 
seroict preparer de longue main lentiere ruyne de leglise de Dieu. Et combien 
quil soict en sa divine main de donner enffens audict sieur Roy Treschrestien, 
quant il luy plaira, si estre quil n est moings possible quil puisse deceder 
sans iceux, et pour lors il seroict trop tard de penser aux remedes des certains 
dangers que le present estat des affaires menassent, non seullement a la 

" Leonard, Recneil des Traitez, II. 637, reads prcssant. 



Joinvillc, 1585 227 

France, mais generallement a toutte la Chrestiente. dont Ion sapperceoit 
maintenant a veue doeil. Pour ces cau[s]es, nous, Phillippes, par la grace 
de Dieu deuxiesme de ce nom, roy de Castille, de Leon, dAragon, Portugal, 
de Navarre, de Naples, de Seecille, de Jhierusalem, de Majorque, de Sar- 
daigne, des Isles, Indes, et terre f erme de la mer occeane, archiduc d Autreiche, 
due de Bourgongne, de Lottier, de Braban, de Lambourg, de Luxembourg, 
Gueldres, et de Milan, conte de Hasbourg, de Flandres, d Artois, de Bour 
gongne, palatin de Haynault, de Holande, et de Zelande, de Namur, et de 
Zutphun, prince de Zvuanem, marquis du Sainct Empire, seigneur de Frise, 
de Sallins, de Malignes, des citez, villes, et pais dutrecq, doverissel, et de 
Groayningin, et dominateur en Asie et Affricque, desirans en tant qu a nous 
est subvenir au grand et pressant d enger de la religion catolicque, et nous, 
Charles, Cardinal de Bourbon, premier prince du sang de France, legat du 
Sainct Siege appostolicque au conte d Avignon, primat de Normandie, arche- 
vesque de Rohan, etc., considerans lestroicte obligation que nous avons 
premierement a Dieu et apres a ce royaume, comme premier prince du sang 
et legitime heritier de la couronne de France, de prevenir et nous opposer 
au danger de la religion et a levidante et prochaine ruine de la couronne ; 
Lois, cardinal de Guise, archevesque et due de Reims, premier pair de France ; 
Henry de Lorraine, due de Guise et de Chevreuse, souverain de Chasteau- 
regnault et des terres d oultre et decza la Meuse qui en deppendent, prince de 
Joinville, comte deu, baron de Lamberg, Orgon, et Esgallieres, pair et 
grand maistre de France, gouverneur et lieutenant general pour le Roy Tres 
Chrestien en ses pais de Champaigne et Brie; Charles de Lorraine, due de 
Maynne, pair et grand chambellan de France, gouverneur et lieutenant general 
pour Sa Majeste Tres Chrestienne en ses pais et duche de Bourgongne ; 
Charles de Lorraine, due d Aumalle, pair et grand veneur de France ; Charles 
de Lorraine, due delbeuf, aussy pair de France, resentans le debvoir qui 
nous oblige a la religion catolicque, estans princes Chrestiens et ne pouvans 
deffaillir aux pais de nostre naissance, comme membres principaulx dicelluy, 
en ung besoing si grand et remerquable et ou il est question de Ihonneur de 
Dieu, de la conservation de son eglise et salut de son peuple, apres que noz 
susdictes supplications et remonstrances, tant de fois reyterees, nont peu rien 
obtenir ; tous unanimement, poussez d entier zelle de sa gloire et honneur, et 
invocans pour la bonne issue de ceste entreprise 1 intercession de la sacree 
Vierge mere et de tous les sainctz, avons par ensemble traicte, conclud, et 
arreste, traictons, concluons, et arrestons par ces presentes confederation, 
union, et ligue, offencive et deffencive, perpetuelle et a tous jours, pour nous 
et noz hoirs, pour la seulle tuition, deftence, et conservation de la religion 
catolicque, apostolicque, et Romaine, restauration dicelle, et pour lentiere 
extirpation de touttes sectes et heresies de la France et des Pais Bas, et ce 
aux charges et conditions qui sensuyvent : 

Renoncera " le diet sieur Cardinal de Bourbon ou ses successeurs, comme 
font aussy lesdicts princes catolicques, entierement aux ligues et confedera- 

"The Latin text in de Tassis, Commctifariorum Libri Octo, pp. 450, 451, is as follows: 
" Renuntiabunt prorsus dictus D. Cardinalis aut ejus successor atque etiam principes 
foederati amicitiis foederibusque initis atque contractis cum Turca, neque posthac 
poterunt cum eo ejusque successoribus inire alia foedera aut commercia in praejudicium 
vel tantillum religionis Christianae, quod similiter se facturum spondet Rex Catholicus. 
Cessabunt statim omnia latrocinia, pyratica, maritimaeque rapinae, omnesque aliae 
navigationes illicitae, Indiam Insulasque versus sub ea comprehensas quae sunt dominii 
Regis Catholici, quae navigationes posthac non sunt permittendae." 



228 Doc. 22. Spain Catholic Princes of France 

tions que la couronne de France a de present avec le Turc, et ne pourront 
doresnavant en dresser daultres, ou avoir avec icelluy Turc ou ses successeurs 
aucune corespondance qui puisse tant soict peu prejudicier a la Chrestiente, 
non plus que ne fera Sa Majeste Catolicque. 

Cesseront incontinant touttes pirateries, escumeries de mer, et touttes aultres 
navigations illicites vers les Indes et Isles comprises soubz icelle apartenans 
a Sa Majeste Catolicque, sans quelles puissent estre permises de la en avant. 

Ce traicte fut faict, clos, conclud, et arreste, au chasteau de Joinville, au 
nom et de la part de Sa Majeste Catolicque, par le sieur Jehan Baptiste de 
Tassis, chevallier et commandeur de Bien venida, de lordre de Monseigneur 
Sainct Jacques, conseiller du conseil de guerre et vedor general du camp et 
armee de Sadicte Majeste Catolicque au Pais Bas, a ce speciallement commis 
et depute par icelle et assiste de frere Jehan Moreo, chevallier et commandeur 
dalfosses de lordre de St. Jehan de Jhierusalem, y envoye a cest effect de par 
Sadicte Majeste Catolicque, Francoys de Roncherolles, sieur de Mayneville 
et Hengueville, premier baron de Normandie, conseiller nay en la cour de 
parlement dudict pais, cappitaine de cinquante homines darmes soubz la 
charge de Monsieur le Conte de Soissons, a ce commis et deputte speciallement 
par le diet sieur Cardinal de Bourbon. Les susdicts Ducz de Guise et de 
Mayenne, en propres personnes et au nom et de la part desdicts sieurs Cardinal 
de Guise, Ducz daumalle et delbenf, le dernier jour de decembre, Ian 1584. 

Jo. BA[U]T[IS]TA DE TASSIS. 
FRANCOIS DE ROCHEROLLES. 
HENRY DE LORRAINE. 
CHARLES DE LORRAINE, due de Maine. 
Cest escript est de la tant en nostre nom que 
main de Monsieur de nous faisans fortz de 

Guise. Messieurs les Cardinal Nota. Ilz ont laisse 

de Guise et Ducz dau- espace entre la signa- 
malle et delbeuf. ture de Monsieur dau 

malle et la leur pour y 
mectre 2 signatures, et 
encores place au bas 
diceux pour y en mectre 
4ou 5. 



23. 

League between France, England, and the United Netherlands 
against Spain. Accession of the United Netherlands, con 
cluded at the Hague, October j/, 1596. 

INTRODUCTION. 

In January, 1595, Henry IV., king of Navarre and France, formally de 
clared war against Spain. He appealed to Queen Elizabeth for help, but she 
responded with demands for the cession of Calais. After Calais had fallen 
to the Spaniards, Henry sent an embassy to the queen, in April, 1596, to 
conclude an offensive and defensive alliance, which the United Provinces 
and other Protestant powers should be invited to join, against the common 
enemy. Elizabeth appeared reluctant to aid Henry further. She had already 
spent large sums in support of armies in France and Flanders, was now- 
burdened with the rebellion fostered by Spain in Ireland and with prepara 
tions for a naval expedition against Cadiz, and on the eve of the negotiations, 
she learned of the death of Hawkins and Drake off the coast of America. 
Nevertheless she yielded to the threat that the King of France, if unaided, 
would conclude a separate peace with Spain ; and the conferences, which had 
been conducted chiefly by the Duke of Bouillon and the Sieur de Sancy on 
the part of France and Lord Burghley on the part of England, terminated 
in the signing at Greenwich of two treaties, one public and the other secret. 1 
The public treaty, dated May 14/24, stipulated in articles i to 7 that earlier 
treaties should be confirmed ; an offensive and defensive league should be 
formed against Spain, which all interested princes and states should be 
invited to join ; an army should be raised as soon as possible from the com 
bined forces of the allies to invade the Spanish dominions ; neither sovereign 
was to treat for peace or truce with the King of Spain or his officers without 

1 For an account of the negotiations, see the " Discours de la Negotiation de Messieurs 
de Bouillon et de Sancy en Angleterre, 1596", in G. Du Vair, Oeuvres (1625) ; De Thou, 
Histoire Universelle, torn. XII., liv. 116, pp. 647-661 ; A. Poirson, Histoire du Regne de 
Henri IV. (1862-1867), torn. II., ch. 7; Motley, United Netherlands, III. 450-460; L. A. 
Prevost-Paradol, Elisabeth et Henri IV., 1595-159$ (1855) ; J- B. Black, Elisabeth and 
Henry IV. (1914), pp. 103 ff. Du Vair, a negotiator of the public treaty, says nothing 
of the private treaty, for which see P. Laffleur de Kermaingant, L Ambassade de 
France: Mission de Jean de Thumery (1886), pp. 44 ff., or Motley, loc. cit. The public 
treaty is printed in F. Leonard, Recueil des Trades (1693), II. 652-655; Dumont, Corps 
Diplomatique, torn. V., pt. I., pp. 525-527. The secret treaty is printed in part in Ker 
maingant, op. cit., pieces jitstificatives, pp. 256-258. 

229 



230 Doc. 23. France England United Netherlands 

the other s consent ; the truce in Brittany should be extended to England, 
when renewed ; no general truce was to be made with places held by the enemy 
except with the queen s consent, and particular truces were not to be con 
tinued more than two months without consent of both sovereigns. Articles 
8 to 19 provided chiefly that the queen should send 4000 infantry to serve 
against the Spaniards, but not more than fifty miles from Boulogne ; that she 
should advance their pay for six months ; and that if the queen s dominions 
were invaded and she should ask aid of the French king he should send 4000 
infantry to England to serve at her expense not more than fifty miles inland. 
Articles 20 to 23 stipulated that each sovereign might buy munitions of war 
and provisions from the other, if mutually convenient ; that there should be 
reciprocal protection of merchants and freedom in trading; and that the 
King of France and his successors should not permit any subject of the queen 
to be molested on account of his religion. Two days later a secret treaty was 
signed, annulling certain stipulations of the public alliance by providing 
that the queen should send only 2000 men to France, and advance their pay 
for only four months, and that she need not spend anything for the invading 
army of the allies, in spite of the article to the contrary inserted in the public 
treaty " for the reputation of the league ". 

These treaties having been duly confirmed by both sovereigns, negotia 
tions with the States General were conducted at the Hague by the Duke of 
Bouillon, Buzanval, the regular French ambassador there, and George Gtlpin, 
English councillor in the Council of State of the United Provinces. The 
public treaty allured the Dutch to the alliance, in which, for the first time in 
international affairs, they ranked on an equality with other sovereign powers. 
The terms of their accession to the league, signed on October 21/31, 1596, 
were the same as articles I to 7 and 20 to 23 of the Franco-English treaty 
of May 14/24, summarized above. 

Before the conclusion of this alliance, as well as after it, the Dutch co 
operated with England against the maritime power of Spain. By the con 
tract concluded between Elizabeth and the States General at the end of 1577," 
and again in the treaty concluded between the same in 1585," it had been 
agreed that the Dutch should send ships of war to resist the enemy s fleet 
in co-operation with English ships under the English admiral. In June, 1596, 
the Dutch had gone beyond their treaty obligations in sending a squadron 
under Admiral Duyvenvoord to join the English in the expedition against 
Cadiz, 4 the staple town for all the American and Eastern trade. To save the 
outward-bound American fleet from falling into the hands of the allies, 

"Printed in Dumont, op. cit., torn. V., pt. I., p. 315. 

* Printed in Dumont, ibid., pp. 454, 455. 

4 For the Cadiz expedition, see Cal. St. Pap.. Dom., 1595-1597, especially pp. 231-235, 
255-258, 271-273, 290; Oppenheim s edition of Monson, Naval Tracts, I. 344-395. " 
1-20; J. S. Corbett, Successors of Drake (1900), ch. 3. 



Hague, 1596 231 

the Spaniards had burned all the ships and cargo, losing-, it was estimated, 
12,000,000 ducats, and "completely dislocating the American trade". In 
1597, after the Dutch had bound themselves by the triple alliance to offensive 
action, they contributed another squadron, also under Duyvenvoord, which 
accompanied Essex on the unfortunate Islands voyage, 5 projected for the 
purpose of destroying the Adelantado s fleet, intercepting the homeward- 
bound American fleet, and occupying the Azores. 

The triple alliance was of short duration, for Henry, in spite of his promise 
and contrary to the wishes of his allies, made peace with Philip at Vervins, 
on May 2, 1598. In these negotiations, as in the Franco-Spanish negotiations 
at Cateau-Cambresis, 7 the question of the Indian trade was discussed ; but 
Henry did not succeed in obtaining any further concessions from Spain. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Text: MS. The original of the ratification by the States General is in the 
London Public Record Office, T. R., Diplomatic Documents, no. 1175. 
It is in bad condition, but the parts which are illegible can be supplied 
from a good copy in B. M., Add. MSS., 19876. 

Text : Printed. J. Dumont, Corps Diplomatique ( 1726-1731 ), torn. V., pt. I., 
pp. 531-537 (Dutch and French translation) ; P. Bor, Ncderlandsche 
Oorlogen (1679-1684), IV. 262-265. 

Translation. A General Collection of Treatys (1732), II. 97-102. 

References: Contemporary and early writings. J. A. de Thou, Histoire 
Universelle (1734), torn. XIL, liv. 116, pp. 663-671; P. Bor, Neder- 
landsche Oorlogen (1679-1684), vol. IV., bk. XXXIIL, pp. 257-267. 

References : Later writings. R. Fruin, Tien Jaren uit den Tachtigjarigen 
Oorlog, 1588-1^98 (5th ed., 1899), ch. 16; J. L. Motley, United Nether 
lands (1904), III. 450-465; Naval Tracts of Sir William Monson, I. 
362 ff., II. 1-20, " The Cadiz Voyage ", II. 21-83, " The Islands Voyage ", 
ed. by M. Oppenheim in Publications of the Navy Records Society, 
XXII., XXIII. (1902) ; P. J. Blok, Geschiedenis van het Nederlandsche 
Volk (2d ed., 1912-1915), II. 294 ff., or, in English translation, History 
of the People of the Netherlands (1898-1912), vol. III., ch. 8. 

For the Islands voyage, see Cal. St. Pap., Dom., 1595-1597, pp. 437-438, instructions, 
PP- 439-44 1 , et passim ; Oppenheim s edition of Monson, Naval Tracts, II. 21-83; Corbett, 
op. cit., chs. 7, 8. 

* The text is in Dumont, op. cit., torn. V., pt. I., pp. 561-573. 
Doc. 21. 

* [Anno 1600.] " II [le Roy] me parla particulierement de quelque plainte qu on 
faisoit des recherches centre ceux qui avoient pris quelques Espagnols aus Indes, et 
me diet que ne devions pas favoriser lesdits Espagnols; et puisqu ils ne vouloient pas 
permettre que Ton traictast aux Indes, Bresil, et autres lieux au dela de la ligne, et 
qu au traicte de paix dernier il n y avoit peu rien gaigner, qu il n entendoit pas qu on fist 
recherche aucune de ce qui avoit este execute par nos gens ausdits lieux ; et puisqu ils 
prenoient nos vaisseaux quand ils les y trouvoient, qu ainsi on leur debvoit rendre la 
pareille." Memoires de Claude Groulart, in Michaud and Poujoulat, Nouvelle Collec 
tion des Memoires, i r " sen, torn. XI., p. 585. 



232 Doc. 23. France England United Netherlands 

TEXT. 

Comme ainsi soit que pour resister aux entreprinses et desseins ambitieux 
du Roy d Espaigne centre tous les princes et potentats de la Chrestiente, le 
Treschrestien Roy de France et la Serenissime Royne d Angleterre ayent 
conclud, accorde, et jure entre eulx une ligue offensive et defensive, pour la 
conservation de leurs personnes, royaumes, pays et subjects, contre les in 
vasions dudit Roy d Espaigne, leur ennemy commun, ses royaulmes, estats, 
pays, et subjects, et qu a ceste occasion leursdites majestez ayent advise et 
resolu d associer en ceste confederation leurs treschers et bons amys, Mes 
sieurs les Estatz Generaulx des Provinces Unies du Pays Bas, comme ceulx 
qui ont aultant ou plus d interest que nuls aultres princes, ou estatz souverains, 
et pour cest effect commis et envoye leurs deputez pardevers eulx. A ces 
causes, nous, Henry de la Tour, due de Bouillon, viconte de Turenne, mare- 
schal de France, assiste du Seigneur de Buzanval, gentilhomme ordinaire 
de la chambre dudit Sieur Roy, et son ambassadeur ordinaire esdites Provinces 
Unies des Pays Bas, et nous, Georges Gilpin, conseiller introduit de la part 
de ladite Serenissime Royne d Angleterre au. Conseil d Estat desdites Prov 
inces Unies, authorisez de la part de leursdites Majestez par lettres de creance 
qui seront inserees a la fin du present traicte, d une part, et nous les Estatz 
Generaulx desdites Provinces Unies du Pays Bas d aultrepart, avons faict 
et faisons entre nous esdits noms les accords, traicte, et conventions qui 
ensuivent ; cest ascavoir, nous, Due de Bouillon, assiste dudit Sieur de 
Buzanval, et en vertu du pouvoir a nous donne par ledit Sieur Roy, qui sera 
aussi insere a la fin de ce present traicte, et nous, George Gilpin, authorise 
comme dessus, avons receu et associe, recevons et associons par ce present 
traicte, pour et au nom dudit sieur Roy Treschristien et de ladite Serenissime 
Royne d Angleterre et leurs successeurs ausdits royaulmes, iceulx Estatz 
Generaulx desdites Provinces Unies du Paysbas, ascavoir de Gueldres avecq 
Zutphen, Hollande avecq Westfrize, Zelande, Utrecht, Frize, Overyssel, 
Groeningen et Ommelanden, avecq tous les membres, villes, et habitans 
d icelles, et les nobles, villes, et forteresses du Pays de Brabant et Flandres, 
qui sont a present unis avecq lesdits Estatz Generaulx, et les Pays de Drenthe, 
ensemble les provinces, nobles, membres, et villes de Brabant, Luxembourg, 
Flandres, Artois, Haynault, et aultres provinces dudit Paysbas, qui se 
joindront et reuniront au corps desdits Estatz Generaulx dedans deux ans, 
a compter du jour et date des presentes, en ladite ligue offensive et defensive 
contre ledit Roy d Espaigne, leur ennemi commun, ses royaumes, estats, pays, 
et subjects, avecq toutes leurs Souverainetez, droicts, privileges, et franchises, 
et ce aux clauses et conditions dudit traitte faict entre lesdits sieur Roy et 
Royne, duquel la teneur ensuit : 

[2.] Erit confoederatio haec offensiva et defensiva inter dictos regem et 
reginam eorumque regna, status, dominia, etc., contra Regem Hispaniarum 
et regna et dominia ejus. 

[3.] Ad hoc foedus a praefatis principibus contrahentibus invitabuntur 
et intrare in idem poterunt omnes alii principes et status, quorum interest 

This text is taken from the original manuscript of the ratification by the States 
General except where that is illegible, when a copy in the British Museum, Add. MSS., 
19876. has been used. 



Hague, /5p<5 233 

sibimet ipsis praecavere ab ambitiosis machinationibus et invasionibus quas 
Rex Hispaniarum molitur contra omnes vicinos suos, et ad hunc effectum 
mittentur nuncii seu legati a praefatis rege et regina ad tot principes et 
status, quot dicti confoederati censuri sunt idoneos ad eos permovendos ut 
intrent in eandem confoederationem. 

[4.] Quanto citius commode fieri poterit et negotia praefatorum regis et 
reginae id permittent, conscribetur unus exercitus de communibus copiis, 
tarn praefatorum regis quam reginae ac aliorum principum et statuum qui 
intraturi sunt in hanc confoederationem, ad invadendum Regem Hispaniarum 
et dominia quaecunque sua. 

Laquelle ligue, nous, lesditz Estatz Generaulx desdites Provinces Unies 
du Pays bas cy dessus nommez, apres avoir indurement sur icelle delibere en 
nostre assemblee avecq le hault et tresillustre seigneur, Maurice, ne prince 
d Oranges, comte de Nassau, marcquis de la Vere et Vlissingues, gouverneur 
et capitaine general de Gueldres avecq Zutphen, Hollande avecq Westfrize, 
Zelande, Utrecht, Overyssel, et des villes et forteresses de Brabant et Flan- 
dres, admiral general, ensemble avecq le Conseil d Estat desdites Provinces 
Unies, et trouve icelle ligue et confederation estre treshonnorable, utile, et 
necessaire pour la conservation desdites Provinces centre 1 ambition dudit 
Roy d Espagne, avons icelle ditte ligue avecq tous et chacuns les articles et 
conventions y contenues, accepte, et acceptons par ces presentes, moyennant 
lesquelles leursdites Majestes, leurs successeurs ausdits royaulmes, et lesdits 
Estatz Generaulx desdites Provinces Unies seront et demeureront respective- 
ment tenuz et obligez a 1 entretenement et observation de tous et chascun les 
points et articles contenuz audit traitte de ligue, promettans nous, Due de 
Bouillon, assiste dudit Sieur de Buzanval, et en vertu de nostre dit pouvoir, 
de fournir et delivrer dedans six mois prochainement venants, ou plustost 
si faire se peult, ausdits Estats Generaulx lettres de ratification dudit traitte 
contenu cy dessus, dudit sieur Roy Treschrestien, pour luy et ses successeurs, 
en bonne et deue forme ; comme pareillement nous, Georges Gilpin, authorise 
comme dessus, avons promis et promettons de procurer que ladite Serenissime 
Royne d Angleterre leur fournisse et delivre ses lettres de ratification, aussi 
en bonne et deue forme et dedans ledit temps de six mois, ou plustost si faire 
se peut, pendant lequel temps sera neantmoins ledit traitte execute et accompli 
par lesdits sieur roy, royne, et lesdits Estats Generaulx, en tous et chascuns 
ses poincts et articles, selon la forme et teneur, pour la conservation de 
leursdits royaulmes, pays, et estats, ensemble des estats, pays, et subjects de 
tous roys et royaulmes, princes, electeurs du Sainct Empire, seigneuries, et 
republiques qui entreront et seront receus en icelle ligue. 

[Here follow the Duke of Bouillon s credentials from the King of 
France, dated August 16, 1596; George Gilpin s credentials from the Queen 
of England, dated September n, 1596, and the powers granted by the King 
of France to the Duke of Bouillon, " assisted by Buzanval ", dated July 9, 
1596.] 

En foy dequoy, nous, lesdits Due de Bouillon, de Buzanval, et ledit Georges 
Gilpin, authorisez ainsique dessus, avons signe le present traitte de nos mains 
et a icelluy appose le seel de nos armes, et nous, lesdits Estatz Generaulx 
desdites Provinces Unies du Paysbas, avons faict appendre a icelluy le grand 
seel desdits Estatz et signer par nostre greffier. Faict a la Haye en Holland 



234 Doc. 23. France England United Netherlands 

Tan de grace mil cincq cens quatre vingt seize, le trentuniesme et dernier 
jour du mois d Octobre. 

Henry de la Tour, Paul de Choart Buzanval, Geo. Gilpin. 

Par ordonnance desditz Seigneurs Estatz Generaulx. 

C. AERSSENZ. 

TRANSLATION OF ARTICLES. 

2. This league between the said king and queen, their kingdoms, states, 
dominions, etc., shall be offensive and defensive against the King of Spain 
and his kingdoms and dominions. 

3. All other princes and states whose interest it is to take precautions with 
them against the ambitious plans and attacks that the King of Spain is pre 
paring against all his neighbors, shall be invited by the aforesaid contracting 
princes to join this league, and shall be able to enter into it. To bring this 
about, envoys or ambassadors shall be sent by the aforesaid king and queen to 
as many princes and states as the said allies shall think fit, in order to persuade 
them to enter the said league. 

4. As quickly as can be conveniently done, and as the affairs of the afore 
said king and queen allow, one army shall be formed from the combined 
forces, both of the aforesaid king and queen and of the other princes and 
states that shall enter this league, in order to attack the King of Spain and all 
his dominions. 



24.* 

* Cession of the Netherlands by Philip II. of Spain to his 
daughter, Isabella-Clara-Eugenia, on condition of her mar 
riage unth the Archduke Albert. Madrid, May 6, 1598. 

INTRODUCTION. 

On May 6, 1598, Philip II., the dying king of Spain, signed two acts, a 
public and a private, conditionally ceding to his daughter Isabella, in antici 
pation of her marriage to the Archduke Albert of Austria, the old Burgundian 
dominions the seventeen provinces of the Netherlands, and the counties of 
Burgundy and Charolais. The public act part of which is printed below 
regulated the mode of succession to the principality ; provided that in default 
of descendants from the " Archdukes " the territory should revert to the 
Spanish crown ; that the principality should not be infeoffed or alienated 
without the consent of Spain ; that a female ruler should marry the King of 
Spain, his son, or some one acceptable to the king, and that marriages of 
children of rulers should also be acceptable to the king; that future rulers 
must take an oath to hold to the Catholic faith ; and that neither the rulers 
nor their subjects should trade in the East or West Indies. The private act 
stipulated that Spain should, at its discretion, keep Antwerp, Ghent, and 
some other strong places in the southern provinces, regulating and paying 
for their defense; and that the archdukes and their successors should perse 
cute heretics and retain none but Catholics in their household or service. 

By thus establishing a quasi-independent government in the Netherlands, 
Philip II. had hoped to induce the rebellious northern provinces to reunite 
with the southern. 2 In August, 1598, the government at Brussels wrote to the 
States General at the Hague, urging them to reunion. 8 Toward the end of 
1598, the new King of Spain, Philip III., attempted to coerce the Dutch by 
closing to them the very profitable trade with Spain and Portugal ; and about 
the same time the archdukes also prohibited commerce with the rebels/ But 
the Dutch would be neither persuaded nor coerced into submission. In 
March, 1599, they responded to the overtures of the Brussels government by 
pointing out the disadvantageous character of the terms of Philip s cession, 

1 The private act is in Brants, Ordontiances des Pays-has. Regne d Albert et Isabelle, 
I. 12-13, and in Navarrete, Col. de Docs, para la Hist, de Espaiia, XLII. 222-225. 

2 L. P. Gachard, Documents Inedits concernant I Histoire de la Belgique (1833-1835), 
I. 378. 

3 Gachard, Actes des Etats Generanx de 1600, pp. xxxiii ff. 

4 Gachard, ibid., pp. Ixxii-lxxiv. 

1 6 235 



236 Doc. 24. Cession of the Netherlands 

and in particular of the article that shut out the Netherlander from the Ameri 
can and East Indian trade. 6 To the commercial restrictions they replied by 
prohibiting all trade with Spain and the Belgian provinces ; * by equipping 
a fleet to act against the Spanish armada, the treasure-ships, and the coasts 
of Spain and America ; and by organizing that direct trade with the East 
Indies and America which was soon to give them the pre-eminence in wealth 
that Spain and Portugal were unable to retain. 7 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Text : MS. A contemporary copy is in jthe Register of the States of Hainaut, 
in the State Archives at Mons, Etats de Hainaut: Inaugurations et 
Serments des Princes, Obseques, 1549-1717, no. 660, L, p. 53. 

Text: Printed. French. V. Brants, Recueil des Ordonnances des Pays- 
Bas, Regne d Albert et Isabelle, 1597-1621 (1909), I. 7-12. This text, 
from the Register at Mons, differs considerably from that in J. Dumont, 
Corps Diplomatique (1726-1731), torn. V., pt. I., pp. 573-575, and in 
E. van Meteren, Histoire des Pays-Bos (1618), liv. XX., pp. 425, 426. 
Spanish. M. F. de Navarrete, Coleccion de Documentos Ineditos para 
la Historia de Espana (1842-1895), XLIL 218-222. 

References: Contemporary and early writings. Meteren, op. cit., liv. XX., 
p. 428; P. Bor, Nederlandsche Oorlogen (1679-1684), vol. IV., 
bk. XXXVL, passim. 

References: Later writings. L. P. Gachard, Actes des Etats Gencraux de 
1600 (1849), introduction; A. Levae, Recherchcs Historiques sur le 
Commerce des Beiges aux hides (1842), pp. 5-8; R. Fruin, Tien Jaren 
nit den Tachtigjarigen Oorlog, 1588-1598 (5th ed., 1899), ch. 19; 
G. Turba, " Beitrage zur Geschichte der Habsburger : Aus den Letzten 
Jahren des Spanischen Konigs Philipp II.", in Archiv fiir Oesterreichi- 
sche Geschichte, Bd. LXXXVI. (1899), pp. 367 ff. ; H. Pirenne, Histoire 
de Bclgiqite (1900, etc.), IV. 215-222. 



TEXT. 

Philippe, etc. A tons presens et a venir qui ces lettres verront ou lire 
oyront. Comme nous ayons trouve convenir tant au bien de la Chrestiente en 
general qu au particulier de noz pays d embas, de ne dilayer plus longuement 
le mariage de nostre tres chere et tres amee bonne fille aisnee, Tin f ante Isabel 
Clara Eugenia, et qu estans a ce meu, tant a cause de la conservation de nostre 
maison que d aultres bon respectz, comme aussy pour Taffection particuliere 
que portons a nostre tres cher et tres ame bon frere, nepveu, et cousin, 

5 The document in which the Dutch criticize the terms of the cession is printed in 
Bor, Nederlandsche Oorlogen, IV. 542. 

* Gachard, op. cit., p. xxxvii. 

7 Gachard, ibid., pp. Ixxiv, Ixxv. 

"This text is from the contemporary copy in the Register of the States of Hainaut, 
in the State Archives at Mons, Etats de Hainaut, Inaugurations et Serments des 
Princes, Obseques, 1549-1717, no. 660, I., p. 53. 



Madrid, /5p<? 237 



1 archiducq Albert, pour nous lieutenant gouverneur et capitaine general 
de noz pays d enibas et de Bourgoigne, ayons jecte 1 oeil sur sa personne, 
faisant choix de luy pour futur mary de nostre susdite fille aisnee, le tout 
tant par consentement et gre de nostre Sainct Pere le Pape qui en a accorde 
les dispensations requises, comme aussy a la communication en tenue avecq 
tres hault, tres excellent, et tres puissant prince, nostre tres chier et tres 
ame bon frere, nepveu, et cousin Rodulphe, le second du nom, empereur des 
Remains, ensemble a nostre tres chere et tres amee bonne soeur, 1 imperatrice, 
sa mere, quoy considere et afin que nostre susdicte fille soit pourveue des 
moyens qu est raisonnable pour ses grandes qualitez et merites, mesmes pour 
de nostre costel faire demonstration de 1 amour singulier que tousjours avons 
porte et portons a nosdicts pays d embas et de Bourgoigne, ayons prins resolu 
tion de, a 1 advancement dudict mariage, faire a nostredicte fille donation 
d iceulx noz pays et avecq tout ce qu en depend, en la maniere que sera diet 
et speciffie cy dessoubz, le tout moyennant et a 1 intervention, volonte et 
consentement de nostre tres cher et tres ame bon filz, le prince Philippe, 
nostre seul filz et unicque heritier, suivant 1 advertence que par nous et icelluy 
prince nostre filz en a este donne aux principaulx seigneurs chevaliers de 
nostre ordre, consaulx, et estatz de nosdicts pays d embas soy tenans en 
nostre obeissance, ensemble a ceux de nostre pays et conte de Bourgoigne, 
qui ont declaire et tesmoigne par leur responce la joye et contentement qu ilz 
avoient receu de telle nostre benigne resolution qu ils coignoissent et con- 
fessent estre pour le bien et repos de nosdicts pays d embas, et que s est le 
vray chemin pour parvenir a une bonne et solide paix, et se delivrer d une 
si ennuyeuse guerre, de laquelle ils ont este travaillez par si longue espace 
d annees, laquelle tranquillite et repos leur avons tousjours desire, et con- 
siderant ce que a tous est notoire, que le plus grand heur que peult advenir 
a ung pays est de se trouver regy et gouverne a la veue et par la presence de son 
prince et seigneur natural, Dieu est tesmoing des paines et soing qu avons 
eu souvent de ne 1 avoir ainsy peu faire personellement par dela, comme 
en verite 1 avons grandement desire si les aultres grands et importans affaires 
de noz royaulmes d Espaigne ne nous eussent obligez a tenir ferme et con- 
tinuelle residence en iceulx, sans nous esloigner comme semblablement ils 
nous obligent a present, et combien que 1 eaige de nostredict filz le prince 
semble plus a propos que poinct le nostre pour voyager, touttesfois ayant 
este le bon plaisir de Dieu de nous donner tant d aultres royaulmes et pays 
pour le bon gouvernement desquels ne manqueront jamais affaires de tres 
grand emport, pour lesquels sera aussy requise sa presence par deca, avons 
trouve convenable de prendre ceste resolution, afin de ne laisser nosdicts pays 
d embas es mesmes inconveniens que du passe, y joinct la raison qu il y a de 
faire partaige a nostredicte fille 1 infante selon ses merites et la grandeur de 
sa naissance, attendu aussy en particulier que apres ledict prince, nostre filz 
(a qui Dieu conserve par longues annees avecq la prosperite qu il sera servy 
luy donner), nostredicte fille aisnee est la premiere et plus prochaine, et que, 
moyennant le vouloir de nostredict filz, elle peult des maintenant estre admise, 
nous avons choisy tel moyen, soubz espoir que par icelluy pourront nosdicts 
pays d embas retourner a leur ancienne fleur, repos, et prosperite qu ilz ont 
eu du passe. Sgavoir faisons que desirans a present mectre en effet audict 
endroict ce que tant meurement y avons resolu, et attendu le consentement 
volontaire que nostredict filz le prince y a si liberalement donne et preste de 
sa part, mesmes apres avoir cognu la submission avecq laquelle se sont nosdicts 



238 Doc. 24. Cession of the Netherlands 

pays conforme a ceste nostre bonne intention, nous avons resolu de ceder et 
transporter a la susdicte nostre fille 1 inf ante en advancement dudict manage 
tons nosdicts pays d embas et de Bourgoigne, par la forme et maniere et 
aulx pactz et conditions cy embas expressees et mentionnees. 

[8.] Item, a condition et non aultrement que nostre dicte fille 1 infante 
et son mary ny aucuns de ses successeurs ausquelz seront devoluz lesdicts 
pays ne tiendront en aticune maniere, commerce, trafficq, ou contractation 
aux Indes Orientales ou Occidentales, ne aussy envoyeront aucune sorte 
de batteaux, a quelque tiltre, couleur, ou pretexte que ce soit, auxdicts 
endroictz, a paine que lesdicts pays seront devoluz au cas de ladicte contraven 
tion, et au cas qu aucuns de leurs subjects s acheminassent vers lesdictes Indes 
centre ladicte deffence, que les seigneurs desdicts pays les auront a chastoyer 
de paine de confiscation de biens et d aultres griesves, mesmes de la mort. 

Et afin que de tout ce que dessus il conste ouvertement et soit chose ferme 
et stable, perpetuellement et a tousjours, nous avons signe ces mesmes 
presentes de nostre nom et y faict mectre nostre grand seel, veuillant et 
ordonnant que enregistration et interinement en soit faict, en tous et chacun 
de noz consaulx et chambres des comptes ou il appartiendra. 

Donne en nostre ville de Madrid, royaulme de Castille, le sixiesme jour 
du mois de May en 1 an de grasce XV C nonante huict, et de nos regnes, 
assavoir de Naples et de Hierusalem le XLV e , de Castille, d Arragon, 
Sicille, et des aultres, le XLIII 8 , et de Portugal le XIX 8 . 

N. D. v[idi]t. 

PHILIPPE. 
Par le Roy. 
A. DE LALOO. 



25. 

Treaty between England and the United Netherlands concluded at 
Westminster, August 6/ 16, 1598. Ratification by the States 
General, September 20, 1598. 

INTRODUCTION. 

For some months before and after the conclusion of the treaty of Vervins, 1 
it appeared doubtful whether Elizabeth would make peace with Spain or 
would continue the war and the Dutch alliance. She urged the Dutch to 
conclude peace with Spain, pressed them to reimburse her for the sums she 
had spent in their behalf, failed to come to an agreement with the Dutch 
envoys who were in England from March to May, 1598, but in June 
despatched Sir Francis Vere to the Hague to propose negotiations for a 
treaty. Thereupon another embassy, which included the Advocate Olden- 
barnevelt and Admiral Duyvenvoord, was sent to London. Elizabeth s coun 
cillors were divided. A Burgundian party, led by the Cecils, did not lack 
arguments for peace. The English could not endure to see the Dutch grow 
ing rich and powerful- through the employment of their ships in the West 
India trade, and through their traffic with Spain and Portugal, from which 
the English were debarred. 1 Peace with Spain would diminish the danger 
from rebellious Ireland. It was said that the war had become less profitable 
since Spain had learned to defend her American possessions.* 

On the other hand, the war party, which included Essex and other sup 
porters of the Dutch alliance, argued that Spain s peace proposals were 
deceitful, as in 1 588 ; that the States could not make peace since this would 
re-establish Spanish sovereignty and Catholicism in the United Provinces ; 
that England could not honorably or safely make a separate peace, since 
Spain would demand the cautionary towns held by English garrisons in the 

1 May 2, 1598. See Doc. 23, last paragraph of introduction. 

"J. S. Corbett, Successors of Drake (1900), p. 233, remarks that after the treaty of 
Vervins, which secured the retirement of Spain from the Channel and the re-establish 
ment of England s naval position in the Narrow Seas, " It cannot be wondered at if in 
the eyes of Burghley, who could never rise to an appreciation that the real struggle 
with Spain was for the new world, there was very little left to fight about ", and, p. 316, 
" That the struggle with Spain was really a vital contest for the commercial and colonial 
supremacy of the world [Sir Robert Cecil] never seems to have grasped". 

1 Deventer, Gedenkstukken, II. 262 ; Letters written by John Chamberlain during the 
Reign of Queen Elisabeth, ed. by S. Williams for the Camden Society, LXXIX. (1861) 
11-13; cf. Motley, United Netherlands, III. 524, 525. 

* Camden, History of England, II. 606. 

339 



240 Doc. 25. England United Netherlands 

Netherlands ; * that England and the Netherlands would together hold the 
empire of the seas, 8 which would fall to Spain if the Netherlands should 
submit to their former sovereign ; that offensive warfare in America would 
still be found profitable and might open up American commerce to Europeans, 
who desired nothing more than this ; 7 that the peacemakers were ready to 
renounce the trade to the Indies. 8 The party of Essex won the day. The 
difficult question of repaying the queen s loan was finally settled, and an 
offensive and defensive treaty of alliance was concluded at Westminster 
on August 6/16. Its principal provisions were as follows: that the Anglo- 
Dutch treaty of alliance of 1585 should be confirmed, with the exception of 
certain articles ; that the queen should be represented in the Dutch Council 
of State by one councillor instead of two ; that the States should repay the 
queen s advances in large installments and should bear the charge of the 
English garrisons in the cautionary towns ; that the States should furnish 
military and naval aid to England against Spain ; and, in particular, should 
co-operate in offensive warfare undertaken by England against the Azores 
and the Indies." This last stipulation looked towards a continuation of the 
policy of the two preceding years, when the English and Dutch squadrons 
acted together in the expeditions sent against Cadiz and other Spanish ports, 
and the Azores; 10 and it was followed by the attempt made in 1601-1602 to 
unite these squadrons against Spain and the treasure-fleet." 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Text: MS. The original of the ratification by the United Provinces is in 

the London Public Record Office, T. R., Diplomatic Documents, no. 1174. 
Text: Printed. French. T. Rymer, Foedera (1704-1735), XVI. 340-343; 

J. Dumont, Corps Diplomatique (1726-1731), torn. V., pt. I., pp. 589-591. 

Dutch. Dumont, ibid., pp. 584-589 ; P. Bor, Nederlandsche Oorlogen 

(1679-1684), IV. 475-478. 

Translation. Cal. St. Pap., Venice, 1592-1603, pp. 356-360. 
References: Contemporary and early writings. M. L. van Deventer, 

Gedenkstukken van J. van Oldenbarnevelt (1860-1865), II. 175 ff . ; 

Historical MSS. Commission, Calendar of MSS. of Marquis of Salisbury 

These arguments are used in the Apologie, written by the Earl of Essex in. 1598 and 
published in 1603. 

* Deventer, op. cit., II. 265. 7 Camden, op. cit., II. 607. 

* Essex, Apologie: "Trade into the Indies our zealous peacemakers will not stand 
for, lest the enemy offended will grant no peace at all." 

The offer to join with the queen in sending a fleet against the Azores, the Indies, 
or other dominions of the King of Spain, was made by the States envoys, British 
Museum, Cotton MSS., Galba, D. XII., ff. 176 (183), 216 (223), 226 (233); Bor, 
Nederlandsche Oorlogen, IV. 479. 

l * See Doc. 23, introduction. 

"Corbett, op. cit., pp. 362, 365 ff. ; Naval Tracts of Sir William Monson, II. "Sir 
Richard Leveson and Sir William Monson to the Coast of Spain " (ed. by M. Oppen- 
heim in Publications of the Navy Records Society, XXIII. 1902). 



Westminster, 1598 241 



at Hatfield House (1883, etc.). VIII. 84, 128, 250, 388, 533-538, et 
passim ; W. Camden, History of England during the Life of Elisabeth, 
trans, in [J. Hughes], A Complete History of England (1706), II. 606- 
610; P. Bor, op. cit., IV. 475 ff. ; E. van Meteren, Histoire des Pays-Bas 
(1618), p. 429. 

References: Later writings. J. L. Motley, United Netherlands (1904), 
III. 524 ff., 550562 ; R. Fruin, TienJaren nit den Tachtigjarigen Oorlog, 
1588-1598 (5th ed., 1899), ch. 20, pp. 363 ff. 



TEXT." 

Les Estats Generaux des Provinces Unies des Pays Bas, a tons ceulx qui 
ces presentes lettres verront ou orront, salut. 



8. Cas advenant que 1 ennemy commun ou ses adherens envoye armee 
navale pour assaillir, durant ladite guerre, le royaulme d Angleterre, ou les 
isles appartenantes, vizt. de Vicht, Sorlingues, Guernezey et Gerzey, et que 
Sa Majeste appreste et mette en ordre sa flotte pour luy faire teste, lesditz 
Sieurs Estatz furniront pour le service de Sa Majeste et a sa requisition, 
trente, ou, si faire se poeult, quarante navires de guerre bien equippees, dont 
le [sic] moytie sera de deux cents et 1 aultre moietie entre cent et deux centz 
tonneaux, pour estre employees soubz le commandement du general chieff 
ou admiral de Sa Majeste, en conformite et ensuyvant les conditions dudit 
traicte de 1 an mil cincq cents quattre vintz et cincque, en tons pointz, et 
niesmes concernant les conquestes a faire sur 1 ennemy. 

9. Et semblablement, 1 ennemy venant assaillir et faire descente sur le 
royaume d Angleterre ou 1 isle de Vicht, lesditz Sieurs Estatz furniront (le 
requerant Sa Majeste) un nombre de cincq mille hommes de pied, et cincq 
centz chevaux, a estre employez soubz le commandement du general de Sa 
Majeste, ou bien a 1 election et choix de Sadite Majeste, les gages et soulde 
de tel nombre, sur le pied des gages arreste aux traictez de 1 an mil cincq 
centz quattre vintz et cinque, ledit payement a commencer dez le jour que 
1 ennemy aura faict descente, et de continuer jusques a ce qu il en soit 
entierement desfaict, repoulse ou chasse. 

10. Si Sa Majeste trouvera bon, selon les occurrences des affaires, d entre- 
prendre offensivement durant ladite guerre, sur 1 ennemy commun par armee 
consistant au moins de cinquante ou soixante navires de guerre, se faisant 
telle entreprinse par mer sur les pays d Espaigne, Portugal, Isles, ou Indes, 
lesditz Sieurs Estatz joindront a la flotte de Sa Majeste a leur despens un 
pareil nombre de vaisseaux de guerre, et de semblable qualite qu est contenu 
en 1 article precedent ; ou si tant sera que Sa Majeste se resouldra dedans 
ledit temps de jecter une bonne armee au moins de dix mille hommes de 
pied et de deux mille chevaux es Pays de Flandres ou Brabant, avec train et 
provisions d artillerie et munitions, pour faire la guerre a 1 ennemy susdit ; 
se tiendront lesditz Sieurs Estatz obleigez d y furnir a rate de la moytie des 

11 The text is taken from the original manuscript of the ratification by the United 
Provinces, preserved in the Public Record Office, T. R., Diplomatic Documents, no. 1174, 
except where that is illegible when the text in Rymer, Poedera, XVI. 340-343, printed 
from the same manuscript, has been used. 



242 Doc. 25. England United Netherlands 

trouppes et forces de Sa Majeste avecq artilleries et munitions propor- 
tionnables, usant des conquestes selon la proportion comme dessus. 

Faict, accorde, conclu et soubzsigne par les seigneurs du Conseil de Sa 
Majeste d une part, et par lesditz deputez de Messieurs les Estatz Generaux 
des Provinces-Unies d aultre part, a Westminster, le seiziesme jour du mois 
d Aoust, Tan de nostre Seigneur mil cincq cens nonante huict. 
Estoit signe: 

Tho. Egerton, C. S. J. v. Duvenvoirde. 

Essex. Jehan van Oldenbarnevelt. 

Notingham. Jehan van Warck. 

G. Hunsdon. Jehan van Hottinga. 

R. North. And. d Hessels. 

T. Buckehurst. Noel de Caron. 

W. Knollys. 

Ro[bert] Cecyll. 

Fortescu. 

et cachette du cachet d armes desditz seigneurs du conseil de Sa Majeste, 
et des susditz deputez des Seigneurs Estatz Generaulx respectivement. 

Nous ayans agreables tons et chacun les pointz et articles contenuz et 
declairez au dit traicte, avons icelle traicte ratine, approuve, et confirme, 
ratifions, approuvons, et confirmons par ces presentes, promettans . . . cans 
en bonne foy de 1 accomplir et satisfaire tous et chacun ses pointz, pour aultant 
qu il nous touche, [sans] contrevenir directement ou indirectement en quelque 
sorte ou maniere ce soit. 

En tesmoing de quoy avons faict appendre a ces presentes nostre grand 
sel et signer par nostre greffier a la Haye en Hollande le vingtiesme de 
septembre, 1 an mil cincq centz quattre vingtz dix huict. 

J. HOTTINGA. 

Par ordonnance desdicts seigneurs Estatz Generaulx. 

AERSSENS. 



26. 

Agreement signed by the King of France at Fillers Cotterets on 
July 19, 1603, and by the King of F.ngland and Scotland at 
Hampton Court on July ^o/ August p, /<5oj. 

INTRODUCTION. 

Upon the accession of James I. to the English throne, March 247 April 3, 
1603, the King of France and the States General of the United Provinces 
feared that James s pacific tendencies would lead him to conclude a peace 
with the King of Spain to whom, in spite of the treaty of Vervins, 1 Henry IV. 
had remained opposed. On June 17, 1603, the Marquis of Rosny (later the 
Duke of Sully) arrived in London as ambassador extraordinary from France, 
with instructions a to persuade James to enter into a secret agreement to 
aid the United Provinces ; to find out what he would do in regard to an offen 
sive and defensive alliance against Spain ; and to urge him to continue 
Elizabeth s policy of sending naval expeditions to the coasts of Spain and 
Portugal and toward the Indies. In the additional and secret instructions 
which, according to Rosny, were also given him, was a clause to the following 
effect : " Que la France, 1 Angleterre, le Dannemarc, la Suede et les Pays- 
Bas a frais communs, et neantmoins proportionnez aux puissances d un 
chacun, essayassent de se saisir des Indes ou a tout le moins des isles qui sont 
sur le chemin des flottes d Espagne, afin d en empescher le traject, et ce, par le 
moyen de trois armees navales de huict mille hommes chacune, lesquelles 
se rafraischiroient de huict en huict mois, afin de remplacer ce qui seroit 
devenu defectueux en icelles." 8 Sully probably invented these " secret in 
structions ", but in any event they are of some interest, especially when com 
pared with the suggestion made by the Dutch embassy to James, in a harangue 
delivered on May 27, 1603 that if the various states opposed to Spain 
should form a general league against that power, they would soon bring the 
Spaniards to reason ; otherwise, England and her allies, as masters of the 
sea, would deprive them of the East and West Indies. 4 

To an unusual extent Rosny negotiated directly with the king himself, and 
in about a fortnight after his arrival obtained James s oral consent to a written 

1 Doc. 23, last paragraph of introduction. 

"Two sets of instructions are in Sully s Memoires in Michaud and Poujoulat, 
Memoires, 2 sen. torn. II., ch. 115. See Ch. Pfister s article in the Revue Historique, 
I.V. 206 ff., for an examination of the authenticity of the " secret instructions ". 

3 Memoires, ed. cit., torn. II., p. 441. 

4 E. van Meteren, Histoire des Pay-Bas (1618), liv. XXV., p. 531. 

243 



244 Doc. 26. France Great Britain 

agreement providing that the Franco-Scottish and Franco-English alliances 
should be renewed and strengthened by means of a defensive league in which 
allies of both kings should be comprised ; that the two kings should procure 
reasonable conditions of peace for the United Provinces, their chief ally, 
and, pending this, should secretly assist them with money and men; that if, 
on account of this assistance, either king were attacked by Spain, the other 
should send an army to his aid; that if both were attacked or decided to 
make war on Spain, they should aim at the complete independence of the 
seventeen provinces of the Low Countries ; that the King of France should 
send an army to the Low Countries and so dispose other troops and his 
Mediterranean fleet as to divert the attention of Spain ; that the King of 
England should provide two great fleets to attack the Indies and the Spanish 
coasts, and an army for operations on land ; and that neither king was to 
make peace, diminish his forces or cease from hostilities without consent of 
the other. The draft drawn up by Sully and agreeed to by James I. was 
signed by Henry IV. on July 19, 1603, and by James at Hampton Court 
on July 3O/August 9, of the same year. But when in August, 1604, James 
concluded a peace with Spain, the English government regarded this earlier 
agreement with France as a dead letter. 6 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Text: MS. The original of the agreement signed by Henry IV. on July 19, 
1603, is in the London Public Record Office, State Papers Foreign. 
Treaties, no. 50. 

Text: Printed. The agreement signed by James I. on July 3O/August 9, 
1603, is printed in F. Leonard, Recweil des Traites de Pair (1693), V. 
1-3; J. Dumont, Corps Diplomatique (1726-1731), torn. V., pt. II., 
PP- 3> 3 1 5 J- A. de Abreu y Bertodano, C election de los Tratados de 
Espaha: Reynado del Rey D. Phelipe III. (1740), I. 164-169. 

Translation. A General Collection of Treatys (1732), II., 128-131. 

References: Contemporary and early writings. Due de Sully (Maximilien 
de Bethune), Menioires in Michaud and Poujoulat, Nouvelle Collection 
des Menioires (1836-1839), 2 e ser., torn. II., cc. 114-122, and in other 
editions ; P. Laffleur de Kermaingant, L Ambassade de France en 
Angleterre sous Henri IV.: Mission de Christophe de Harlay, 1602-1605 
(1895), pieces justificatives, pp. 110-121 (letters from Henry IV. to 
Beaumont) ; Calendar of State Papers, Venice, 1603-1607, nos. 64, 81, 
86, 87, 90, 91, 93, 98, 107, 118, 127, 139, 141, 147, 161, 162, 259, 739 
(p. 518), et passim. 

References: Later writings. Laffleur de Kermaingant, op. cit., ch. 2, 
pp. 110-119; S. R. Gardiner, History of England, 1603-1642 (1894-1896), 
I. 106, 107; L. von Ranke, History of England (1875), I. 388, 389. In 
the Revue Historique, torn. LV. (1894), pp. 70 ff., 291 ff., Ch. Pfister 
examines critically Sully s account of his English embassy. 

Doc. 27. 

Kermaingant, L Ambassade de France, I. 244; Gardiner, History of England, 1603- 
1642, I. 217, 218. 



fillers Cotterets, Hampton Court, /<5oj 245 

TEXT. 

Articles traittez et accordez avec le Roy d Angleterre et d Escosse * par le 
Sieur Marquis de Rosny, grand maitre de I artillerie et grand voyer de France, 
ambassadeur et envoye par Sa Majeste vers ledit roy. 

8.* Davantage a este accorde, que si les deux roys estoient ensemblement 
attaqut 3 par 1 Espagne ou qu ilz fussent contraints par raison d estat et 
pour la seurete, repos, et utilite de leurs personnes, royaumes, et subjects, 
d ouvrir communement la guerre, que un chascun d eux la fera de son coste, 
non point a demy mais selon qu il convient a la dignite et grandeur de telz 
princes, et avec moyens suffisans pour en faire esperer 1 entiere delivrance des 
dix-sept Provinces des Pays-Bas. 

9. A sc.avoir de la part du roy avec une armee de quinze ou vingt mil 
hommes, qu il jettera vers lesdits Pa is bas, et tiendra les provinces de Guyenne, 
Languedoc, Provence, Dauphine, Bresse, et Bourgogne, munyes d un suffisant 
nombre de gens armez, ensemble d une suffisante quantite de galeres en 
equipage de guerre dans la mer de Levant, afin de tenir non seulement ses 
costes en seurete, mais donner juste jalousie au Roy d Espagne, et par conse 
quent occuper et divertir partie de ses forces. 

10. Et de la part du dit Roy d Angleterre la guerre se fera avec deux 
grandes flottes dignes de faire de bons exploits vers les Indes et costes 
d Espagne ; et une armee de terre, laquelle ne pourra estre moindre que de 
six mil hommes, le tout leve et soudoye a ses f raiz et despens, sans que durant 
tout ce temps de guerre commune ledit Roy d Angleterre puisse presser Sa 
Majeste de ce qu il luy pourra lors debvoir de reste. 

Faict a Villiers Costerets le dixneufiesme jour du moys de Juilet, 1603. 

HENRY. 
DE NEUFVILLE. 

7 The text is from the original manuscript of the agreement signed by Henry IV. on 
July 19, 1603, preserved in the P. R. O., State Papers Foreign, Treaties, no. 50. 
* See Doc. 27, end of text, after note 19. 
The articles are not numbered but the text is paragraphed. 



27. 

Treaty between Spain and Great Britain concluded at London, 
August 18/28, 1604. Ratification by the King of Spain, June 
5/15, 1605. [Ratification by the King of Great Britain, 
August 19/29, 1604.] 

INTRODUCTION. 

James I. of England, a lover of peace and favorably disposed toward Spain, 
regarded the Anglo-Spanish war of Elizabeth s reign as a personal quarrel 
between sovereigns, which had been ended by Elizabeth s death and his 
accession. 1 In accordance with this theory, on June 23/July 3, 1603, he issued 
a proclamation that Spanish ships and goods taken by his subjects after 
April 24/May 4, 1603, should be restored to their owners. 1 On May 19/29, 
1604, he empowered his leading councillors, Thomas Sackville (earl of 
Dorset), Charles Howard (earl of Nottingham), Charles Blount (earl of 
Devonshire), Henry Howard (earl of Northampton), and Lord Robert 
Cecil, to treat for peace with the deputies of Spain, Juan de Velasco (con 
stable of Castile), the Spanish ambassador in London, Juan de Tassis (count 
of Villa Mediana), and Alessandro Rovida (senator of Milan), and with the 
deputies of the archdukes, Charles, prince-count of Arenberg, President 
Richardot, and the Audiencer Verreycken. In the negotiations, which began 
at the residence of the Spanish ambassador on May 20/30 and lasted six 
weeks, controversy centred about two questions Anglo-Dutch relations, 
and the rights of English traders in Spain, Flanders, and the East and West 
Indies. The English commissioners refused to renounce trade with the 
Dutch, or, for the present, to hand over the cautionary towns to Spain ; but 
they agreed that English subjects should not transport Dutch merchandise 
to the King of Spain s dominions or to the archdukes provinces, or Spanish 
merchandise to the United Provinces, or use Dutch ships in the Spanish trade. 
They also consented to several somewhat ambiguous articles, offensive to 
the Dutch, which Cecil declared would be rendered harmless by England s 
friendly interpretation.* In regard to trade with Spain it was provided that 
imports from Britain and Ireland into the Spanish dominions, and exports 
from the Spanish dominions into Britain and Ireland, should be exempt from 
the recently imposed 30 per cent, tax ; and that English traders in the Spanish 

1 The king s speech to his first Parliament. Journals of the House of Commons, I. 142. 
Rymer, Foedera, XVI., 516, 517. Cf. below, art. 2. 
Winwood, Memorials, II. 27, 28. 

246 



London. 1604 247 

dominions should not be molested " for the cause of conscience ", " so as they 
give not scandal unto others" (art. 21). Concerning trade to the East 
and West Indies, an arrangement but no real agreement was reached. The 
instructions 4 of the English commissioners in this matter, identical with 
those for the abortive Anglo-Spanish negotiations at Boulogne, four years 

* Instructions to English commissioners, May 22/June i, 1604. ..." Lastly, it is likely 
they will forbid us trade into the Indias, wherein you must by all arguments you can 
maintaine that it is very disconsonant with trewe amitie to forbid their freinds those 
common liberties. Yea, though the whole Indias were as meerely subject to their sover- 
aignetie as Spaine it selfe is, especiallie when in former treaties there have been con- 
trarie clauses, which have given fr%edome of trade into all their domynions. And yet 
because it shall appeare that wee will not be found unreasonable, you shall let them 
knowe that, to avoyde all inconveniences that may peradventure happen in places so 
remote, when the subjects of other princes shall fall in companie one with another, 
where their lawes and discipline cannot be so well executed, wee are contented to 
prohibite all repaire of our subjects to any places where they are planted, but onely 
to seeke their traffique by their owne discoveries in other places, whereof there are so 
infinite dymensions of vast and great territories as themselves have no kind of interest, 
but do trade with divers great kings of those countryes but as forrayners and strangers, 
from which to barre ourselves by accord, seeing it is not in his power to do it by 
force, no not to any pettie prince, were both an unkindnesse and an indignitie to be 
offered." P. R. O., State Papers Foreign, Spain, bundle 10. Also B. M., Cotton MSS., 
Vesp. C. XIII., f. 61. With these it is of interest to compare the following instructions 
for the negotiations at Bourbourg in 1587: "15. It is likely allso, that some speciall 
article will be required to forbyd all trafick of our people into the Indias, both of the west 
belonging to the crowne of Castill and to the Est allso, now in the K. of Spaynes 
possession by reason of Portingall. To this it may be allso sayde, that we shall be 
content to observe such orders as were in any force in the tyme of the Emperor Charles 
being possessed of the West Indias. And as for the Est Indias, wee are content to 
covenannt to observe allso all such orderes as were att any tyme accorded and used in 
the tyme of the King Sebastian. And if these general! answeres shall not content them, 
then ye shall require of them, what other speciall article they wolde reasonably desyre, 
for that ye are not warranted otherwise to yeelde to them. But yet our meaning is 
ye shall as of yourselves reason with them, as it may appeere that ther is no reason to 
barre our subjects to use trade of merchandise in the Indias, where the Frenche are 
daily suffred so to doo, so as the same be with the goodwill of the inhabitants of the 
countryes, and only for lawfull trade of marchandise. And likewise it is no reason 
by a large naming of the Indias, to barre our marchantes to trade in any places dis 
covered or to be discovered by our own people, being places where neyther in the 
tyme of the Emperor Charles, nor of the King that now is, any Spanyard, Portingale, 
or any other Christian people have had any habitation, residence or resorte. And to 
those provisions mentioned (as of yourself) to be annexed to the generall prohibitions, 
if they will condescend ye may saye, ye will send to knowe our opinion, what we lyke 
therof, and what other conditions we will require to be excepted out of the generall 
prohibition for our subjects to sayle into the Indias. 

" In the argument therof ye may aledge that the cheefe reasons why the Emperor 
Charles and the King of Portingale in their tymes did seeke to prohibite all others 
than their own subjectes to trade into those Indias discovered by their people, was in 
recompence of the charges sustayned by the discoverers that the proffitt of the riches 
discovered might recompence the first discoverers and their heires. A matter agreable 
to good reason, but not so to be extended as by the large titles and nomination of the 
Indias (wherof ther is no certain limitation) all parts of the worlde in the West or in 
the East, that were not or should not be discovered by the subjects of the said Emperor, 
or by the kinges of Portingale should still so remayne undiscovered and not to be by any 
other Christians with their laboure sought out and discovered and brought to the knowl 
edge of God, and of Christ the Saviour of the Worlde, for that were against all 
Christian charitie, and against all humain reason, and directly againste that generall 
proposition in the holy Scripture : Coelum coeli Domino, terram dedit filiis hominum." 
P. R. O., State Papers Foreign, Flanders, 1585-1587, I. Also in B. M., Cotton MSS., 
Vesp. C. VIII., and ibid., Galba D. II. f. 318 b, a draft in Burghley s hand. 



248 Doc. 27. Spain Great Britain 

before/ sanctioned only one concession that Englishmen should be pro 
hibited from going to any places in the Indies where the Spaniards were 
actually " planted ". This was in accordance with a principle formulated 
by the French and English long before " and recently embodied in the charter 
granted to the English East India Company on December 31, i6oo. T It was 
rejected by the Spaniards, who insisted that the English should be excluded 
from every part of the Indies, either expressly or by clear implication ; or 
else, that the King of England should declare in writing that his subjects 
would trade in the Indies at their own peril. These demands the English 
refused. Cecil and Northampton alleged that an express prohibition to trade 
would wrong James s honor since Spain had not put it in the treaties made 
with France and other princes ; and that a denial of reciprocal freedom of 
intercourse was contrary to the law of nations. The Senator of Milan 
answered " that though ordinary societies by law should be equal, yet that 
they might be limited by conventions, and that the same ought not to be 
found strange in this case, because the said Indias was a new world ". After 
much debate it was resolved that in the article for general intercourse the 
following words should be inserted : " In quibus ante bellum f uit commercium 
juxta et secundum usum et observantiam antiquorum foederum." This 
left the matter " to the liberty of interpretation of former treaties and the 
observance and use thereof ".* Now, from the time of Hawkins, the English, 
and Cecil in particular, had interpreted the clauses for mutual intercourse 
in the old Anglo-Spanish and Anglo-Burgundian treaties as permitting them 
to trade in the Indies, 9 and the government continued to hold to this interpre 
tation." Soon after the conclusion of the treaty Cecil wrote to the English 

8 The instructions are in P. R. O., State Papers Foreign, France, bundle 44. 

* Cal. St. Pap. Foreign, 1561-1562, p. 72; and cf. J. Williamson, Maritime Enterprise, 
1485-1558 (1913), PP- 288 ff. 

1 The charter is in S. Purchas, H akluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes 
(Maclehose ed., 1905-1907), II. 366-391. 

8 Journal of the negotiations. See below, bibliography. 

The Hawkins Voyages (ed. C. R. Markham for the Hakluyt Soc., LVII. (1878) 
30-34, 38) ; W. Camden, History of England during the Life of Elizabeth, in IJ. Hughes], 
A Complete History of England (1706), II. 410; cf. Cal. St. Pap., Spain, 1558-1567, 593. 

10 Cf. the instructions for the negotiations at Bourbourg printed above, note 4. In 
" Reasons for the trade to the East and West Indians ", compiled by Robert Cotton 
for Northampton s use in the negotiations of 1604 (Brit. Mus., Cotton MSS., 
Vesp. C. XIII., ff. 47-50), the " former leagues " of 1489, 1507, 1515, 1520, 1529, and 1543, 
are adduced. The last four were concluded between Henry VIII. and Charles of Spain. 
Philip II. had refused to confirm the treaties with England. The article of mutual 
intercourse in the last two treaties mentioned above refers back to the article in the 
treaty of Apr. II, 1520, which is as follows: "Item, conventum, concordatum, et con- 
clusum est quod omnes et singuli subditi regnorum et dominiorum dictorum principum 
eorumdemque actores, factores, negotiorum gestores, attornati, servitores, et ministri, 
cum rebus, nayibus, bonis, et mercibus suis quibuscumque, ad omnia et singula terras, 
patrias, dominia, civitates, oppida, villas, castra, portus, jurisdictiones, et districtus 
utriusque principum praedictorum accedere, navigare per terram, mare, vel aquas dulces, 
venire, morari, et perhendinare, ibique omnium mercium genera, cum quibuscumque 
mercatoribus cujuscumque nationis, emere, vendere, permutare, et cum eisdem vel 



London, 1604 249 

ambassador in France: "If it be well observed how the [ninth] article is 
couched, you shall rather find it a pregnant affirmative for us than against 
us ; for, sir, where it is written that we shall trade in all his dominions, that 
comprehends the Indies; if you will say, sccundum tractatus antiques, no 
treaty excluded it "." The Spaniards, on the other hand, resolutely affirmed 
that the terms of the peace excluded the English from the Indies." However, 
as was remarked in the instructions cited above, they were not able to bar out 
the English by force ; and the latter not only continued their trade in the East, 
but, in spite of Spanish opposition, 13 proceeded to colonize Virginia under 
a charter which allotted to the grantees a portion of America " not actually 
possessed by any Christian prince or people "." 

The treaty was not signed until August 18/28, after the arrival in London 
of the Constable of Castile, who had been detained in Flanders. It was 
confirmed by King James on the following day, and ratified by the King of 
Spain on June 15, 1605. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Text : MS. The original manuscript of the ratification by the King of Spain, 
June 15, 1605, is in the London Public Record Office, Museum, Case G. 
The ratification by the archdukes is in the Public Record Office, T. R., 
Diplomatic Documents, no. 1176; and the enrolled treaty is in the same 
depository, Treaty Roll, no. 216. 

Text: Printed. T. Rymer, Foedera (1704-1735), XVI. 585-596, 617-629; 
J. Dumont, Corps Diplomatique (1726-1731), torn. V., pt. II., pp. 32-36, 
and, more completely, pp. 625-631 ; J. A. de Abreu y Bertodano, Coleccion 
de los Tratados de Espana: Reynado de Phelipe III. (1740), I. 243-286 ; 
separate articles defining art. XXI. are in R. Winwood, Memorials of 
Affairs of State in the Reigns of Elisabeth and James I. (1725), II. 29 ; 
concerning German merchandise, in Abreu, loc. cit. Several early edi- 

aliis bonis, navibus, rebus, et mercibus suis ad alia regna, loca, portus, et ad quetncumque 
vel quaecumque locum vel loca voluerint recedere, et oinne genus commercii invicem 
exercere libere et licite valeant, juxta et secundum vim, formam, et effectual tractatus 
intercursus mercium de data vicesimi quarti diei mensis Februarii, anno domini mil- 
lesimo quadringentesimo nonagesimo quinto, et articulorum subsequentium, durante 
provisione praesenti." Rymer, Foedera, XIII. 713, 716. The treaty of Feb. 24, 1495/6, 
is the well-known Intercursus Magnus. Ibid., XII. 5/8-591. 

a P. R. O., State Papers Foreign, Spain, bundle 10. Cf. the answer of James I. to 
the Venetian ambassador, Nov. 2, 1604. Cal. St. Pap., Venice, 1603-1607, pp. 189-190; 
and Cecil s letter to Winwood, " For the matter of the Peace which is lately concluded, 
it was a very good judgment of Barnevelt, when he said, that Litera occidit, spiritus 
autem vivificat ; for so treaties are commonly carried between great princes, where 
many things are left to interpretation for saving reputation to those that will make no 
quarrell for things done, though they never give consent thereunto by their treaty." 
Winwood, op. cit., II. 27. 

"Grotius, Annals (1665), p. 920; and cf. Doc. 29, introduction and note 5. 

13 See the letters from Zufiiga to the King of Spain and from the King of Spain 
to Zuniga in A. Brown, Genesis of the United States (1890), I. 45, 46, 88-91, 97-99, 102- 
104, etc. 

"The expression occurs in the preamble of the charter. The charter is printed in 
Brown, op. cit., I. 52 ff. 



250 Doc. 27. Spain Great Britain 

tions and translations of the text are listed in the British Museum 
Catalogue, under " England : Treaties ". This appears to have been the 
first English treaty printed by royal authority. 

Translations. Articles of Peace . . . 1604 (ed. R. Barker, 1605) ; A Gen 
eral Collection of 7 reatys (1732), II. 131-146; British Museum, Harleian 
MSS., 35- 

References: Contemporary and early writings. A journal of the nego 
tiations by Sir Thomas Edmondes is in the London Public Record Office, 
Treaty Papers, 64; copies of the journal are in the British Museum, 
Harleian MSS., 35, and Add. MSS., 14033 ; several copies are mentioned 
in the Reports of the Commission on Historical Manuscripts, and one 
is printed in part in the appendix to the Eighth Report, pt. I., pp. 95-98 ; 
Calendar of State Papers, Venice, 1603-1607, passim; Winwood, op. tit., 
II. i ff. ; Works of Sir Walter Ralegh (1829), VIII. 299-316, " A Dis 
course touching a War with Spain, and of the Protecting of the Nether 
lands " ; E. van Meteren, Histoire des Pays-Bas (1618), pp. 547-550. 

References: Later writings. S. R. Gardiner, History of England, 1603- 
1642 (1894-1896), I. 206-217, 342; P. Laffleur de Kermaingant, 
L Ambassade de France en Angleterre sons Henri IV.: Mission de 
Christophe de Harlay, 1602-1605 (1895), cn - 3 > L. Willaert, " Negocia- 
tions Politico-Religieuses entre 1 Angleterre et les Pays-Bas Catholiques 
(1598-1625)", II. "Intervention des Souverains Anglais en Favettr du 
Protestantisme aux Pays-Bas ", in Revue d Histoire Ecclesiastique, July. 
1907, pp. 5i4ff. 

TEXT." 

Philippus Tertius, Dei gratia rex Castellae, Legionis, Aragonum, Utriusque 
Siciliae, Hierusalem, Portugaliae, Navarrae, Granatae, Toleti, Valentiae, 
Galleciae, Majoricarum, Hispalis, Sardiniae, Cordubae, Corsicae, Murtiae, 
Giennis, Algarbii, Gibraltaris, Insularurn Canariae, necnon Indiarum Ori- 
entalium et Occidentalium, insularum ac terraefirmae maris Occeani ; archidux 
Austriae, dux Burgundiae et Mediolani, comes Abspurgi, Barchinoniae. 
Cantabriae, et Molinae Dominus, etc. : omnibus et singulis ad quos praesentes 
literae pervenerint, salutem. Cum tractatus quidam firmae amicitiae et pacis 
perpetuae ac commertii inter commissarios et deputatos nostros et serenis- 
simorum principum Alberti et Isabellae Clarae Eugeniae, archiducum Aus 
triae, ducum Burgundiae, et Jacobi, Magnae Britanniae, etc., regis, fratrum 
et consanguineorum nostrorum charissimorum, Londini, vigesimo octavo die 
Augusti, stillo novo, anno Domini millesimo sexcentesimo quarto, concor- 
datum et conclusum f uerit, cujus tenor sequitur : Noverint omnes et singuli 
quod post diuturnum et saevissimum bellorum incendium, quo Christianae 
provintiae per multos annos insigni jactura conflagrarunt, Deus, in cujus 
manu omnia posita sunt, ex alto respiciens et sui populi (cui ut pacem afferret 
et relinqueret, proprium sanguinem effundere non dubitavit) calamitates 
miseratus, potentissimorum Christiani imperii principum stabili conjunctione, 
saevientem ignem potenter restinxit, et diem pacis, diem tranquillitatis, hujus- 
que magis optatam quam speratam, misericorditer attulit. Devolutis enim, 
per ipsius Dei maximi gratiam, ad extirpanda discordiarum semina, Angliae 

* The following text is printed from the original manuscript of the ratification in 
the Public Record Office. Museum, Case G. 



London, 1604 251 

et Hiberniae regnis ad Serenissimum Jacobum Scotiae regem, sublatisque 
ideo illis dissensionum causis quae bella inter antecessores serenissimoruni 
principum, Philippi III., Hispaniarum regis, et Alberti ac Isabellae Clarae 
Eugeniae, Austriae archiducum, ducum Burgundiae et Serenissimi Jacobi 
regis Angliae tamdiu aluerunt, animadverterunt dicti omnes principes (Deo 
corda illorum illuminante) nihil superesse cur odiis, quae nunquam inter 
ipsos extiterunt, certarent, vel armis, a quibus majores ipsorum semper 
abstinuerunt, contenderent, et ab antiquissimo ac supra hominum memoriam 
custodito foedere discederent, arctissimaque necessitudinis, quae praedicto 
serenissimo Regi Angliae cum serenissimis Austriaca et Burgundica familiis 
intercedit, vincula disrumperent, ac veterem amicitiam, novis semper ac indies 
cumulatis amoris ac benevolentiae officiis excultam, violarent. Propterea, 
audito de successione dicti Serenissimi Scotiae Regis ad regna Angliae et 
Hiberniae, missisque ex parte Serenissimi Regis Hispaniarum, Domino 
Joanne Taxio, comite Villaemedianae et, ex parte dictorum Serenissimorum 
Archiducum, Domino Carolo, principe comite Arembergii, qui de regni suc 
cessione, nomine serenissimorum principum, respective, gratularentur dicto 
Serenissimo Regi Angliae, eaque legatione humanissime suscepta, legatisque 
amantissime receptis, certiores redditi fuerunt dicti Serenissimi Rex Hispa 
niarum et Archiduces a suis legatis de propensa Serenissimi Regis Angliae 
voluntate, nedum ad observanda antiqua foedera, sed alia (si opus foret) 
arctiora et firmiora ineunda. Quare nihil ab ipsis praetermittendum esse 
putarunt, quo posset communis Reipublicae Christianae tranquillitas pro 
mo veri, et populorum sibi commissorum utilitati prospici ; et ut quamprimum 
et sedulo opus tarn pium conficeretur, commissarios suos ac procuratores 
generales ac speciales constituerunt, cum amplissima facultate ad ineunda 
cum ipso serenissimo Rege Angliae ac stabilienda foedera, renovandaque 
jamdiu intermissa commercia, pacemque ac amicitiam perpetuo duraturam 
inter ipsos principes, confirmandam. 

Quapropter, nos, Johannes Velaschius, Castellae et Legionis comestabilis, 
dux civitatis Friensis, comes Hari, dominus villarum Villalpandi et Pedratiae 
de la Sierra, dominus domus Velaschiae et Septem Infantium de Lara, 
cubicularius major Serenissimi Philippi III., Hispaniarum, etc., regis, ac suus 
in pertinentibus ad statum ac bellum consiliarius, ac preses Italiae, procurator 
et commissarius specialis a Rfegia] Cfatholica] Mfajestate] constitutus, ad 
praedicta et infrascripta omnia stabilienda et peragenda, cum amplissima 
facultate (ut patet in mandate regis, facto in Valladolid primo Octobris, anno 
1603, manu propria dicti Catholici regis subscripto, et suo sigillo regio munito, 
de verbo ad verbum inferius registrando) ; et nobiscum, Joannes Taxius, 
comes Villaemedianae, a cubiculo regis et cursorum in regnis et dominiis 
Regis Catholici generalis praefectus, et a Regia Catholica Majestate ad 
tractatum pacis nominatus ; et Alexander Rovidius, collegii Mediolanensis 
jurisconsultus et Mediolanensis provintiae senator, a nobis nomine S[uae] 
R[egiae] Cfatholicae] M[ajesta]tis nominatus, et a nobis pariter, dum 
properantes in Angliam, superveniente valitudine, in Belgio distineremur, 
virtute facultatis regiae nobis concessae ad ipsam pacem, interea, cum eadem 
facultate et auctoritate quae nobis tributa fuerat, tractandam una cum dicto 
Comite Villaemedianae substitutus (ut patet mandate facto Bergis Sancti 
Winoci, decimo quinto Maii, 1604, inferius de verbo ad verbum registrando) 
omnes commissarii ex parte dicti Serenissimi Regis Hispaniarum ; Carolus, 

17 



252 Doc. 2j. Spain Great Britain 

princeps comes Arembergii, eques Ordinis Aurei Velleris, a consiliis rcrum 
status, admiralius generalis ; Joannes Richardotus, eques, Secreti Consilii 
preses et a rerum status consiliis ; Ludovicus Verreycken, eques, primarius 
secretarius et audientiarius, serenissimorum principum Archiducum legati et 
deputati (ut patet mandate facto Bruxellis, die duodecimo mensis Aprilis, 
1604, inferius quoque registrando) ; Thomas, comes de Dorset, baro de Buc- 
hurst, thesaurarius magnus Angliae ; Carolus, comes Nottingham, baro 
Howard de Effingham, capitalis justitiarius et justitiarius itinerans omnium 
forestarum citra Trentam, magnus admiralius Angliae et praefectus generalis 
classium et marium regnorum Angliae, Franciae, et Hiberniae, ac insularum 
et dominiorum eorundem ; Carolus, comes Devoniae, baro de Mountjoy, 
locumtenens pro serenissimo Rege Angliae, etc., in regno suo Hiberniae, 
munitionum bellicarum praefectus, gubernator oppidi, insulae, et castri Portis- 
mout, praenobilis Ordinis Garterii milites ; Henricus, comes Northamp- 
toniae, dominus Howard de Marnehil, custos et admiralius Quinque Portuum 
maritimorum ; et Robertus, dominus Cecil, baro de Esingden, primarius dicti 
Serenissimi Regis secretarius, magister curiae Wardorum et Liberationum, 
consiliarii e Secretioribus Consiliis Serenissimi Regis Angliae deputati et 
commissarii pro dicto Serenissimo Rege Angliae (ut patet mandate facto in 
palatio Stiae Majestatis Westmonasterii, sub die nono Maii, stillo veteri, anno 
Domini 1604, inferius registrando). 

Praemissis prius diligenti rerum omnium examine ac discusione, factisque 
pluribus sessionibus et conferentiis, ac post diuturnam disceptationem ad 
Omnipotentis Dei gloriam, totius Christiani orbis beneficium, subditorumque 
dictorum serenissimorum principum utilitatem et quietem, fuit per nos con- 
clusum, stabilitum, ac concordatum prout infra : 

i." Primo, conclusum, stabilitum, et accordatum fuit et est, ut ab hodie 
in antea, sit bona, sincera, vera, firma, ac perfecta amicitia et confoederatio 
ac pax perpetuo duratura, quae inviolabiliter observetur, inter Serenissimum 
Regem Hispaniarum et Serenissimos Archiduces Austriae, duces Burgundiae, 
etc., Serenissimum Regem Angliae eorumque haeredes et successores quos- 
cumque, eorumque regna, patrias, dominia, terras, populos, homines ligeos, 
ac subditos quoscumque, praesentes et futuros, cujuscumque conditionis, 
dignitatis, et gradus existant, tarn per terram quam per mare et aquas dulces ; 
ita ut praedicti vassalli ac subditi sibi invicem favere, et mutuis prosequi 
officiis ac honesta affectione invicem se tractare habeant. 

2. Cessetque imposterum omnis hostilitas ac inimicitia, offensionibus omni 
bus, injuriis, ac damnis quae (durante bellorum incendio) partes quoquomodo 
percepissent, sublatis ac oblivioni traditis ; ita ut imposterum nihil alter ab 
altero, occasione quorumcumque damnorum, offensionum, captionum, aut 
spoliorum pretendere possit, sed omnium abolitio sit et censeatur facta, ab 
hodie in antea ; omnisque actio extincta habeatur, salvo et praeterquam 
respectu captionum " factarum a die vicesimo quarto Aprilis, 1603," citra 
(quia de illis debebit reddi ratio) ; abstinebuntque in futurum ab omni praeda, 
captione, offensione, ac spolio, in quibuscumque regnis, dominiis, locis, ac 
ditionibus alterutrius ubivis sitis, tarn in terra quam in mari et aquis dulcibus. 
Nee per suos vassallos, incolas, vel subditos. aliquid ex praedictis fieri con- 

" The articles are paragraphed hut not numbered. 

17 Thus, in the enrollment. The ratification reads cautionum, which is. of course, 
wrong. 

11 Cf. above, introduction and note 2. 



London, 1604 253 

sentient ; omnemque praedam, spolium, ac captionem, ac damnum quod inde 
fiat vel dabitur, restitui facient. 

9. Item conventum ac stabilitum fuit et est, quod inter dictum Serenissimum 
Regem Hispaniae ac dictum Serenissimum Regem Angliae ac cujuslibet 
eorum vassallos, incolas, et subditos, tarn per terrain quam per mare et aquas 
dulces, in omnibus et singulis regnis, dominiis, ac insulis, aliisque terris, 
civitatibus, oppidis, portubus, ac districtibus dictorum regnorum et domi- 
niorum, sit [et] esse debeat commertium liberum in quibus ante bellum fuit 
commercium, juxta et secundum usum et observantiam antiquorum foederum 
et tractatuum ante bellum. Ita ut, absque aliquo salvo conductu, aliaque 
licentia, generali vel speciali, tam per terram quam per mare et aquas dulces, 
subditi et vassalli unius et alterius regis possint et valeant ad regna et 
dominia praedicta, eorumque omnium civitates, oppida, portus, littora, sinus, 
ac districtus, accedere, intrare, navigare, et quoscunque portus subire, in 
quibus ante bellum fuit commercium, et juxta et secundum usum et ob 
servantiam antiquorum foederum et tractatuum ante bellum, cum plaustris, 
equis, sarcinulis, navigiis, tam onustis quam onerandis, merces importare, 
emere, vendere in eisdem quantum voluerint commeatum, resque ad victum 
et profectionem necessarias justo pretio sibi assumere, restaurandis navigiis 
et vehiculis propriis vel conductis aut commodatis operam dare, illinc cum 
mercibus bonis ac rebus quibuscunque (solutis juxta locorum statuta teloniis 
ac vectigalibus praesentibus) tantum eadem libertate recedere, indeque ad 
patrias proprias vel alienas quomodocumque velint et sine impedimento 
recedere. 

Et in omnium et singulorum fidcm manu nostra propria subscripsimus. 
Londini, die vigessimo octavo Augusti stilo novo, et die decimo octavo 
ejusdem mensis stilo veteri, anno Domini millesimo sexcentesimo quarto. 
Joan de Velasco, condestable, El Conde de Villa Mediana, Alex[ander] 
Rovidius, Charles P. Co. D Arenberg, Praeses Richardotus, L. Verreycken, 
T. Dorset, Nottingham, Densier [sic], H. Northampton, Ro. Cecil. 

Dat. Vallisoleti, decimo quinto die mensis Junii, anno Domini millesimo 
sexcentesimo quinto. 

PHILIPPUS. 

Notandum " praefatum Serenissimum Principem Jacobum, Magnae Bri- 
tanniae, etc. regem, in ipso tractatu capitulorum praedictorum atque adeo 
in instrumento suo ratificationis eorundem, procuratoribus Domini mei 
Clementissimi Philippi, ejus nominis tertii, Hispaniarum, etc. regis, tradito, 
titulo usum esse Regis Angliae Scotiaeque, quern ex illo tempore in stilum 
Magnae Britanniae mutavit. Dominus Rex mandavit mihi. 

ANDREAS A PRADA. 

TRANSLATION. 

Philip III., by the grace of God king of Castile, Leon, Aragon, the Two 
Sicilies, Jerusalem, Portugal, Navarre, Granada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, 
the Majorcas, Seville, Sardinia, Cordova, Corsica, Murcia, Guinea, Algarve, 

" What follows is written in another hand, evidently that of the secretary, who signs it. 



254 Doc. 2f. Spain Great Britain 

Gibraltar, the Canary Islands, also of the East and West Indies, and the 
islands and mainlands of the ocean sea, archduke of Austria, duke of Bur 
gundy and Milan, count of Hapsburg, Barcelona, and Biscay, and lord of 
Molina, etc. To all and singular to whom the present letters shall come, 
greeting. Whereas our commissioners and deputies and those of the most 
serene princes, Albert and Isabella Clara Eugenia, archdukes of Austria, 
dukes of Burgundy, etc., and of James, king of Great Britain, etc., our dearest 
brothers and kinsmen, agreed and concluded at London on August 28, n. s., 
A. D. 1604, a treaty of firm friendship and perpetual peace, and of commerce, 
whose tenor follows : Be it known to all and singular that after the long 
and very fierce fires of the wars that for many years have devastated Chris 
tendom, at great cost, God, in whose hands all things are, beholding from 
on high and pitying the calamities of his people (for whom, in order that he 
might bring them peace and leave it with them, he did not hesitate to shed his 
own blood) effectually extinguished the raging fire by a stable union of the 
most powerful princes of Christendom, and mercifully brought a day of 
peace and tranquillity a thing wished rather- than hoped for. For when, 
by the grace of Almighty God, and to extirpate the seeds of discord, the 
kingdoms of England and Ireland had devolved on James, the most serene 
king of Scotland, and those causes of dissension had on that account been 
removed which so long had nourished the wars between the predecessors 
of the most serene princes, Philip III., king of the Spains, and Albert and 
Isabella Clara Eugenia, archdukes of Austria, dukes of Burgundy, and the 
Most Serene James, king of England, etc., all the said princes considered 
(God illuminating their hearts) that there was no longer any reason why 
they should contend in hate, which never existed between them, or fight 
with arms, from which their ancestors had always abstained, or why they 
should withdraw from the very ancient alliance, observed beyond the memory 
of man, or should sever the very close bonds of friendship that existed 
between the aforesaid Most Serene King of England and the most serene 
families of Austria and Burgundy, or violate the ancient friendship, daily 
cultivated with new and additional offices of love and good-wilL -Therefore, 
notice being received of the succession of the said Most Serene "King of Scot 
land to the kingdoms of England and Ireland, and the lord Juan Tassis, 
count of Villa Mediana, having been sent on the part of the Most Serene King 
of the Spains, and the lord Charles, prince-count of Arenberg, on the part 
of the said most serene archdukes, to congratulate, respectively, in the name 
of their most serene princes, the said Most Serene King of England on his 
succession to the throne, and those embassies having been most kindly 
accepted and the ambassadors most lovingly received, the said Most Serene 
King of the Spains and the archdukes were informed by their ambassadors 
that the Most Serene King of England was inclined not only to observe the 
ancient treaties, but, if necessary, to enter into others that should be closer 
and more binding. Wherefore they thought they should neglect no means 
of promoting the common tranquillity of Christendom and the interests of 
the people committed to their charge ; and to accomplish so pious a work with 
all speed and diligence, they appointed general and special commissioners and 
procurators, with the fullest powers, to enter into and conclude treaties with 
the said Most Serene King of England, to renew long-interrupted commerce, 
and to confirm a perpetual peace and amity among the said princes. 



London, 1604 255 

Wherefore we, Juan de Velasco, constable of Castile and Leon, duke of 
the city of Frias, count of Haro, lord of the towns of Villalpando and Pedraza- 
de-la-Sierra, lord of the house of Velasco and of the Seven Lords of Lara, 
grand chamberlain of the Most Serene Philip III., king of the Spains, and his 
councillor in affairs of state and war, president of Italy, appointed by his 
royal Catholic Majesty procurator and special commissioner, with the 
fullest power to decide and complete all matters mentioned above and below 
(as appears in the royal commission executed in Valladolid October I, 1603, 
signed personally by the said Catholic king and sealed with the royal seal and 
to be registered word for word below) ; and with us, Juan Tassis, count of 
Villa Mediana, gentleman of the king s chamber and postmaster general 
in the kingdoms and dominions of the Catholic king, and named by his Royal 
Catholic Majesty to treat for peace ; and Alessandro Rovida, professor of 
law in the college of Milan and senator of the province of Milan, nominated 
by us in the name of his Royal Catholic Majesty and, while we on our way to 
England were detained in Flanders by illness, substituted by us by virtue of 
the royal commission granted to us for this peace, in order that he might treat 
meanwhile, together with the said count of Villa Mediana, with the same 
power and authority that had been given to us (as appears in the commission 
executed at Bergues-St. Winoc, May 15, 1604, to be registered word for 
word below) all commissioners on the part of the said Most Serene King 
of the Spains ; Charles, prince-count of Arenberg, knight of the Order of 
the Golden Fleece, councillor of state, and admiral general ; Jean Richardot, 
knight, president of the privy council and councillor of state ; and Louis 
Verreycken, knight, principal secretary and audiencer ambassadors and 
deputies of the most serene princes, the archdukes (as appears by a commis 
sion executed at Brussels April 12, 1604, also to be registered below) ; 
Thomas, earl of Dorset, baron of Buckhurst, high treasurer of England ; 
Charles, earl of Nottingham, baron Howard of Effingham, chief justice and 
justice in eyre of all forests on this side Trent, high admiral of England and 
captain general of the navies and seas of England, France, Ireland, and the 
islands and dominions thereof ; Charles, earl of Devonshire, baron of Mount- 
joy, lieutenant in the kingdom of Ireland for the Most Serene King of 
England, etc., master of the ordnance, governor of the town, island, and 
castle of Portsmouth knights of the most honorable Order of the Garter ; 
Henry, earl of Northampton, Lord Howard of Marnhull, warden and admiral 
of the Cinque Ports ; and Robert, lord Cecil, baron of Essingden, principal 
secretary of the said Most Serene King, master of the Court of Wards and 
Liveries all lords of the Privy Council of the Most Serene King of En 
gland deputies and commissioners for the said Most Serene King of 
England (as appears in the commission executed in his Majesty s palace at 
Westminster on May 9, o. s., A. D. 1604, to be registered below). 

After diligent preliminary examination and discussion of the whole affair, 
after many sessions and conferences had been held, and after long-continued 
debate, it was agreed, settled, and concluded by us, for the glory of Almighty 
God, the benefit of all Christendom, and the advantage and quiet of the sub 
jects of the said most serene princes, as below : 

i. First, it was and is agreed, settled, and concluded that from this day 
forward there shall be a good, sincere, true, firm, and perfect amity, league, 
and peace, to endure forever, and inviolably to be observed, both by land and 
sea and fresh waters, betwixt the Most Serene King of the Spains and the 



Doc. 2j. Spain Great Britain 

Most Serene Archdukes of Austria, Dukes of Burgundy, etc., and the Most 
Serene King of England, and all their heirs and successors whomsoever, and 
all their kingdoms, countries, dominions, lands, peoples, vassals, and subjects, 
present and future, of whatsoever condition, dignity, or rank they may be ; 
so that the aforesaid vassals and subjects shall each favor the other, shall 
act one toward the other with mutual courtesies, and shall treat one another 
with sincere affection. 

2. And that from henceforth all hostility and enmity shall cease, and all 
offenses, injuries, or damages which either part (during the period while 
war was waging) has sustained in any manner shall be offered and consigned 
to oblivion, so that hereafter neither party may make any claim against the 
other, because of any damages, offenses, depredations, or spoils, but that, 
from this day henceforth, all such claims shall be abolished and shall be 
considered as closed; and all actions [for the same] shall be considered as 
extinguished, except in regard to such depredations as are committed after 
April 24, 1603 (because of these a reckoning ought to be made) ; and each 
party shall hereafter abstain from all booty, depredation, offenses, and spoils, 
both by sea and land and fresh waters, in any of the kingdoms, dominions, 
places, or jurisdictions of the other, wherever they may be situated. Neither 
shall they [i. e., the aforesaid princes] consent that any of the aforesaid be 
done by their vassals, the inhabitants of their kingdoms, or their subjects ; 
and they shall cause restitution to be made of all booty, spoils, depredations, 
and damages which shall hereafter be committed. 

9. Item, it was and is agreed and settled that there shall be and ought to 
be free commerce between the said Most Serene King of Spain and the said 
Most Serene King of England, and the vassals, inhabitants of their kingdoms, 
and subjects of each of them, both by land and by sea and fresh waters, in 
all and singular their kingdoms, dominions, islands, other lands, cities, towns, 
ports, and straits of the said kingdoms and dominions, where commerce 
existed before the war, agreeably and according to the use and observance 
of the ancient alliances and treaties before the war : so that, without any safe 
conduct, or other special or general license, the subjects and vassals of both 
kings may, and shall have the power, both by land and by sea and fresh 
waters, to approach, enter, and sail to the aforesaid kingdoms and dominions, 
and to the cities, towns, ports, shores, bays, and straits of all of them ; to 
enter any ports in which there was commerce before the war, agreeably and 
according to the use and observance of the ancient alliances and treaties before 
the war, with wagons, horses, packs, and boats, laden and to be laden, to 
bring in merchandise and, in these places, to buy and sell as much as they 
wish, and to procure for themselves, for a just price, supplies and commodities 
necessary for their sustenance and voyage, and attend to the necessary 
repair of boats and vehicles, whether their own, hired, or borrowed. They 
will be equally free to depart thence with their merchandise, goods, and all 
other commodities, on payment of the tolls and duties then in force, accord 
ing to the ordinances of the places ; and they may go thence to their own or 
other countries, as they please, without hindrance. 

And in pledge of all and singular we have subscribed our names with our 
own hand. London, August 18/28, A. D. 1604. Juan de Velasco, constable, 



London, 1604 257 

the Count of Villa Mediana, Alessandro Rovida. Charles, prince-count of 
Arenberg, President Richardot, L. Verreycken, T. Dorset, Nottingham, 
Devonshire, H. Northampton, Robert Cecil . . . 

Given at Valladolid. June 15, A. D. 1605. 

PHILIP. 

It is to be noted that the aforesaid Most Serene Prince James, king of Great 
Britain, etc., in the treaty of the aforesaid articles itself, and hence in his 
instrument of ratification of them delivered to the representatives of my 
Most Clement lord Philip, king of the Spains, etc., third of his name, made 
use of the title, King of England and Scotland, which afterwards he changed 
to the style of Great Britain. The lord king has commanded me. 

ANDRKS DE PRADA. 



28. 

Truce between Spain and the United Netherlands, concluded at 
Antwerp, April p_, idop. Ratification by Spain, July j, 1609. 
[Ratification by the States General, April u, 1609.] 

INTRODUCTION. 

By separately concluding the treaty of Vervins with Spain, 1 Henry IV. of 
France had seemingly abandoned both his allies, England and the United 
Provinces, although, contrary to the treaty, he actually continued a limited 
aid to the Dutch ; 2 by signing the treaty of London 3 the King of England 
had weakened the Dutch still further in their struggle with Spain. This 
defection of their allies, Spinola s military successes, and especially the 
proposals of Henry IV. to assume sovereignty over the Provinces, alarmed 
the great Advocate of Holland, Oldenbarnevelt, who with his followers 
dominated the States General, and inclined them to listen to the overtures 
for peace which in 1606 and early in 1607 came from the archdukes, the 
rulers of the southern provinces. On the other hand, a party led by Prince 
Maurice and Count William Lewis of Nassau, and including among its 
most ardent adherents those who had an interest in the East India and 
American trade, desired the continuance of the war. The merchants knew 
that Spain would demand the renunciation of the distant traffic as the price 
of peace, and even were the trade permitted it would be less profitable under 
conditions of peace than when conducted in armed vessels. 

The hope of expelling the Dutch from the forbidden regions was believed 
by many to be the principal motive that induced Spain to treat. 4 Within a 
few years Dutch trade beyond the oceans had attained great proportions. 
When peace negotiations began, the powerful East India Company, char 
tered in 1602, had seriously undermined the power of the Portuguese in the 
East ; with Guinea, Brazil, Guiana, Punta del Rey, Cuba, and Hispaniola, 

1 Doc. 23, last paragraph of introduction. 

1 An excellent account of Franco-Dutch relations at this period is in Nouaillac, 
I illeroy. pp. 373 ff., and ch. 5. 

* Doc. 27. 

4 Jeannin asserted that it was the principal motive, Negotiations (ed. Petitot), III. 
291, and cf. II. 95, 96, 199; Prince Maurice said the same, Bentivoglio, Relazione (1644), 
p. in. Relations (1652), p. 106; Grotius says that the Spaniards declared that it was 
the main reason, Annales, lib. XVII. 

258 



Antwerp, 1609 259 

the Dutch were also prosecuting an active trade." In consequence of their 
losses the Portuguese were earnestly petitioning Philip to end the war ; * 
and among the influences that inclined the Spanish government toward peace 
were reports of the project of a Dutch West India Company " that should 
with a strong fleet carry, at once, both war and merchandise into America ", 
and drive the enemy thence. William Usselinx had been advocating the 
formation of this company for several years, and in 1606 his plan was 
approved by the States General and a draft charter submitted to the cities. 

In the peace parleyings held early in 1607, the United Provinces demanded 
the recognition of their independence as an indispensable preliminary step. 
To this demand the archdukes yielded by declaring in somewhat equivocal 
terms that they would treat with them for a peace or long truce " in the 
quality of and as holding them for free provinces and states over which they 
had no pretensions ". The archdukes, in their turn, asked for an eight 
months armistice, which the United Provinces conceded, but on condition 
that Spain should confirm the armistice as well as the recognition of their 
independence. 

It was not until October, 1607, that this recognition was received from 
Spain," and meanwhile negotiations were at a standstill. During this interim, 
however, representatives of those neighboring princes upon whom the Prov 
inces had formerly leaned were gathering at the Hague to watch or, if 
possible, to direct the negotiations. France was represented by Jeannin, 
president of the Parlement of Burgundy, by Buzanval, 10 the regular resident 
at the Hague, and by De Russy ; England, by Sir Ralph Winwood, who, in 
accordance with treaty provisions, had sat in the States General as Coun 
cillor of State, and by Sir Richard Spenser. 11 Denmark and several of the 
Protestant princes of Germany also sent envoys. A possible danger to the 
Dutch lay in the interest felt by Henry and Jeannin in the project of forming 

5 Meteren, Histoire des Pays-Bas, p. 629. On the relations of the Dutch with America 
at this time, see reports by J. F. Jameson and G. L. Burr in U. S. Commission on 
Boundary between Venezuela and British Guiana, Report and Papers (1897), I. 37 flf., 
99 ff. ; and articles by G. Edmundson in the Eng. Hist. Rev., XVIII. (1903) 642 ff., XXI. 
(1906) 229 ff. For further bibliographical indications respecting Dutch colonial trade, 
see C. de Lannoy and H. Vander Linden, L Expansion Colonial?: Necrlandc et Dane- 
mark (IQII), and, in addition, F. Rachfahl, "Die Hollandische See- und Handels- 
macht ", etc., in Lens-Festschrift (1910), pp. 39-88. 

* Grotius, op. cit., lib. XV. 

Ibid., English translation (1665), p. 864; Jameson. Willem Usselinx, pp. 31-32, in 
Papers of the Am. Hist. Assoc., II. ; G. M. Asher, Bibliographical and Historical Essay 
on New-Netherland (1854-1867), p. 46. 

" This formula was embodied in the preamble of the truce. 

* The declaration, armistice, and confirmation are printed in Jeannin, Negotiations, 
and thence in Dumont, Corps Diplomatique, torn. V., pt. II., pp. 83, 84. The Spanish 
ratification offered to the States in July, 1607, was not accepted by them. 

" Buzanval died in the autumn of 1607. 

"The instructions of the English commissioners are in Winwood, Memorials, II. 
329-335. 



260 Doc. 28. Spain United Netherlands 

French companies for trading in the East and West Indies ; and in their 
belief that if Dutch merchants failed to obtain the India " navigation ", they 
might be attracted to France. 1 On the other hand, these statesmen realized 
how important the India trade was to the Dutch, and how much damage it 
had enabled and would enable them to inflict upon Spain, the common enemy." 

The States having accepted the Spanish confirmation, deputies were ap 
pointed by the principal parties to the negotiations. The archdukes dele 
gates, who were also empowered to treat in the name of the King of Spain, 
were the Marquis Spinola, Secretary Don Juan de Mancicidor, President 
Richardot, the Audiencer Verreycken, and Father Neyen. The States were 
represented by Count William Lewis of Nassau and Walraven van Brederode, 
delegates at large, and by one delegate from each of the seven provinces, 
among whom Oldenbarnevelt played the leading role. On February i, 1608, 
the archdukes ambassadors reached the Hague, and a few days later con 
ferences began at the Binnenhof. The main points of dispute were the 
recognition of the independence of the United Provinces, the restitution of 
places held by them in Brabant and Flanders, toleration of the public exercise 
of the Roman Catholic religion in the United Provinces, and the India trade. 

The debate on the India trade began on February 13, continued through 
many sessions, and was marked by great vehemence. Both sides regarded 
the question as vital. The Dutch believed the trade necessary to their exist 
ence. It drew money to them from other nations ; maintained sailors and 
armed vessels without expense to the state ; sapped Spain s strength ; made 
them superior to her in sea-power ; and caused the republic to be desired 
as a friend by other nations. By renouncing it they would betray the native 
princes who had aided them, and having once abandoned these they could 
never reinstate themselves. The Dutch had a right to the traffic, for in many 
parts where they traded the King of Spain exercised no authority, or was 
hated by the natives, or was unable to defend himself. To withdraw from 
a traffic which was allowed them by the laws of nature and of nations would 
prejudice their status as a sovereign power, and the principle of the freedom 
of the seas. Finally, the archdukes and Spain had agreed to treat on the 
basis of uti possidetis, and the Dutch were in possession of the India trade. 
They suspected that the negotiations had been begun for the purpose of weak 
ening them by obtaining their withdrawal from the navigation, after which 
Spain would try to reduce them again to her authority. If the Dutch would 
relinquish the trade, the archdukes offered to give up their title of sovereigns 
over all the Netherlands and to abstain from using the seal of the seventeen 

" Jeannin. ed. Petitot, II. 135-136, 204, 258, 322-323. III. 262. 280-284. See La Ronciere, 
La Marine Fran^aisc (1899. etc.), IV. 268 ff. ; P. Laffleur de Kermaingant, L Ambassade 
de France en Angleterre: Mission de Christophe de Harlay (1895), I. 288-293. 

"Jeannin, cd. cit., II. 136, 534. III. 290 ff.. 296 ff., 305. 



Antwerp, i6op 261 

provinces ; and Philip would reopen the trade with Spain." On the other 
hand, if Spain conceded the India trade to the States it might cause other 
rulers to demand the same liberty for their subjects, or to take it without 
demanding it ; and the Dutch might undersell the Portuguese or oblige the 
king to give up the tribute that he levied on the Portuguese trade." 

At the end of February the States brought forward three alternative means 
of accommodation : " peace, with free trade to those parts of the Indies not 
actually possessed by Spain ; peace in Europe, and a truce in the Indies for a 
term of years with permission to trade during that period ; trade to the Indies 
" at their peril " after the example of the French and English. The Catholic 
deputies totally rejected the first and third propositions but would submit the 
second to Spain if it were acceptably modified. They rejected a draft to the 
effect that whatever might happen in the Indies during or after the truce, 
peace should not fail to be perpetual as far south as the tropic of Cancer," 
for they wished to confine the dispute to the East Indies, and feared that by 
referring to the tropics, which encircled the earth, the West Indies would 
seem to be comprised. They wished the States to declare expressly that they 
would abstain from going to the West Indies, and that in the East Indies 
they would not vi^it the places held by the Portuguese. 18 The States, who 
meanwhile had tried to frighten their opponents by showing a renewed 
interest in the West India Company, 19 finally drafted an acceptable article, 
stipulating that during nine years after the conclusion of the truce they 
might trade anywhere in the Indies except in places held by the King of 
Spain where they might go only with the consent of the governors or in case 
of necessity. Before the termination of the nine years, an attempt should 
be made to come to a lasting agreement. 28 The West Indies were not 
specifically mentioned." 

In April this draft was despatched to the King of Spain for his considera 
tion, and negotiations flagged ; in August it was known that Spain insisted 
on the prompt withdrawal of the States from both the East and the West 
Indies and complete toleration for the public exercise of the Catholic religion 
in the Provinces as indispensable conditions of her recognition of the inde 
pendence of the States. 23 It was certain that peace was unattainable and 
negotiations were broken off. 

14 For the debates on the India trade, see especially Deventer, Gedenkstukken, III. 
178 ff., Meteren, Histoire des Pays-Bas, pp. 626 ff. ; and Jeannin, ed. cit., III. 198 ff.. 
236, 239 ff., 251, 252, 287, etc. 

1 Jeannin, ed. cit., III. 251-252. 

"Rodriguez Villa, Ambrosia Spinola, p. 217; Deventer, op. cit.. III. 188-189; Jeannin, 
ed. cit., III. 287 ; Grotius, op. cit., lib. XVII. 

"Jeannin, ed. cit., III. 311; Deventer, op. cit., III. 196. 

"Deventer, op. cit., III. 198; Jeannin, op. cit., III. 315. 

"Jameson, op. cit., p. 35; Jeannin, ed. cit., III. 289; Grotius, loc. cit. 

20 Meteren, ed. cit., p. 633 b; Grotius, loc. cit.; Jeannin, op. cit., III. 373, 374. 

"Jeannin, ed. cit., III. 326. "Meteren, cd. cit., p. 650 b; Jeannin, ed. cit., IV. 86. 



262 Doc. 28. Spain United Netherlands 

This result could scarcely have been displeasing to Jeannin, who preferred 
a truce to a peace, since the former would leave the Dutch more dependent 
on France and suspicious of Spain. In concert with the English ambassadors, 
and in spite of the bitter opposition of Prince Maurice and the Zeelanders, 
he persuaded the States to revive negotiations in behalf of a truce, and to 
employ the French and English ambassadors as intermediaries. 

In February, 1609, the French and English ambassadors opened their con 
ference with the deputies of the archdukes at Antwerp. The principal point 
of difficulty was the India trade. The Catholic deputies would not have the 
word Indies in the treaty, lest other governments should demand the same 
concession, and thought it sufficient to proclaim the truce general. Henry IV. 
saw an advantage in omitting the term Indies, since if it were used the King 
of Spain would make a distinction between the East and West Indies, 
excluding the Dutch from the latter. The French statesmen were inclined 
to minimize the value that this trade would have for the Dutch when carried 
on in accordance with agreement and not par host-Hit e Yet Jeannin labored 
for the end desired by the States, not because France wished to strengthen 
the States unduly, but because she was unwilling to restore Spain to her 
former strength, or to play into the hands of the English, who were believed 
to desire the trade for themselves. 24 After much discussion it was agreed that 
the second article should declare a general truce without mention of the 
Indies. The fourth article contained a concession of the India trade, veiled 
by circumlocutions : traffic was permitted in Spain s European lands and in 
any other of her possessions where her allies were permitted to trade ; outside 
these limits (i. e., in the Indies) subjects of the States could not traffic with 
out express permission from the king in places held by Spain ; but in places not 
thus held they might trade upon permission of the natives, without hindrance 
from the king or his officers. In order to make the meaning of this fourth 
article unmistakable, Jeannin further insisted on inserting the fifth article, 
which declared that owing to the time that must elapse before news of the 
truce could reach the forces and ships " outside the stated limits " the truce 
would not begin there until a year from the date on which the treaty was 
signed. This the Catholic deputies conceded with great reluctance." The 
agreement that Spain would not hinder the subjects of the States in their 
trade with other princes and peoples " outside the limits " was also strength 
ened by a special and secret treaty, to be considered as forming part of the 
principal treaty, in which the name Indies was again avoided. The name, 

13 Jeannin, ed. cit., V. 214, 233, 234, 237. 

24 Ibid., pp. 235-238, 321. Henry was also jealous of the settlement of the English in 
Virginia. On March 28, 1609, Villeroy wrote to Jeannin that they had heard " que le 
roi d Angleterre a dessein de s accroitre et etablir en ces pays-la, et que des a present il 
a envoye des colonies entieres pour fortifier les siens en un lieu qu ils nomment la 
Virginia ; de quoi notre Roi n est sans martcl qui aiguise son appetit en ces affaires." 
Ibid., V. 321-322. 

25 Ibid., p. 242. 



Antwerp, 1609 263 

however, appeared in an act signed by the French and English ambassadors, 
which certified that the archdukes deputies had agreed that just as the 
Dutch should not traffic in places held by the King of Spain in the Indies 
without his permission, so subjects of the King of Spain should not traffic 
in places held by the States in the Indies without their permission ; and 
secondly, that the States deputies had declared that if their native allies 
in the Indies were molested, they would aid them, and that such action should 
not be a violation of the truce. 

Other principal points of dispute were adjusted as follows : the independ 
ence of the States was acknowledged ; the exercise of the Catholic religion 
in the Provinces was not conceded ; the States were left in enjoyment of 
the places that they occupied in Brabant and Flanders ; and they kept a 
tax on vessels passing through the Scheldt to Antwerp. 

Toward the middle of March, after the success of the negotiations had 
become assured, Jeannin acquainted the States General with what had 
passed in the conferences at Antwerp, and with the articles as agreed to by 
the deputies of the archdukes, persuaded them suitably to recognize the 
services of Prince Maurice and of his house," and promised that if Spain 
disturbed the India commerce the kings of France and England would deem 
it a rupture of the truce." Toward the end of the month, the deputies of 
the States General, who with one exception 28 were the same as those of the 
preceding year, met with the deputies of the kings and of the archdukes at 
Antwerp, and on the ninth of April the treaty and the additional acts were 
signed in that city. They were ratified a few days later by the States General 
at Bergen-op-Zoom, and by the archdukes, and after an interval of three 
months by the King of Spain, who added that he hoped that during the 
truce the States would treat the Catholics well." 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Text : MS. The original manuscript of the ratification by the King of Spain 
is in the Rijksarchief at the Hague, Secrete Casse, Spaignen en de 
Ertzhertogen, casse B, loquet A, no. 24. 

Text: Printed. French. Authorized editions were issued by Velpius in 
Brussels and by Jacobsz in the Hague in 1609. They do not include the 
secret treaty and the ambassadors certificates, which are published 
together with the text in P. Jeannin, Negotiations (ist ed., 1656; in 
Petitot, Collection des Memoires, toms. XI-XV., 1821-1822, V. 365-383), 
and thence in J. Dumont, Corps Diplomatique (1726-1731), torn. V., 
pt. II., pp. 99-102, and in J. A. de Abreu y Bertodano, Coleccion de los 
Tratados de Espafia: Reynado de Phelipe III. (1740), I. 458-489. A 

"Ibid., pp. 29^-303, 305, 310, 311. 

" Grotius, of. cit., lib. XVIII.; Jeannin, op. cit., V. 302. 

M Cornelius Renessen was substituted for Nicholas Berk, deputy for Utrecht. 

M See below, p. 267. 



264 Doc. 28. Spain United Netherlands 

recent edition of the text with some cognate documents is in V. Brants, 
Recueil des Ordonnances des Pays-Bos, Rcgne d Albert et Isabelle, 1597- 
1621, torn. I. (1909), pp. 402-411. Dutch. Groot Placaet-Boeck van de 
Staten Generael (1658-1796), I. cols. 55-72. 

References : Contemporary and early writings. P. Jeannin, Negotiations, 
ist ed., 1656; in Petitot, Collection des Memoires, toms. XI. -XV., and 
other editions ; M. L. van Deventer, Gedenkstitkken van J. van Olden- 
barncvelt (1860-1865), III. 71-312 a diary of the negotiations for the 
truce from Feb. i, 1608, to Mar. 4, 1609, is on pp. 168-239; R. Winvvood, 
Memorials of Affairs of State in the Reigns of Elisabeth and James 1. 
(1725), II. 298-492, III. 1-17; A. Rodriguez Villa, Ambrosio Spinola 
(1904), pp. 150-255, 627-651, 667, 704, 705; Recueil des Lettres Mis 
sives de Henri IV., torn. VII. (1858), passim (ed. by M. Berger de 
Xivrey in Collection de Documents Inedits sur I Histoire de France} ; 
Lettres d Henry IV. et de Messieurs de Villeroy et de Puisieux a 
Mr. Antoine Le Fevre de la Boderie, 1606-1611 (1733), 2 vols., passim; 
Resolutien of the States of Holland (1772-1798), vols. for the years 
1607-1609, passim; Cardinal G. Bentivoglio, " Relatione del Trattato 
della Tregua di Fiandra ", in Opere . . . do e Relatione di Fiandra, 
etc. (1644), pp. 99-130, also in Collezione de Classici Italiani (1802- 
1850), CLXXXIV. 255-339; English translation, entitled Historical 
Relations of the United Provinces and of Flanders (1652), pp. 95-127 ; 
E. van Meteren, Histoire des Pays-Bas (1618), livs. XXVIII.-XXX. ; 
Hugo Grotius, Annales et Historiae de Rebus Belgicis (1657, etc.), 
libs. XV.-XVIIL, English translation (1665), pp. 858-974; Dominicus 
Baudius, Inducianun Belli Belgici Libri Tres (ist ed., 1613, 3d ed.. 
1629) ; Calendar of State Papers, Venice, 1603-1607, passim, and id., 
1607-1610, passim; Kroniek van Historisch Genootschap te Utrecht, 
Jaarg. 28, 1872 (1873), pp. 226-239, 242-283, 363-375 ; G. Groen van 
Prinsterer, Archives de la Maison d Orange-Nassau (1835, etc.), 2" ser., 
IL 3 69ff. 

References: Later writings. J. L. Motley, The United Netherlands (1904), 
vol. IV., cc. 46-52 ; P. J. Blok, Geschiedenis van het Nederlandsche Volk 
(2d ed., 1912, etc.), II. 346-362, abridged English translation. History 
of the People of the Netherlands (1898-1912), III. 304-314, German 
translation, Geschichte der Niederlande (1902, etc.), III. 623-655, in 
Heeren und Ukert, Geschichte der Europ dischen Staaten (1829. etc.) ; 
J. F. Jameson, Willem Usselinx, pp. 22-46, in Papers of the American 
Historical Association, II. (1887) ; M. Philippson, Heinrich IV. und 
Philipp III. (1870-1876), III. 67-252; J. Nouaillac, Villeroy (1909), 
pp. 461-477 ; J. P. Arend et al., Algemeene Geschiedenis des Vaderlands 
(1840, etc.), III. (2), 244-344. 

TEXT. 3 " 

Comme ainsi soit que les Serenissimes Archiducqz, Albert et Isabella Clara 
Eugenia, etc., ayent dez le vingt-quatriesme d Apvril, seize cens et sept, fait 
une trefve et cessation d armes pour huict mois avec Illustres Seigneurs les 
Estatz Gencraulx des Provinces Unies des Pays Bas, en qualite et comme 

"From the original manuscript of the Spanish ratification in the Rijksarchief at the 
Hague, Secrete Casse, Spaignen en de Ertzhertogen, casse B, loquet A, no. 24. 



Antwerp, 1609 265 

les tenans pour Estatz, Provinces, et Pays libres, sur lesquelz ilz ne pre- 
tendoyent rien, laquelle trefve debvoit estre ratiffiee avec pareille declaration 
par la Majeste du Roy Catholicque, en ce qui le povoit toucher et lesdites 
ratiffications et declarations delivrees ausdits sieurs Estatz trois mois apres 
icelle trefve, comm il s est fait par lettres patentes du dix-huictiesme de 
Septembre audit an, et oultre ce donne procuration specialle ausdits sieurs 
Archiducqz du dixiesme de Janvier, seize cens huict, pour tant en son noni 
comme au leur, faire tout ce qu ilz jugeroyent convenable pour parvenir a 
une bonne paix, ou trefve a longues annees, en suyte de la quelle procuration, 
lesdits sieurs Archiducqz auroient aussi, par leurs lettres de commission du 
xxvii du mesme mois, nomme et depute commissaires pour en conferer et 
traicter esdits noms et qualitez, et a cest occasion consenty et accorde que 
ladite trefve fut prolongee et continuee par diverses fois, mesme le xx e de 
May jusques a la fin de la dite annee, XVI C huict, mais apres s estre assemblez 
plusieurs fois avcc les deputez desdits sieurs Estatz, qui avoient aussi procu 
ration et commission d eulx, datee du v* de febvrier audit an, ilz n auroient 
peu demeurer d accord de la dite paix, pour plusieurs grandes difficultez 
survenues entr eulx, au moyen de quoy les sieurs ambassadeurs des Roys 
Treschrestien et de la Grande Bretaigne, des Princes Electeurs Palatin et 
de Brandenbourg, Marquiz d Ansbach, et Landtgrave de Hessen, envoyez 
sur le lieu de la part desdits sieurs roys et princes pour ayder a 1 advancement 
d ung si bon oeuvre, voyans qu ilz estoient prestz de se separer et rompre tout 
traite, auroient propose une trefve a longues annees, a certaines conditions 
contenues en ung escript, donne de leur part aux ungz et aux aultres, avec 
priere et exhortation de s y vouloir conformer. Sur lequel escript plusieurs 
aultres difficultez estans derechef survenues, en fin ce jourd huy neufiesme 
du mois d Apvril, mil six cens et neuf, se sont assemblez Messire Ambrosio 
Spinola marquiz de Benaffro, chevalier de 1 Ordre de la Thoison d Or, du 
conseil d estat et de guerre de sa dite Majeste Catholicque, mestre de camp, 
general de ses armees, etc., Messire Jehan Richardot, chevalier, sieur de 
Barly, du conseil d estat, chief president du conseil prive de leurs Altezes, 
etc., Jehan de Mancicidor, du conseil de guerre et secretaire de sa dite 
Majeste Catholicque, reverend pere frere Jehan Neyen, commissaire general 
de 1 Ordre de St.-Frangois es Pays-Bas, et Messire Loys Verreyken, cheva 
lier, audiencier et premier secretaire de leurs dites Altezes, en vertu des 
lectres de procuration desdits sieurs Archiducqz, pour traitter, tant en leurs 
noms qu au nom dudit sieur Roy Catholicque, la teneur de laquelle procuration 
est cy apres inseree, avec celle dudit sieur Roy, d une part, et Messire 
Guillaume Loys, conte de Nassau, Catzenellebogen, Vianden, Dietz, etc., 
sieur de Bilsteyn, gouverneur et capitaine general de Prize, ville de Groen- 
ingen et Ommelanden, Drente, etc., Messire Walrave, sieur de Brederode, 
Vianen, viconte d Utrecht, sieur d Ameyden, Cloutingen, etc., les sieurs 
Cornille de Gendt, sieur de Loenen et Meynerswyck, viconte et juge de 
1 empire, et de la ville de Nyemegen, Messire Jehan d Oldenbarnevelt, cheva 
lier, sieur de Tempel, Rodenrys, etc., advocat et garde du grand seel, chartres, 
et registres de Hollande et Westf rize, Messire Jacques de Malderee, chevalier, 
sieur des Heyes, premier et representant la noblesse aux Estatz et conseil de 
la conte de Zelande, les sieurs Gerard de Renesse, sieur van der Aa, de 
Streeffkercken, Nyeuwlekkerlandt, etc., Gellius Hillama, docteur es droitz, 
conseillier ordinaire du conseil de Frize, Jehan Sloeth, sieur de Salick, 
drossard du pays de Vollenhoo et chastellain de la seigneurie de Cunder, et 



266 Doc. 28. Spain United Netherlands 

Abel Coenders de Helpen, sieur en Faen et Cantes, au nom desdits sieurs 
Estatz, aussi en vertu de leurs lettres de procuration et commission, cy apres 
semblablement inseree, d autre, lesquelz avec 1 intervention et par 1 advis de 
Messire Pierre Jeannin, chevalier, baron de Chagny et Montjeu, conseillier 
du Roy Tres-chrestien en son Conseil d Estat et son ambassadeur extra 
ordinaire vers lesdits sieurs Estatz, et Messire Elye de la Place, chevalier, 
sieur de Russy, viconte de Machault, aussi conseillier audit Conseil d Estat, 
gentilhomme ordinaire de la chambre dudit sieur roy, bailly et capitaine de 
Vitry le Frangois, et son ambassadeur ordinaire resident pres lesdits sieurs 
Estatz, Messire Richard Spencer, chevalier, gentilhomme ordinaire de la 
Chambre Privee du Roy de la Grande Bretaigne et son ambassadeur extra 
ordinaire vers lesdits sieurs Estatz, et Messire Rodolphe Winwood, chevalier, 
ambassadeur ordinaire, et conseillier dudit sieur Roy ail Conseil d Estat des 
Provinces Unies, sont demeurez d accord en la forme et maniere que s ensuyt : 

1. Premierement, lesdits sieurs Archiducqz declarent tant en leurs noms 
que dudit sieur Roy, qu ilz sont contens de traicter avec lesdits sieurs Estatz 
Generaulx des Provinces Unies en qualite et comme les tenans pour pays, 
provinces, et estatz libres, sur lesquelz ilz ne pretendent rien, et de faire avec 
eulx, es noms et qualitez susdites, comme ilz font par ces presentes, une 
tref ve, aux conditions cy apres escrites et declarees. 

2. Asscavoir, que ladite trefve sera bonne, ferme, loyalle, et inviolable, 
et pour le temps de douze ans, durant lesquelz il y aura cessation de tous actes 
d hostilite, de quelque fagon qu ilz soyent, entre lesdits sieurs roy, archiducqz, 
et Estats Generaulx, tant par mer, aultres eaues, que par terre, en tous leurs 
royaulmes, pays, terres, et seigneuries, et pour tous leurs subjects et habitans, 
de quelque qualite et condition qu ilz soyent, sans exception de lieux ny de 
personnes. 

3. Chacun demeurera saisy et jouyra effectuellement des pays, villes, places, 
terres, et seigneuries, qu il tient et possede a present, sans y estre trouble ny 
inquiete, de quelque fagon que ce soit, durant ladite trefve ; en quoy on entend 
comprendre les bourgs, villages, hameaux, et plat pays qui en dependent. 

4. Les subjectz et habitans es pays desdits sieurs roy archiducqz, et 
Estatz, auront toute bonne correspondence et amitie par ensemble, durant 
ladite trefve, sans se resentir des offences et dommaiges, qu ilz ont receu par 
le passe. Pourront aussi frequenter et sejourner es pays 1 ung de 1 aultre, et 
y exercer leur trafficq et commerce en toute seurete, tant par mer, aultres eaues, 
que par terre. Ce que toutesfois ledit sieur roy entend estre restrainct et 
limite aux royaulmes, pays, terres, et seigneuries, qu il tient et possede en 
1 Europe et aultres lieux et mers ou les subjectz des roys et princes qui sont 
ses amis et alliez ont ledit trafficq de gre a gre. Et pour le reguard des 
lieux, villes, portz, et havres qu il tient hors les limites susdits, que lesdits 
Sieurs Estatz et leurs subjectz, n y puissent exercer aulcun trafficq, sans 
la permission expresse dudit sieur roy. 

Bien pourront ilz faire le dit trafficq, si bon leur semble, es pays de tous 
aultres princes, potentatz, et peuples, qui le leur vouldront permettre, mesme 
hors lesdits limites, sans que ledit sieur roy, ses officiers, et subjectz, qui 
dependent de luy, donnent aulcun empeschement a ceste occasion ausdits 
princes, potentatz, et peuples, qui le leur ont permis ou permettront, ny 
pareillement a eulx ou aux particuliers, avec lesquelz ils ont fait et feront 
ledit trafficq. 



Antwerp, /dop 267 

5. Et pour ce qu il est besoing d un assez long temps pour advertir ceulx qui 
sont hors lesdits limites avec forces et navires de se desister de tous actes 
d hostilite, a este accorde que la trefve n y commencera que d aujourd huy en 
nng an. Bien entendu que si 1 advis de ladite trefve y peult estre plustost, 
que deslors 1 hostilite y cessera, mais si apres le dit temps d un an quelque 
hostilite y estoit commise, le dommage en sera repare sans remise. 

Ainsi faict et conclu en la ville et cite d Anvers, ledit neufiesme jour 
d Apvril, mil six cens et neuf, et signe par les seigneurs ambassadeurs des 
Roys Tres Chrestien et de la Grande Bretaigne, comme mediateurs, et les 
deputez des seigneurs archiducqz et estatz, etc. 

Su Magestad haviendo visto lo contenido en esta scritura de tregua y 
capitulacion que le hassido embiada por sus muy charos y amados hermanos, 
los Serenissimos Arcbiduques Alberto y Isabel Clara Eugenia, cerca de la 
tregua otorgada en nombre de su Magestad, por su poder y en el de sus 
Altezas, por si mismos, con los Estados Generates de las Provincias Unidas 
de los Payses Baxos, haviendolo bien y maduramente considerado declara 
que loa, aprueva, confirma y ratifica la dicha tregua en quanto la cossa le 
puede tocar y manda que se guarde y cumpla enteramente por su parte lo 
contenido en la dicha scritura y capitulacion por todo el tyempo que la dicha 
tregua durare y assi lo certifica y, sperando que durante la tregua han de 
hazer los dichos Estados de las Provincias Unidas buen tratamyento a los 
Cattolicos que entre ellos residen, promete y assegura. En fee y palabra real 
de guardar lo y cumplirlo puntualmente y no hazer cossa en contrario. En 
testimonio de lo qual su Magestad ha firmado la presente y hechola sellar 
con su sello. Segovia a siete de Jullio de mill y seyscientos y nueve afios. 

Yo, EL REY. 

Por mano del rey nuestro senor. 

ENDRES DEPRADA. 

Secret Treaty. 31 

Comme ainsi soit que par 1 article quatrieme du traite de la trefve fait ce 
mesme jour entre la Majeste du Roy Catholique, les Serenissimes Archiducs 
d Autriche d une part, et les sieurs Estats Generaux des Provinces-Unies, 
d autre, le commerce accorde ausdits sieurs les Estats et a leurs sujets, ait 
este restreint et limite aux royaumes, pays, terres, et seigneuries que ledit 
sieur roy tient en 1 Europe et ailleurs, esquels il est permis aux sujets des roys 
et princes qui sont ses amis et alliez d exercer ledit commerce de gre a gre ; et 
outre ce, ledit sieur roy ait declare qu il n entendoit donner aucun empesche- 
ment an trafic et commerce que lesdits sieurs les Estats et leurs sujets pourront 
avoir cy-apres en quelque pays et lieu que ce soit, tant par mer que par terre, 
avec les potentats, peuples, et particuliers qui le leur voudront permettre, ny 
pareillement a ceux qui feront ledit trafic avec eux, ce que toutesfois n a 
este couche par escrit audit traite. Or est-il, que ce mesme jour, neufvieme 

11 The text of the secret treaty could not be found in the Rijksarchief at the Hague. 
It is printed here from Jeannin, Negotiations (ed. 1656), pp. 638-639. From the same 
source it is printed in British Guiana Boundary, Arbitration rvith the United States of 
Venezuela: Appendix to the Counter-case on behalf of Her Britannic Majesty, Foreign 
Office print (1898), pp. 323-324, where it is accompanied by an English translation. 
18 



208 Doc. 28. Spain United Netherlands 

Avril mil six cents neuf , qui est celuy auquel ladite trefve a este accordee, les 
sieurs Marquis Spinola, President Richardot, Mancicidor, frere Jean de 
Neyen, et Verreiken, an nom et comme deputez tant dudit sieur Roy que 
Archiducs, en vertti du mesme pouvoir a eux donne et sous la mesme promessc 
de faire ratifier en bonne et deue forme ce present escrit avec le traite 
general et dans le mesme temps, out promis et prometent an nom dudit 
sieur Roy et de ses successeurs pour le temps que ladite trefve doit durer, 
que Sa Majeste ne donnera aucun empeschement, soit par mer ou par terre, 
ausdits sieurs les Estats ny a leurs sujets, au trafic qu ils pourront faire cy- 
apres es pais de tous princes, potentats, et peuples, qui le leur voudront 
permettre, en quelque lieu que ce soit, mesme hors les limites cy-dessus 
designes, et par tout ailleurs, ny pareillement a ceux qui feront ledit trafic 
avec eux, et d effectuer tout ce que dessus de bonne foy, en sorte que ledit 
trafic leur soit libre et assure, consentans mesme afin, que le present escrit 
soit plus autentique, qu il soit tenu comme insere au traite principal, et faisant 
partie d iceluy. Ce que lesdits sieurs Deputez les Estats ont accepte. Fait a 
Anvers les an et jour susdits. Signe, AMBROISIO SPINOLA, le President 
RICHARDOT, MANCICIDOR, Frere JEAN DE NEIYEN, et VVERREIKEN. 

Certificate of the French and English ambassadors concerning the " limits ", 
and commerce with the Indies. 32 

Nous soubzsignez ambassadeurs des Roys Treschrestien et de la Grande 
Bretaigne certiffions a tous quil apartiendra, que par Tarticle troisiesme du 
traite faict ce jourd huy entre les deputes des sieurs Archiducz et Estatz 
Generaux des Provinces Unies, on a entendu d une part et d autre, et nous 
1 avons ainsi compris, que tout ce que les dits sieurs Estatz tiennent en 
Brabant et en Flandre aussi bien que autre provinces dont ils jouissent leur 
doibt demourer en tous droictz de superiorite, mesme le marquisat de Bergue 
sur le Zoom, les baronnyes de Breda, Graves, ect ce qui y est joint et uny 
avec tous les bourgs, villages, hameaux, et territoire en dependant. Cer- 
tiffions aussi les deputez des dits sieurs archiducz avoir consenty et acorde tout 
ainsi que les dits Estatz et leurs subjetz ne pourront trafficquer aux portz, 
lieux et places tenues par le Roy Catholicque aux Indes, s il ne le permet, 
quil ne sera loisible non plus a ses subjetz de trafficquer aux portz, lieux, et 
places que tiennent les dits sieurs Estatz en dites Indes, si ce n est avec leur 
permission. Et outre ce que les deputez des dits Estatz ont declare plusieurs 
fois en notre presence [et] des deputez des dits Archiducz, si on entreprend 
sur leurs amis et alliez en dits pays quilz entendent les secourir et assister, sans 
qu on puisse pretendre la trefve estre enfreinte et violee a cest occasion. 

Faict a Anvers le neufiesme jour d Avril mil six cens et neuf. 

P. JEANNIN, ELIJE DE LA PLACE, Russi, Ri. SPENCER, RODOLPHF 
WIN WOOD. 

TRANSLATION OF THE SPANISH RATIFICATION. 

His Majesty having examined the contents of this instrument of truce 
and agreement, which has been sent him by his very dear and beloved brother 
and sister, the Most Serene Archdukes of Austria, Albert and Isabella Clara 

" From the original manuscript in the Rijksarchief . An English translation is in 
the app. to the British Counter-case (referred to in note 31), p. 324. 



Antwerp, i6op 269 

Eugenia, in regard to the truce executed with the States General of the Low 
Countries in the name of His Majesty by his authority, and in the name of 
their Highnesses by their own authority, and having considered it well and 
maturely, declares that he commends, approves, confirms, and ratifies the 
said truce, in so far as the matter can pertain to him ; and he orders that the 
contents of the said instrument and agreement be completely observed and 
executed on his part for the whole time during which the said truce is to last. 
Accordingly, he affirms it, and, in the hope that during the truce the said 
States of the United Provinces will show good treatment to the Catholics who 
live among them, he gives his promise and assurance, on his royal faith and 
word, to observe and execute it faithfully, and not to violate it in any way. 
In testimony of which, His Majesty has signed the present and has had it 
scaled with his seal. Segovia, July 7, 1609. 

I, THE KING. 

By the hand of the King our lord. 

ANDRES DE PRADA. 



29. 

Treaty of Guaranty betzveen the United Netherlands, France, and 
Great Britain, concluded at the Hague, June 7///, 1609. 
Ratification by the States General, July 6/16, 1609. [Ratifi 
cation by France July 16, and by Great Britain July 10/20, 
1600.] 

INTRODUCTION. 

Among the matters treated of at the Hague during the summer of 1607 
were alliances between France and the United Netherlands, and England and 
the United Netherlands, to guarantee the observance of the peace then being 
negotiated between the States General of the United Provinces and Spain. 1 
The Dutch greatly desired these alliances; and the French, and ultimately 
the English, were ready to become their confederates if safeguarded against 
a consequent embroilment with Spain. 

By the defensive alliance concluded on January 23, i6o8, J the King of 
France promised to help the States to obtain a satisfactory peace with Spain, 
to protect them against its infringement, and, if necessary for this purpose, 
to send them 10,000 infantry for as long as required. In return the States 
agreed, if the king were attacked, to supply him with 5000 infantry or with 
ships of war, equipped and manned, and of not less than 200 or 300 tons 
burden. Neither party, after having received aid from the other, should 
make a treaty with an aggressor without the other s consent. The similar 
treaty between England and the United Provinces, signed June 16/26, 1608, 
provided that in case of violation of the peace, the King of England should 
aid the States with 20 well-equipped ships of from 300 to 600 tons, and with 
6000 infantry and 400 cavalry, yearly. If any of England s dominions were 
attacked, the States should send the king an equal naval force, and assist 
him yearly with 4000 infantry and 300 cavalry. 3 This Anglo-Dutch alliance 
was obnoxious to the King of Spain, 4 who, during the negotiations, remon 
strated against England s occupation of Virginia, perhaps in order to impress 

1 See Doc. 28, introduction. 

The ratification by the States on Jan. 25, 1608, is printed in Jeannin, Negotiations. 
ed. cit., III. 148-157, and thence in Dumont, Corps Diplomatique V. (2), 89-91. 

"The ratification by the States, June 17/27, 1608, and by the King of Great Britain, 
July 20/30, 1608, are in T. Rymer, Foedera (1704-1735), XVI. 667-6/3; the protocol is 
in L. van Aitzema, Saken van Staet en Oorlogh (1669-1672), I. 13, 14, and thence in 
Dumont, op. cit., V. (2), 94, 95. 

* Winwood, Memorials, II. 403, 404, 408, 413 ff. 



Hague, /<5op 271 

the Dutch as well as the English with the reality of his intention to retain 
a monopoly of the Indies. 

When the peace conferences at the Hague failed, and were followed by 
negotiations for a long truce, the Dutch wished the former guaranties to be 
extended to the observance of the truce, and, in particular, to the concession 
of trade in the Indies. On account of some obscurity in the article granting 
this trade, caused by the determination of the Spaniards to avoid naming 
the Indies, the English king and council hesitated to give the desired guaranty. 
They finally consented however, because of the agreement of the archduke s 
deputies to declare to the deputies of the States, in the presence of the French 
and English ambassadors, that the article gave the Dutch liberty to trade 
to the Indies, which, during the truce, the King of Spain did not intend to 
impede.* 

5 A. Brown, Genesis of the United States (1890), I. 88 ff., Cat. St. Pap., Venice, 1607- 
1610, p. 1 02. 

Winwood, op. cit., II. 481-483, 489-491, III. 2. The text of the certificate of the 
Archduke s declaration was incorporated in the instructions of Oct. 28, 1645, for the 
States representatives at Minister. It is as follows : 

" 16. Nous ambassadeurs des Roys Tres-Chrestien et de la Grande Bretagne, et 
nous deputes de Messieurs les Estats Generaux des Provinces Unies des Pays Bas, 
certifficns par ces presentes, qu estans ce jour d huy dernier du mois de Mars 1609, 
assembles en cette ville d Anvers, avec les sieurs deputes du Roy Catholique et des 
Serenissimes Archiducs Albert et Isabella, grand differant se seroit meu pour les com 
merces des Indes, que les deputes desdits Sieurs Archiducs vouloient bien consentir de 
gre a gre au nom dudit Sieur Roy, es mots et termes contenues es articles quatre et cin- 
quieme de la trefve, qu ils disoyent n estre suffisans pour exponer ledit commerce en ce 
que mention expresse n y fut faite des Indes, dpnt ils s abstenoient d user pour certains 
respects, qui ne sent d aucun prejudice auxdits Sieurs les Estats, mais regardent seulement 
le contentement particulier dudit Sieur Roy, qui entend les en laisser joiiir par effect, en 
toute liberte pendant la trefve, sans y donner aucun empeschement soit a leurs subjects 
et a ceux qui trafiqueront avec eux, ou aux princes et peuples qui leur permettront ledit 
traficq en leur pays ; ce que toutesfois nous deputes desdits Sieurs les Estats, ne 
voulions accepter, requerans que les Indes fussent nommement exprimes, et 1 article 
couche si intelligiblement, qu il n y eust aucune ambiguite ny pretexte pour y faire 
difficulte a 1 advenir. Ayans lesdits deputes, tant des archiducs que des Estats, pricv, 
nous ambassadeurs des Roys Tres-Chrestien et de la Grande Bretagne qui estions 
presens a leur dispute, de vouloir ayder a composer ce different, comme avions fait 
ceux advenus es autres articles du traitte, a quoy nous serions volontiers employe 
essayans de persuader aux deputes des archiducs de faire 1 expression dont ils estoient 
requis, puisqu en la subsistance de la chose ils estoient d accord et affirmoyent avec 
grands serments, que ledit Sieur Roy d Espagne ayoit accorde iceluy commerce de 
bonne foy, et en intention de n y jamais contrevenir, remonstrans d autre part aux 
deputes des Estats qu ils avpyent aussi subject de se contenter de 1 expression contenue 
auxdits articles quatre et cinquieme comme estans suffisants, sans qu il soit besoin d y 
adj ouster ce qu ils desirent de plus: mais les uns et les autres perseverans en leur 
opinion, en sqrte que ledit traitte sembloit devoir estre rompu a cet occasion ; enfin nous 
deputes desdits Sieurs Estats aurions declare estre contens d accepter lesdits articles 
pourveu que lesdits Sieurs Roy Tres-Chrestien et de la Grande Bretagne, ci-devant 
pries de la part des Estats de se vouloir rendre guarands de 1 observation de la trefve 
avec asseurance de leur secours en cas d infraction, consentent de s obliger specialement 
pour 1 observation dudit commerce comme promis et accorde par lesdits articles aussi 
valablement, que si le mot des Indes y estoit exprime, ce que les deputes des archiducs 
auroient derechef declare estre veritable ; et que ledit Sieur Roy entendoit garder de 
bonne foy ce qu ils promettoient en son nom, et nous ambassadeurs susdis promis ct 
consenti a cet occasion de faire iceluy traitte de guarantie en la [forme] susdite pour 
estre bien informes que leurs Majestes auront agreable, tout ce que ferons, pour parvenir 



272 Doc. 29. United Netherlands France Great Britain 

The joint treaty of guaranty, signed by the representatives of France, 
England, and the United Netherlands on June 7/17, 1609, confirmed the 
treaties of guaranty signed separately by each king in the preceding year, as 
mentioned above ; it specified that the aid promised by the earlier treaties 
should be supplied, if, during the truce, the Dutch should be troubled by the 
Spaniards or Flemish in the Indian trade, or if Indian princes should be 
molested for permitting the Dutch to traffic within their territories. Any 
question as to the infringement of the truce should be decided by the two 
kings together with the States. During the truce the States should not make 
any treaty with the King of Spain or the archdukes without the kings con 
sent; nor the kings with any prince to the prejudice of the States or of their 
liberty. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Text: MS. The original agreement is in the London Public Record Office, 
State Papers Foreign, Treaties, no. 294 ; the original manuscript of the 
ratification by the States General is in the same depository, T. R., Diplo 
matic Documents, no. 1179. 

Text: Printed. P. Jeannin. Negotiations (in Petitot, Collection des 
Memoires, torn. XI.-XV., 1821-1822), V. 485-488 ; L. van Aitzema, Saken 
vanStaet en Oorlogh (1669-1672), I. 16 ; F. Leonard, Recueil des Traitez 
de Pair (1693), V. 14-16; J. Dumont, Corps Diplomatique (1726-1731), 
torn. V., pt. II., p. 110. 

References : Contemporary and early writings. R. Winwood, Memorials 
of Affairs of State in the Reigns of Elisabeth and James I. (1725), II. 
369 ff., 481-483, 488-492, III. 1-3, 5, 17, 65; P. Jeannin, Negotiations, 
ed. tit., III. 218, 219, 234, V. 171, 212-215, 245-318, passim, 404, 443, 
468; Cal. St. Pap., Venice, 1607-1610, pp. 96, 102, 260, et passim. 



TEXT. 

Les Estatz Generaulx des Pays Bas Unis a tous ceulx qui ces presentes 
lettres verront, salut. Comme, en vertu des pouvoirs respectivement donnez 
par les Treshaults, Tresexcellents, et Trespuissants Roys, Treschrestien, etc., 

a la conclusion de ladite trefve, dont les deputes des Estats se sont contentes, et out par 
effect arreste de conclure le traitte d icelle treve, ce qu ils n eussent autrement fait, ayans 
ensemblement nous ambassadeurs susdits et deputes des Estats, dresse et signe le present 
acte, que certifions et affirmons a tous qu ils appartiendra estre veritable sur nostre foy et 
honneur. 

"Fait a Anvers les an et jours susdit. Estoit signe, P. Joannijn, Elye de la Place, 
Russi, Ri : Spencer, Rodolphe Winwood, Guilleaume Louis Comte de Nassau, W. de 
Brederode, Cornelis van Gent. Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, R. Malderee, G. V. Renesse, 
G. Hillama, Johan Sloeth, Ab. Coenders." L. van Aitzema, Verhael van de Neder- 
landsche Vrede-handelingh in Saken van Staet en Oorlogh, III. 53, and VI. (2), 206. 
The text and the English translation are in British Guiana Boundary, Arbitration ivith 
the United States of Venezuela: The [British] Counter Case (Foreign Office, 1898), 
app., pt. 2, pp. 328, 320. 

7 The following text is printed from the original manuscript of the ratification, 
P. R. O., T. R., Diplomatic Docs., no. 1179. 



Hague, 1609 273 

et de la Grande Bretaigne, etc., et nous, a noz communs deputez, ilz ayent, 
le dixseptiesme jour de Juing dernier passe, conclu et arreste entre eulx, aulx 
noms de leursdites Majestez et des nostres, le traicte dont la teneur ensuit : 

Comme ainsi soit que les Roys Treschrestien et de la Grande Bretaigne 
se soyent employez des long temps avecq grand soing et affection pour faire 
cesser la guerre des Pays Bas par une paix perpetuelle, et pour n y avoir peu 
parvenir ayent depuis propose une trefve a longues annees, dont le succes 
eust este aussi peu heureulx, si, pour oster toute defiance aulx Estatz 
Generaulx des Pays Bas Uniz, leurs Majestez ne leur eussent offert de 
s obliger a 1 observation d icelle trefve, et de leur donner assistence et secours 
au cas qu elle fust enfreinte et violee, niesmes s ilz estoient troublez et 
empeschez au commerce des Indes, que les deputez des Archiducqz leur 
accordoient de gre a gre par ladite trefve au nom du Roy Catholicque, sans 
neantmoins 1 exprimer nommeement, ainsi que lesdits sieurs Estatz le de- 
mandoient pour leur plus grande seurete, eulx faisants a cest occasion reffus 
de 1 accepter, si ladite promesse de garentie, f aicte de bouche par les ambassa- 
deurs desdits sieurs Roys en presence mesme des deputez desdits sieurs 
Archiducqz, ne les y eust induict, de 1 accomplissement de laquelle promesse 
lesdits sieurs Roys ayants este priez, requis, et sommez, et y voullans satisfaire 
de bonne foy, ce jour d huy dixseptiesme jour de Juing, mil six cens et 
neuff, se sont assemblez Messire Pierre Jeannin, chevalier, baron de Chagny 
et Montjeu, conseiller dudit sieur Roy Treschrestien en son Conseil d Estat, 
et son ambassadeur extraordinaire vers lesdits Sieurs Estatz, et Messire 
Elye de la Place, chevalier, sieur de Russy, viconte de Machault, aussi con 
seiller audit Conseil d Estat, gentilhomme ordinaire de la chambre dudit 
sieur Roy et son ambassadeur ordinaire resident pres lesdits sieurs Estatz, 
au nom et comme ayants charge de Treshault, Trespuissant, et Tresexcellent 
prince Henry quatriesme, par la grace de Dieu roy de France et de Navarre, 
messire Richard Spencer, chevalier, gentilhomme ordinaire de la chambre 
privee dudit sieur Roy de la Grande Bretaigne et son ambassadeur extra 
ordinaire vers lesdits sieurs Estatz, et messire Rodolphe Winwood, chevalier, 
ambassadeur ordinaire et conseiller dudit sieur roy au Conseil d Estat des 
Provinces-Unies, aussi au nom et comme ayants charge de Treshault, Tres 
puissant, et Tresexcellent prince Jacques, par la grace de Dieu roy de la 
Grande Bretaigne, etc. ; et les sieurs Cornille de Gent, sieur de Loenen et 
Meynerswyck, viconte et juge de 1 Empire et de la ville de Nymmegen, 
messire Johan d Oldenbarnevelt, chevalier, sieur de Tempel, Rodenrys, et 
advocat et garde du grand seel, chartres, et registres de Hollande et Westf rize. 
messire Jacques de Malderee, chevalier, sieur des Heyes, et premier et 
representant la noblesse aulx Estatz et Conseil de la conte de Zelande, les 
sieurs Gerard de Renesse, sieur vander Aa, de Streeffkercken, Nyeuleckerlant, 
etc., Ernestus d Aylua de Heerwey et grietman d Oostdongerdeel, Johan 
Sloeth, sieur de Sallick, drossard du pays de Vollenhoe et chastellain de la 
seigneurie de Cunder, et Abel Coenders de Helpen, sieur en Faen et Cantes, 
au nom des Haults, puissants, et illustres sieurs, les Estatz Generaulx des 
Pays Bas Uniz, lesquelz, en vertu de leurs pouvoirs, et avec promesse de 
faire ratifier respectivement le contenu en ces presentes auxdits sieurs roys 
et Estatz dans deux mois prochains, ont consenty et accorde ce que s ensuit : 

Asscavoir, que les traictez faictz separement avec lesdits Sieurs Estatz 
Generaulx par ledit sieur Roy de France, le xxiii 9 de Janvier seize cens et 
huict, et par ledit sieur Roy de la Grande Bretaigne le xxvi e Juing au mesme 



274- Doc. 29. United Netherlands France Great Britain 

an, pour 1 observation de la paix, qu on pretendoit lors faire, ensemble les 
conventions, promesses, et obligations reciprocques y contenues pour la 
deffence et conservation mutuelle de leurs royaulmes, pays, terres et 
seigneuries, seront entretenues et gardees pour le temps que ladite trefve 
doibt durer, tout ainsi que si elles estoient repetees et inserees de mot a 
aultre au present traicte. 

Et auront lieu lesdites obligations et assistence de secours, non seulement 
en cas d infraction de trefve es limites specifiez par le quatriesme article du 
traicte de celle trefve, mais aussi si lesdits sieurs Estatz ou leurs subjectz 
sont troublez et empesschez pendant ledit temps au commerce des Indes, de 
la part desdits sieurs Roy Catholicque ou Archiducqz, leurs officiers et sub 
jectz ; et sera aussi entendu ledit trouble et empeschement, taut s il est faict 
aulx subjectz desdits sieurs Estatz qu a ceulx qui out faict ou feront ledit 
commerce avec eulx, ou bien si les princes et peuples qui leur auront donne 
la permission d exercer ledit trafficq en leur pays estoient a cest occasion 
molestez, eulx ou leurs subjectz, pourveu toutesfois que, pour obliger lesdits 
sieurs roys a donner ce secours, le jugement desdits empeschements soit 
faict par advis commtm d eulx et desdits sieurs Estatz. A quoy ilz promettent 
apporter la diligence et sincerite reqtiise pour faire reparer le dommage aulx 
interessez, et repoulser la violence dont on auroit use contr eulx. Pourront 
toutesfois lesdits sieurs Estatz, s il y a de la longeur en ladite deliberation, 
pourveoir a la seurete de leurs affaires et subjects, comme ilz trouveront 
convenir. 

En recognoissance de laquelle garentie, et du secours que lesdits Estatz 
ont desja receu desdits sieurs Roys, ils leur promettent de ne faire aulcun 
traicte durant icelle trefve avec lesdits sieurs Roy Catholicque ou Archiducqs, 
sans leur advis et consentement, et pareillement lesdits sieurs Roys de ne 
faire aulcun traicte avec quelque prince ou potentat que ce soit, au prejudice 
de celuy-cy et de leur liberte, de la conservation de laquelle et de leurs Estatz 
ilz auront soing comme de leurs bons amys et alliez. Ainsy faict, accorde, 
conclu, signe, et cachette par lesdits sieurs ambassadeurs et deputez. 

A la Haye, 1 an et jour susdits. Et estoit signe, P. Jeannin, Elye de la 
Place-Russy, Ri. Spencer, Rodolphe Winwood, Cornells van Gent, Johan van 
Oldenbarnevelt, J. de Malderee, G. v. Renesse, Ernestus Aylua, Johan Sloeth, 
Ab. Coenders, et cachette des armes desdits sieurs ambassadeurs et deputez 
respectivement. 

Nous ayants ledit traicte aggreable en tons et chacuns ses poinctz et 
articles, avons iceulx en general et en particulier acceptez, approuvez, ratiffiez, 
et confirmez, acceptons, approuvons, ratiffions, et confirmons, et le tout 
promettons [de garder], entretenir, et observer inviolablement sans jamais 
[aller] ou venir au contraire, directement ou indirectement, en quelque sorte 
et maniere que ce soit, soubz Tobligation et hypotecque de tous les biens et 
revenuz desdits Provinces Unies en general et en particulier, presens et 
advenir. 

En tesmoing de quoy nous avons faict sceller ces presentes de nostre grand 
seel, et signer par nostre greffier. A la Haye, ce seiziesme jour de juillet, 
1 an seize cens et neuff . 

FR. HANGHEMA. 
Par ordonnance desdits Sieurs Estatz Generaulx. 

AERSSF.XS. 

1609. 



30. 

Treaty of alliance between Denmark and the United Netherlands, 
concluded at the Hague, May 14, 1621. Ratification by 
the States General, August p, 1621. [Ratifications not 
exchanged.} 

INTRODUCTION. 

Christian IV. of Denmark included among his ambitious aims the develop 
ment of Danish commerce, not only within European waters, but beyond the 
seas. In 1616 he founded an East India Company after the Dutch pattern, 1 
and two years later negotiated with the Dutch for privileges in the East India 
trade. The Dutch commissioners employed in these negotiations deprecated 
any attempt on the part of the Danes to undermine the Dutch company or to 
make common cause with Spaniards or Portuguese against them ; they 
refused to infringe the monopoly of Eastern commerce granted by the States 
General to their own company, or to allow Dutch seamen to serve on foreign 
ships. On the other hand, they consented to the Danes undertaking explora 
tions in unoccupied lands in the East and agreed to order the Dutch in those 
regions to treat them as friends. They attempted to divert the attention of 
the Danes from the East by referring to the West Indies, and even went so far 
as to hand them a project for a Danish West India Company. 2 

A few months later Dr. Jonas Charisius, Danish ambassador at the Hague, 
was instructed to establish friendship and union between the Danish and 
Dutch East India companies, and to recruit in the Netherlands ships 
officers for the voyages to Guinea, the West Indies, and Terra Australis. 9 

The need of mutual political support seemed for a time to outweigh com 
mercial rivalry. At the close of 1620, when the twelve years truce with 
Spain 4 was about to expire and the Catholics were winning victories in the 
Palatinate and Bohemia, the States General joined the German Protestant 
Union in urging King Christian, who although a Lutheran had shown a lean 
ing toward Spain, to help the Protestant cause. The king and Rigsraad were 
compliant. Christian was anxious to separate the Dutch from their allies, 

1 Ch. de Lannoy and H. Vander Linden, L Expansion Colonialc: Neerlande et Dane- 
mark (1911), pp. 402 ff. 

Arend et at., Algcmeene Geschiedenis, III. (3), 31, 35-39, 58?- 

8 G. W. Kernkamp, Verslag van een Onderzoek in Zwcden, Noorwegen, en Dcnc- 
markcn naar Archivalia (1903), pp. 207-208. In the minds of most men at this time, 
the term Terra Aust rails referred, not to Australia but to a southern continent which 
was supposed to bound the Indian Ocean on the south. 

4 Doc. 28. 

275 



276 Doc. ?o. Denmark United Netherlands 

Sweden and the Hanse towns, and to win their aid in procuring his son s 
succession to the archbishopric of Bremen." In February, 1621, he sent the 
Danish chancellor, Jacob Ulfeldt, to the Hague to negotiate an alliance.* 
This was concluded on May 14, following, but in general and provisional 
terms that left the most important points undecided. The eighth and final 
article of the treaty, which stipulated for the further consideration of unde 
termined matters, including the question of navigation and trade in the East 
and West Indies, is given below. In spite of objections from the ambassa 
dors of some of the Hanse towns, the treaty was ratified by the States General 
on August 9, 1621. The ratification, given to the Dutch commissioners 
appointed for the Bremen conference, was, however, never exchanged, since 
the King of Denmark failed to ratify the instrument. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Text: MS. An original manuscript of the protocol is in the Ryksarchief at 
the Hague, Secrete Casse, Denemarcken, casse C, loquet O, no. 4. 

Text: Printed. The ratification by the States General is printed in L. van 
Aitzema, Saken van Staet en Oorlogh (1669-1672), I. 41-42; and thence 
in J. Dumont, Corps Diplomatique (1726-1731), torn. V., pt. II., pp. 399- 
402. A text of the treaty will doubtless be included in the work now 
being edited by L. Laursen at the expense of the Carlsbergfond Traites 
du Danemark et de la Norvcge: Danmark-Norges Traktater, 1523-1750 
(1907, etc.)., *D\ 

Translation: A French translation of the Dutch ratification is in Dumont, 
loc. cit. 

References : Contemporary and early writings. Letters from and to Sir 
Dudley Carlcton, Knt., during his Embassy in Holland from January, 
1615/6 to December, 1620 (2d ed.. 1775), pp. 244, 250, 253, 311 ; Reso- 
lutien of the States of Holland for the years 1618, 1621, and 1622, passim ; 
G. W. Kernkamp, Verslag van een Onderzoek in Zzveden, Noonvegen, 
en Denemarkcn naar Archivalia (1903), pp. 207, 208, 240, 241, 276, 324. 

References: Later writings. J. P. Arend et al., Algemeene Geschicdenis des 
Vaderlands (1840, etc.), III. (3), 31, 35-39, 586-609, 648-658; Niels 
Slange, Geschichte Christian des Vierten, Konigs in Dannemark (ed. 
J. H. Schlegel, 1757-1771), III. 87 ff., 92 ff., 124, 165-172; F. C. Dahl- 
mann, cont. by D. Schafer, Geschichte von Danemark (1840, etc.), V. 
392, in Heeren and Ukert, Geschichte der Europaischen Staaten ; P. J. 
Blok, Geschiedenis van het Nederlandsche Volk (2d ed., 1912, etc.), 
II. 511. or, German trans., Geschichte der Niederlandc (1902, etc.), IV. 
284, 285, in Heeren and Ukert s above-mentioned series. 

5 Arend et al., loc. cit., pp. 589 ff. 

" Ulfeldt s proposals to the States General and the answer of the latter are printed 
in the Kronijk ran het Historisch Genootschap te Utrecht, Jaarg. 22 (1866), pp. 481-488. 
and are summarized in the Rcsoluticn of the States of Holland, Mar. o^-Apr. 8. 1621, 
pp. 20, 21, 24, 25, and cf. pp. 27, 28. 

7 Doc. 31, introduction. 

* Arend ct al.. loc. cit., p. 657 ; manuscript instructions for the conference at Bremen, 
cf. Doc. 31, note 2. 



Hague, 1621 277 

TEXT. 

Alclewijle cle durchluchtigste ende grottmachtige koning ende heere, heere 
Christian der Vierte, tott Dennemarcken ende Norwegen, der Wenden ende 
Gotten koning, hertogh tott Schleswich, Holstein, Stormarn, ende der 
Ditmarschen, grave tott Oldenburch ende Delmenhorst, etc., ende die Hoge 
Mogende Heeren Staten General der Vereinigden Nederlanden, van langen 
tijden herwaertz in goede, uprechte, ende nhabuijrliche frundtschap ende 
correspondentz geleefft ende gestaen hebben, soe hebben beijder deelen nu 
een tijtt lang herwaerts (considererende de constitutie ende gelegentheitt 
van de tegemvoirdige tijden ende saecken van geheele Christenh[eit] ende 
insonderh[eit] vant interesse, soe de eene ahn des anderen status conserva- 
tionem, welstandt, ende prosperiteit is hebbende) noch naerder bij sich 
bedacht ende overwogen, om him nauwer tsaemen the doen, ende the ver- 
binden, begerende uth rechten zele ende Christlichen vornemen ende ijver, 
tott hett welvarren vant gantze gemeene evangelische wesen, ende beijder 
deelen eigene staten, the contracteren ende verdragen, over eene sincere ende 
mutuele frundtschap, alliance, ende verbondt, tott conservatie ende defensie 
van heure respective staten ende underdanen, in voegen, datt hochst ende 
hochg[emel]te deelen, beijder sijdts, unlangs nae rijpe ende ernstige delib- 
eratie hebben gegeven last ende commissie, the weeten, hochstg[emel]te 
sijne Kon[incklijcke] Ma[jestei]t ahn den edlen gestrengen Heere Jacob 
van Uleveldt zu Urop, derselven rijcks cantzler ende rhatt, oich amptman 
tott Nijborch, in krafft sijner overgeleverden credentz brieff in dato den xi. 
Februarij lestleden ther eenre, ende die Hoge Mogende Heeren Staten 
Generael der Vereinigde Nederlanden, die edle, gestrenge, ernveste, wijse, 
sehr discrete heeren, Gysbert van Boetzeler, heere then Boetzeler, erffschenck 
dess furstendombs Cleve, amptman ende dijckgrave tuschen Maes ende Wael, 
Jacob van Wassenaer ende Duvenvoirde, heere van Updam, Heinsbroeck, 
Spierdijck, Suijtvvijck, lieutenant admirael van Hollandt ende Westfrieslandt, 
Hugo Muys van Holij, ridder, baillieu ende dijckgrave des Landts van Stryen, 
Reinier Pauw, oudt burgerm[eeste]r ende raedt der stadt van Amsterdam, 
Jacob Magnus, ridder, heere van Berg-Ambacht, Melissant, etc., Arent van 
Zuijlen van Nievelt, heere tott Gerestein ende Teckop, Marck van "Licklama 
tott Nieholtt, grietman over Stellingwerff Oostende, Boldevvijn Sloot, rent- 
meister generael van domeinen des landes van Vollenhoe ende der heer- 
lichfeit] Cuijnder, ende Gosen Schaffer, tott Uthhuijsen ende de Mehden 
Hoveling, raedt der stadt Groningen, derselven gedeputeerde, ende alle mede 
gecommitteerden in haere Ho : Mog : vergaederinge, ther andere sijden, then 
einde deselve solden moegen confereren, communiceren, ende delibereren 
over die openinge ende middelen, dienende om voort the setten ende int werck 
the stellen dit heijlsaem goedt werck, ende te brengen tott een goede conclusie, 
tott welcken eijnde dan die welg[emel]te gesandte ende gedeputeerden ahn 
wedersijden, om him in alles getrouwelick the quijten, then lesten over een 
gekoemen sijnde, geconcludeert ende gearresteert hebben, up hett welbe- 
hagen, verbeteringe, modificatie, ende aggreatie van Hochstg[emel]te Sijne 
Kon[incklijcke] Ma[jestei]tt ende Heeren Staten Generael, dese nhafolg- 
ende poincten ende articulen : 

"The text is taken from the original manuscript in the Rijksarchief at the Hague, 
Secrete Casse, Denemarcken, casse C, loquet O, no. 4. 



278 Doc. 30. Denmark United Netherlands 

8. Ende sal dit tractaet ofte verbondt behorlich geconfirmeert ende 
geaggreert worden denr sijne hochstg[emelt]e Ma[jestei]tt ende de Ho[oge] 
Mogfenden] Heeren Staten Generael voorn[oemt] in den tijtt van drije 
maenden, ofte soo veele eer als t selve sal konnen geschieden. Ende sullen 
beyde deelen, mitt den eersten, up tijtt ende plaetze soe ende daert sijne 
hochstg[emelt]e Ma[jestei]tt believen sail, mitt een ander in naerder com- 
municatie ende handel treden, umme the weeten mitt watt macht ende middelen 
de partijen malcanderen sullen moeten assisteren, soo wanneer d een ofte 
d ander mitt openbaren oirloch in sijne rijcken ofte landen angevochten 
worden ; ende up de forma, maniere, ende quantiteit vandien, als mede vanden 
tijtt up dewelcke deselve beginnen ende aenfangen sail loop the nehmen, 
gelijck oick vande restitutie vandien, oft deselve behoiren sail the geschieden, 
ende hoe verre. Ende alsoe inde conferentie vermaen is gedaen van eenige 
havenen, daer men niet gewoon en solde sijn the handelen, sal in de 
voorgfehade] bijeenkompste mede getracteert worden, umme deselve then 
wedersijden uth the drucken, ende daeraf voirts the moegen verdragen, sulcx 
als then meesten besten van beijde de partijen bevonden sal worden te 
behoiren, sullende oick mede in de voorn[oemde] bijeenkompste naerder 
communicatie ende handel vallen over de navigatien ende trafficquen inde 
Oost- ende West-Indien, daervan de welg[emel]te heere gesandte 10 mede 
meldinge heftt gedaen. Up welcken alien, getracht sal worden bij beijde 
deelen behoirlicke satis factie ende contentement elckanderen the geven. ist 
doenlick. 

Aldus gedaen, geslooten, geaccordeert, ende bij uns undergeschreven 
geteijckent in des Gravenhage up den xiiii Maij in den jaere XVI C een en 
twintich. 

JACOB ULFFELDT. GISRERT VAN WITT zu BOETZELAR. 

J. VAN WASSENAER ENDE J. MUYS VAN HOLY. 

DUVENVOIRDE. J. MAGNUS. 

REINIER PAUW. MARCK VAN LYCLAMA. 

A. VAN ZUYLLEN VAN NYEVELT. G. SciIAFFER. 

BOLDEWYN SLOET. 

TRANSLATION. 

Since the most serene and very powerful king and lord, Lord Christian 
the Fourth, king of Denmark and Norway, of the Vandals and Goths, duke 
of Schleswig, Holstein, Stormarn, and Ditmarsh, count of Oldenburg and 
Delmenhorst, etc., and the High and Mighty lords, the States General of the 
United Netherlands, have for a long time lived and stood in good, sincere, 
and neighborly friendship and correspondence ; and since both parties, for 
now a long time (considering the constitution and opportunity of the present 
times and affairs of all Christendom, and particularly the interest that each 
state has in the conservation, well being, and prosperity of the other) have 
taken into closer consideration and have resolved, in order to bring and 
bind them closer together (desiring it out of righteous zeal and Christian in 
tention and diligence, for the welfare of all the Evangelical Community, and 
the states of both parties) to contract and agree concerning a sincere and 
mutual friendship, alliance, and league for the conservation and defense of 
their respective states and subjects, therefore the aforesaid parties, on both 
sides, have, lately, after ripe and earnest deliberation, given charge and com- 

19 Jacob Ulfeldt. 



Plague, 1621 279 

mission to wit, his aforesaid royal majesty to the noble and austere lord 
Jacob van Ulfeldt of Urup, chancellor and councillor of the said kingdom 
and bailiff of Nyborg, by virtue of his letter of credence, dated February 1 1 
last, on the one part, and their High and Mighty Lords, the States General 
of the United Netherlands, to the noble, austere, honorable, wise, and discreet 
lords, Gysbert van Boetzelaer, lord of Boetzelaer, hereditary cupbearer of the 
principality of Cleves, bailiff and dike-grave between Maas and Waal, Jacob 
van Wassenaer and Duvenvoorde, lord of Obdam, Heinsbroeck, Spierdijck, 
and Zuidwijk, lieutenant admiral of Holland and West Friesland, Hugo 
Muys van Holy, knight, bailiff and dike-grave of the country of Stryen, 
Reinier Pauw, ex-burgomaster and councillor of the city of Amsterdam, 
Jacob Magnus, knight, lord of Berg-Ambacht, Melissant, etc., Arent de 
Zuylen van Nievelt, lord of Gerestein and Teckop, Marcus van Lycklama 
of Nijeholt, lord of Stellingwerf Oostende, Boldewijn Sloet. receiver general 
of the domains of the country of Vollenhoven and of the lordship of Cuynder, 
and Goozen Schaffer, of Uithuizen and Meeden, councillor of the city of 
Groningen, their deputies and also deputies in the assembly of their High 
Mightinesses, on the other part in order that they might confer, communi 
cate, and deliberate, respecting the overtures and means serving to advance 
and execute so salutary a work, and bring it to a good conclusion. For which 
purpose, the said ambassador and deputies on both sides, in order to acquit 
themselves faithfully in all things, having finally reached an agreement, have 
concluded and agreed, subject to the pleasure, correction, modification, and 
approval of his aforesaid royal majesty and the lords States General, on the 
following points and articles : 

8. This treaty or alliance shall be duly confirmed and ratified by his 
Majesty, aforesaid, and by their High Mightinesses, the lords States General, 
aforesaid, in three months, or as much sooner as is possible. Both parties 
shall enter into further conversation and conference, at the first opportunity, 
at a time and place pleasing to his said Majesty, in order to determine with 
what forces and means they shall be obliged to help each other, whenever 
either is attacked with open war in his realms or lands ; and to determine 
the form, manner, and quantity of the forces, and when they shall begin to 
be sent; and also in respect to their restitution, whether it should be made, 
and to what extent. And since reference has been made in the conference to 
some harbors where it has not been customary to trade, this matter shall 
also be treated of in the intended conference, in order that both sides may 
express their opinions about it, and come to such agreement as shall be found 
most acceptable to both parties. Another subject of discussion in the afore 
said conference shall be navigation and trade in the East and West Indies, 
which the said ambassador has also mentioned. In respect to all the above, 
both parties shall endeavor to give one another due satisfaction and content 
ment, if possible. 

Thus done, concluded, agreed, and signed by us the underwritten at the 
Hague, on May 14, 1621. 

JACOB ULFFELDT. GISBERT VAN WITT zu BOETZELAR. 

J. VAN WASSENAER ENDE J. MUYS VAN HOLY. 

DUVENVOIRDE. J. MAGNUS. 

REINIER PAUW. MARCK VAN LYCLAMA. 

A. VAN ZUYLLEN VAN NYEVELT. G. SCHAFFER. 
BOLDEWYN SLOET. 



31. 

Recess signed by the Commissioners of Denmark and the United 
Netherlands at Bremen, September ^o/October 10, 1621. 
Ity*- ~M^ ^ f(. 

INTRODUCTION. 

The conference stipulated by the eighth article of the treaty of the Hague 
was held at Bremen in August and September, 1621, between the Danish 
commissioners, Jacob Ulfeldt and Holger Rosenkrantz, and the Dutch com 
missioners, led by Reinier Pauw of Holland. The principal subjects of 
discussion were (i) reciprocal financial aid, and (2) trade relations in 
Europe and in both Indies. 

The instructions 3 to be followed by the Dutch commissioners, in case the 
Danes introduced the question of the Indian trade, distinguished between 
the East and West Indies. With reference to the East Indies, the commis 
sioners were to declare that neutral lands were open to Danish traders, but 
that places fortified by the Dutch East India Company, or districts in which 
the company had treaty rights, were closed to the Danes, as to all others. 
With reference to the West Indies, the commissioners were to urge that the 
King of Denmark and his subjects might, like anyone else, take shares in the 
recently formed Dutch West India Company, and thus participate in directing 
its policy. The article finally agreed to which differed somewhat from the 

1 Doc. 30. 

The instructions are preserved in the Ryksarchief at the Hague and have the same 
pressmark as the text. The paragraph concerning the West Indies is as follows : 

" Ende wat aengaet de handelinge oft traficque op West-lndien, alsoo Hare Ho: Mo: 
goetgevonden hebben deselve te begrijpen in eene generale compaignie, die volgende 
het octroy daertoe verleent, hier te lande werdt opgerecht, in welcke generale compaignie 
een yeder vrijstaet soodanige capitalen ende sommen van penningen te participeren als 
hem goetduncken sal, soo ist hoochstgedachte Sijne Ma[jestei]t ende desselffs onder- 
saten oock vrij ende open daerinne soo veel te herederen, als deselve geraden sullen 
mogen vinden. Sullende Sijne Mafjesteit] ende desselffs ondersaten oock behoorlijck 
erkent ende geaccommodeert werden inde kennisse, directie, ende t beleyt der saecken, 
sulcx ende in conformite als t voorsz. octroy daarvan is medebrengende oft anders- 
sints soo men in tijden ende wijlen opt selve stuck metten anderen naerder sal connen 
overeencofhen ende verdragen." 

Translation : " And as to that which concerns commerce or trade to the West Indies 
since their High Mightinesses have consented to comprehend the same in a general 
company, which, in accordance with the charter granted thereto, has been erected in this 
country, in which general Company each free state shall hold as much capital and money 
as it shall think good so his abovementioned Majesty and his subjects are also free to 
invest as much therein as they shall find convenient. His Majesty and subjects 
would also be suitably recognized and received into the knowledge, direction, and man 
agement of affairs, like and according as the aforesaid charter requires, or otherwise 
as at the time it shall be possible mutually to agree and contract." 

280 



Bremen, 1621 281 

Dutch instructions implied the right of the Danes to acquire possessions in 
the neutral land of both the Indies, and prohibited subjects of one power from 
trading in the Indian possessions of the other, and from aiding the enemies 
of the other in those regions. In regard to the West Indies the Danes were 
inclined to question the good faith of the Dutch, probably because the States 
General had promised in the forty-fifth article of the Dutch West India 
Company s charter that they would in no way diminish the privileges of the 
company by any treaty with any neighboring power. 

Although the articles on financial help and European trade presented great 
difficulties, all the commissioners signed three articles, on September 307 
October 10, and referred them to their principals for ratification. Prince 
Maurice advocated their acceptance, but Amsterdam and Hoorn refused 
to confirm them ; nor were they ratified by Denmark. 4 

^ 1 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Text: MS. An original manuscript is in the Ryksarchief at the Hague, 
Secrete Casse, Denemarcken, casse C, loquet O, no. 4, and another manu 
script, in the Rigsarkiv at Copenhagen, is mentioned in G. W. Kernkamp, *^ ^ 
Versing van cen Onderzoek in Zweden, Noonvegcn, en Deneinarken 
naar Archivalia (1903), p. 324. 

Text: Printed. L. van Aitzema, Saken van Staet en Oorlogh (1669-1672), 
I. 42-44. The text will doubtless be included in L. Laursen, Traites du 
Danemark et de la Norvege: Danwark-Norges Traktater, 
(1907, etc.). 

References: See Doc. 30, references. 



TEXT. 

Nademael, van wegen den durchluchtichsten ende grootmachtichsten 
coninck ende